Isidore Singer.

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from the Arabic "al mandal " (= "a circle ''). that is
to say, the circle described by magicians on the
ground and in the center of which tliey sit when in
voking demons. The Leipsic catalogue enumerates
the following works by Solomon : (31) "Speculum
Saiomonis" (in German), on metallurgy (comp No.
7); (32) •• Preparatio Speculi Saiomonis Insignis,"
also in German; (33) "Semiphoras" (KHSOn DK*),
that is to say, the Tetragrammaton, a treatise in
German on the unutterable name of God; (34)
"Septem Sigilla Planetarum"; (35) "Anelli Negro-
mantici dal Salomone"(in Italian), on necromancy;

(36) " Veruni Chaldaicum Vinculum," also with the
German title " Wahrhafte Zubereitungdesso Genan-
ten Cinguli Saiomonis oder Salomons Schlange";

(37) " Beschwerungen der Olympischen Geister"

Solomon, Seal of
Solomon ben Abraham



(38) "Saloinonis Trismosini," called in the Lcydon
catalogue (p. 367) "Criszmosin," ami dcsciilx'd :is a
trealisc on colors; Wolf (/.r. iv. ^S'S), however, de-
scribes it as a cabalistic -work.

Albertus Magnus in liis "Specuhun Astrologi-
cuni " (<iuoted l)y Fabrieius, I.e. p. lOol) mentions
the following four works of Solomon's: (39) "Liber
Quatuor Annuloium "; (40) " I)e jSovem Candariis
[Candelariis V]'': (41) " De Tribus Figuris Spiri-
tuuni " ; '■ De Sigillis ad l);emoniacos. " Trilhemius
(in Fabrieius, /.r". p. 10o2) mentions: (42) "Lamene"
(?), i)erhaps idenlieal with No. 8; (43) " Liber Pen-
taeulorum," probably identical with No. 5; (44)
"De Ofticiis Spirituum"; (4.")) '' De Umbris Idea-
nun"; (46) "llygromantia ad Filium Koboam " ;
(47) Tut- I,o'A()/MviaK(jv lv(5//rT/f, mentioned by Fabi'i-
cius (Lc. pp. 1046, 1056) from other sources; (48)
"Somnia Salomouis " (Venice, 1516); and (49) "Li-
ber de Lapide Philosophico " (Frankfort-on-the-
]\Iain, 1635).

Sec also Ps.vlms of Solomon; Solo.mon, Test.v-
MENT of; and Wisdom of Solomon.

BiBLiooRAPHY: Benjacob, Ozar /in-Sc/ftn'/o, p. 191, No. 640 ;
Fabrieius, Code.v Prfcudepigraphiims, i. 1014 ct .sc(/., Ham-
burg and Leipsic, 1718; I. S. Reggio, in Kenm Hem<ti, ii. 41
cl s«'(/.; Steinschneider, in Ha-KarmeU vi. llu, 135; idem, in
Cat. Bitdl. cols. 2289-3:308; Wolf, Bibl. Hchr. iii., No. 1967;
iv.. No. 1967; Winer, B. R. s.v. SaUimvli.

T. M. Sel.

SOLOMON, SEAL OF : The legend that Solo-
mon possessed a seal ring on which the name of God
was engraved and by means of whicli he controlled
the demons is related at length in Git. 68a, b. This
legend is esjiecially developed by Arabic writers,
who declare that the ring, on which was engraved
"the Most Great Name of God," and which was
given to Solomon fiom heaven, was partly brass and
partly iron. With the brass part of the ring Solo-
mon signed his written commands to the good
genii, and with the iron part he signed his commands
to the evil genii, or devils. The Arabic writers de-
clare also that Solomon received four jewels from
four dilTerent angels, and that he set them in one
ring, so that he could control the four elements.
The legend that Asmodeus once obtained possession
of the ring and threw it into the sea, and that Solo
mon was thus deprived of his power until he dis-
covered the ring inside a fish (Jellinek, "B. H." ii.
86-87), also has an Arabic source (comp. D'Herbelot,
" Bibliothequc Orientale,"s.?i. " Soliman ben Daoud " ;
Fabrieius, "Codex Pseudepigraphicus," i. 1054; and
see Solomon in Ah.\iiic L[Ter.\tii{e). The leg-
end of a magic ring by means of which the possessor
could exorcise demons was current in the first cen-
tury, as is shown by Josephus' statement ("Ant."
viii. 2, § 5) that one Eleazar exorcised demons in
the presence of Vespasian by means of a ring, using
incantations composed by Solomon. Fai)ricius (I.e.)
thinks that the legend of the ring of Solomon thrown
into the sea and found afterward inside a fish is de-
rived from the story of the ring of Polycrates, a
story which is related by Herodotus (iii. 41 et seq.),
Strabo (xiv. 638), and others, and which was the
basis of Schiller's poem " Der TJingdes Polykrates."

The Arabs afterward gave the name of " Solomon's
seal " to the six-pointed star-like figure (see Magen
Dawid) engraved on the bottom of their drinking-

cups. It is related in the "Arabian Nights "(ch.
\x.) that Sindbad, in iiis seventh voyage, presented
llarun al-Rashid with a cup on which the "table
of Solomon " was represented ; and Lane thinks that
this was the figure of "Solomon's seal" (note 93
lo ch. XX. of his translation of the "Arabian
Nights"). In Western legends, however, it is the
pentacle, or "druid's foot," that repiesents the
seal. This figure, called by Bisho)) Kennet the
" pentangle " of Solomon, Avas supposed to have the
power of driving away demons. Mephistopheles
says to Faust that he is prevented from entering
the house by the druid's foot (" Drudenfuss"), or
pentagram, which guards the threshold ("Faust,"
in Otto Devrient's edition, part i., scene 6). The
work entitled "ClavicuUti Salomonis" contains trea-
tises on all kinds of pentacles. The tradition of Sol-
omon's seal was the basis of Biischenthal's tragedy
" Der Siegelring Salomonis," specimens of which are
given in "Bikkure ha-Tttim," v. 3 et seq. (German
part). A work regarding a magic signet-ring is
ascribed to Solomon (see Solomon, Apocryph.\l
Works OF). See also Asmodeus; Solomon in Rab-
BiNiCAL Literature.

BuiLiOGRAPiiY : Lane, Arabian Nights^ E)itertaiiitiientti, In-
ttoflui'tion, note 21 ; Lebahn's edition of Goethe's Fa usf, pp.
475-476, London, 18.5:3.

J. M. Sel.


graphic treatise on the forms and activities of demons
and the charms effective against them. Extracts
from the work are given by Fabrieius ("Codex
Pseudepig. Vet. Test." i. 1047) from the notes of
Gilbertus Gaulminus on P.sellus' tract " De Opera-
tioue D;emonum," but the full text was first pub-
lished (as far as appears) by F. F. Fleck in his
" Wlssenschaftl. Reise " (ii. 3) ; he states (ib. i. 2) that
he found the Greek manu.script in the Royal Library
at Paris, and that, apparently, it had never been
pvd)lished. An annotated German translation is
given b}'^ Bornemaun in Ilgeu's "Zeitschrift fur
Ilist. Theologie," 1844, and the Greek text is printed,
with Latin translation, in Migne's "Patrologia
Graco-Latina," vol. cxxii., as an appendix to the
treatise of Psellus. The text .seems to liave suffered
at the hands of scribes.

The Testament professes to be Solomon's own ac-
count of certain experiences of his during the build-
ing of the Temple. Learning that his chief overseer
was plagued by a demon who every evening took
the lialf of his wages and his food, and drew the life
out of him by sucking the thumb of his right hand,
he appealed for help to God, and received through
the angel Michael a seal-ring of magic power. With
this he controlled the offending demon, and forced
him to bring the chief of the demons, Beelzebub.
The latter then was compelled to bring another, and
he another, till there had appeared before the king a
great number of them, of both .sexes, and of such va-
riety and dreadfulness of form as the imagination of
the author could conceive. To each Solomon ad-
dresses a series of questions: the demon is compelled
to give his name and abode (especially to say with
what star he is connected), his origin (from what an-
gel), to describe his malefic functions, to say what an-



Solomon, Seal of
Solomon ben Abraham

gel has power over him, and, in some cases, to tell the
word (usually a divine name) by which he may be
driven away. Some of the names of the angels and
demons are familiar; others are strange or unintel-
ligible, perhaps corrupt forms. Probably they were
not invented by the author (though this may be true
of some of them), but were the product of centuries
of magical tradition. At the end of the Testa-
ment, Solomon's fall into idolatry and his conse-
quent loss of power over the demons are attributed
to his infatuation for a Jebusite woman, who ac-
quired power over him by magic.

The book is a crude formulation of conceptions re-
garding demonic power that were almost universal in
the Jewish and the Christian world for many centuries
(see Magic). The beliet that Solomon had power
over demons is found as early as Josephus ("Ant."
viii. 2, § 5); the Book of Enoch shows the disposi-
tion to multiply demonic names ; and the character of
Asmodeus in the Testament is taken from the Book
of Tobit. The demonological literature of the first
thousand years of the common era is enormous. The
author of the Testament was a Greek-speaking Jew-
ish Christian : the demons, it is said, will rule the
world till the Son of God, who is spoken of as born of
a virgin, shall be hung on the cross. The date of
the work can not be fixed precisely. Bornemann
discovers a close resemblance between its demono-
logical conceptions and those of the " Institutiones "
of Lactantius (about the year 300), and it is proba-
ble that it belongs not far from that time. T.


SOLOMON, ABRAHAM : English artist ; born
in London May, 1824; died at Biarritz in 1862. At
the age of eighteen he was admitted as a student to
the school of the Koyal Academy, where he gained
a medal for drawing from the antique. From 1843
to the year of his death he was a regular contribu-
tor to the annual exhibition of the academJ^ and oc-
casionally to the gallery of the British Institution.
His first picture was a scene from Crabbe's poems,
" The Courtship of Ditchem " ; but the picture which
brought him into prominence was "The Breakfast
Table," exhibited in 1846. His later pictures gave
evidence of a growing originality, and found ready
purchasers. Among these were the following:
"The Rival Beauties"; "Waiting for the Verdict,"
1857, with its sequel, "The Verdict," 1859; "First
and Third Class"; and "Found Drowned." Most
of these became popular through engravings. One
of his pictures, "The Fortune-Teller," was pur-
chased by Alderman Salamons, and another, " Found
Drowned," received a prize from the Liverpool
Academy of Fine Arts.

Bibliography: Jew. C/irori. Jan. 16, 1863; Bryan, Dictionary
of Painters and Engravers, s.v.
J. G. L.




Physician and translator. According to Kaufiminn
and Gross, Solomon belonged to the family of the
Spanish translator Abraham ben David ha-Levi of
Toledo. Solomon translated, under the title of
^'Miklol," Averroes' medical work "Kulliyyat"
XI.— 29

(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2212;
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, No. 1172). Stein-
schneider supposes that Solomon is identical with
the Solomon Daud who is believed to have trans-
lated into Hebrew, from the Arabic, the psycholog-
ical and metaphysical treatise found in manuscript
in the Turin Library (Peyron Cat., No. 212, p. 226).

Bibliography: Carmoly, Hfe(oiredes3/rtZt'cuijf, p. 103; Gross,
in Moiiatfu<chrift, 1879, p. 12.5; Kaufniann, in GOttinger
Gclehrie Auzcigen, 1883, p. 547 ; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl.
eol. 2267 ; Idem, He7/r. Uebers. p. 672.

s. L Br.

HIEL : Italian rabbi ; tiourished at Rome in the
eleventh century ; nephew of Nathan b. Jehiel, the
author of the " 'Aruk." About a quarter of a cen-
tury after Nathan's death Solomon was a member
of the rabbinate of Rome, of which he was for some
time president. He was, besides, thechief of Natlian's
high school ("Shibbole ha-Leket," part ii.. No. 56).
.His authority in rabbinics is seen in the fact that he
is quoted in the work just mentioned (parti.. No.
128), in a responsum to a question as to whj' the
Eighteen Benedictions (Shemoneh 'Esreh) are not
recited on Sabbaths and holy days. He repeatedly
answered questions of Menahem b. Solomon b.
Isaac (lb. part ii., Nos. 56, 57, 75 [No. 75 being in
connection with the benediction recited at a mar-
riage ceremony]). Besides these responsa there is
extant one which was sent bj' the rabbinate of Rome
to the community of Paris (published by S. D. Luz-
zatto in "Bet ha-Ozar," i. 59a et seq.), and the first
signature to which is that of Solomon, as president.

Bibliography: S. Buber. preface to his edition of the ShW-
bole ha-Lfk't' ^ote 18*!; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gei<ch.der
Juden in Bom, i. 230, 367.
s. M. Sel.

OF SERES (MaHaRShaK) : Oriental Talmud-
ist; lived at Salonica in the second half of the six-
teenth century. His teacher was Joseph Firman
He was the author of "She'elot uTeshubot," di-
vided into three parts. The first part of the work
contains 197 responsa, a commentary on Maimon-
ides' laws concerning divorce, and halakic novellas
(Salonica, 1586); the second part comprises 263 re-
sponsa, besides novelliT on the Tosafot (Venice, 1592) ;
the third part contains 122 responsa (Salonica, 1594).
Special editions of the work, including Maimonides'
laws on divorce, the halakic novella?, and thenovellae
on the Tosafot, were published at Wilmersdorf in
1720 and at Salonica in 1730.

Bibliography: Confort«, Kore ha-Domt, p. 3?b : Azulal,
Shem ha-GedoUm, i. GO; Furst, Dihl. Jud. ili. 2W ; Stein-
schneider. Cat. Bodl. col. 2361.

e. c. I Br.

UEL : French Talmudist of the first half of the
thirteenth century. He was rabbi at Moutpeilier, and
leader of the movement against Maimonides. When
Ibn Tibbon's translation of the " Moreh Ncbukim"
became known in southern France, it was freely
accepted by the liberal Jews; but the strictly or-
thodox, who adhered firmly to the Talmud, regarded
it askance and secretly condemned it. No one, how-
ever, dared to express open disapproval of the study
of this book until Solomon threw down the gauntlet

Solomon ben Abraham
Solomon, Henry



to the Maiinouists. It would be uutural to infer
from this proceeding, wliich divided Judaism into
two hostile camps, tliat Solomon had had a philo-
sophical training which enabled him to recognize
the import of Maimouides' ideas, and tJie contradic-
tions existing between the hitter's conception of
Judaism and that of the Talnuul.

Solomon, however, as Luz/atto has definitively
proved, while a prominent Talmudic authority and
a jjious, upright character, who had taken up the
quarrel with the best intentions, was unable to com-
prehend Maimonides' views correctly, and had no
idea of a philosophical conception of Judaism. He
attacked Maimonides on minor, incidental points,
e.g., for liis refusal to take the haggadic opinions of
the Talmud in their simple, often offensive, literal
sense; forhisexplauationof many miracles by means
of natural processes; for his description of paradise
and hell in other than haggadic colors; and for his
conception of the Godhead on other than anthropo-
morphic lines. As Graetz happily remarks, Solo-
mon, witli his childish views and liis clumsy ideas,
regarded nearly every word of Maimonides as
un-Jewish and heretical. Solomon knew enough,
however, to understand tliat single-handed he
would be powerless to make headway against Mai-
monides' great authority, which prevailed even
after his death, and against his numerous adherents.
He therefore sought allies; but his demands for
the interdiction of scientific studies found little sup-
port among the scholars of southern France, only
two of his pupils, Jonah ben Abraham Gerondi
(Nahmanides' relative) and David ben Saul, join-
ing him. These three pronounced (in the beginning
of the year 1232) a sentence of exconunuuication on
Maimonides' works, on those who studied tliem, and
on those who construed the Scripture otherwise than
literally and interpreted the Haggadah at variance
with Rashi. Several rabbis of northern France sub-
sequently confirmed this sentence.

This proceeding aroused a storm of indignation
among the followers of Maimonides. The commu-
nities of Provence, which stood foremost in point of
culture, now excommunicated Solomon and his two
disciples and liastened to find allies. The controversy
became more fierce, the adherents of both parties
increasing and growing more bitter; and the dis-
cord tiu'eatened to spread throughout all Jewry.
Many of the rabbis of northern France, frightened
at the unexpected consequences, retired from the
controversy ; but Solomon, whose bigotry knew
no bounds, decided upon a shameful and dangerous
step. He went to the Dominican monks; and on a
certain day in 1233 the citizens of Montpellier .saw
servants of the Church, filled with hatred of the
Jews and incited by an overpious rabbi, publicly
burn the works of the greatest rabbi of post-Tal-
mudic times. The news of this event filled all the
Jews with horror; and Solomon and his pupils
were universally condemned, his follower Al-Fakli-
khar trying vainly to excuse him. But the matter
did not rest there; Solomon, believing that he had
gained nothing by destroying the works of Maimon-
ides so long as his admirers wcne still in the field, de-
nounced them to the authorities. It seems, however,
that the Maimonists, with the help of friends in favor

at the court of King James of Aragou, paid Solo-
mon back in his own coin ; for several of the calum-
niators in his party had their tongues cut out. The
fate of Solomon liimself is not known. Luzzatto
infers from the epithet "Kadosh" applied to him
that he also suffered this shameful mutilation.

BiBLio(iRAPMY : Halberstani, in Kobak's, viil. 98;
Abraham Maiiiiuni, MUhamot, pp. 12, 16, 17, 21 ; Luzzatto, in
Kcrem Hemcd, v. 1 et ieq.; Griitz, Ocsr/i. vii., ch. ii.; Oross,
Oallia Judaica, p. 326.
w. Ii. A. Pe.

Soi.o.MON I!l;n Emkzku Lii'.mann ok Lissa.

SOLOMON, EDWARD: English musician and
compo.ser; l)orn in London 1856; died there Jan. 22,
1895. Solomon, who was largely a self-taught mu-
sician, gained considerable reputation as a com-
poser of light opera; he possessed the gift of crea-
ting pleasing melody, and evinced great talent for
effective orcliestratiou. He conducted many comic
operas, and wrote many successful opera bouffes,
somewhat after the style of the Gilbert-Sullivan
operettas. Of his compositions the following may
be mentioned: "Billee Taylor," produced at the
Imperial Theatre, London, 1880; "Claude Duval,"
"Love and Larceny," and "Quite an Adventure,"
1881; "The Ked Hussar," "The Nautch Girl,"
"The Vicar of Bray," "Lord Bateman, or Picotee's
Pledge." and "Through the Looking-Glass " (farce),
I882T "Paul and Virginia," 1883;' "Polly," 1884;
and "Pocahontas," 1885.

His brother Frederick Solomon sang in "Billee
Taylor" in the provinces (1883), and is the composer
of the comic opera "Captain Kidd, or The Bold
Buccaneer," produced at the Prince of Wales'
Theatre, Liverpool, on Sept. 10, 1883.

Bibliography: Jew. CTiron. Jan. 25, 1895; Times (London),
Jan. 23, 1895 ; Brown, Dictionary of Munic.

J. G. L.

SOLOMON, EDWARD S. (known also as
Salomon): American soldier and jurist; born at
Sleswick, Sleswick-Holstein, Dec. 25, 1836. On
completing his education at the high school of his
native town he emigrated to the United States and
settled in Chicago, where he was elected alderman
in 1860. At the outbreak of the Civil war he joined
the Twenty-fourth Illinois Infantry as second lieu-
tenant, participating in the battles of Frederickton
and Mainfordsville, Kentucky, and being promoted
step by step to the rank of major (1862). On ac-
count of some disagreement among the officers of
the regiment Major Solomon — together with some
comrades — resigned, and organized the Eighty-sec-
ond Illinois Infantry, in which regiment he became
lieutenant-colonel, and then advanced to colonel.
Under General Howe, Solomon took part in the
battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chatta-
nooga, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge.
In 1865 he was brevetted brigadier-general. When
peace was restored he settled in Chicago, and became
county clerk of Cook county. 111. In 1870 President
Grant appointed him governor of Washington ter-
ritory, from which position he resigned in 1874, re-
moving to San Francisco, where he still (1905) resides.
He has been twice elected to the legislature of Cali-
fornia, and has also held the office of district at-
torney of San Francisco.



Solomon ben Abraham
Solomon, Henry

Soloinou was oue of tlie departmcut comnianclers
of tlie Grand Army of the Jtepublic, and for eight
years conunauder-in-chief of the Army and Navy
Republican League.

Bibliography : Simon Wolf, The American Jew as Paty'lut,
Siildiei; and i'itizeii, pp. ltJ4-170, 42.5, Philadelphia, 1895;
The Americaii Jcwiali Year Book, 56*35 (1904-19a5), pp.
A. F. T. IL

sician in ordinary to the Byzantine emperor Eman-
uel Comneuus; lived at Constantinople in the sec-
ond half of the twelfth century. According to
Benjamin of Tudela, who visited that city in 1176,
Solomon was highly esteemed by the emperor,
and through his influence the Jews of Constantino-
ple, though in a state of oppression, enjoyed many
advantages. It was probably due to Solomon's in-
tervention that Emanuel Comnenus placed the Jews
of his capital under the jurisdiction of the munici-
pal authorities.

Bibliography : Carinolj', Histoire c/es Medecins, p. 48 ; Gratz,
Oesch. vi. 240.
6. I. Bu.


Turkish Talmudist of the tifteeuth and sixteenth
centuries; brother of Abraham b. Eliezer ha-Levi,
who quotes him in his"'Ma'amar ha-Yihud." Solo-
mon was the author of " Moreh Zedek," or " 'Abodat
ha-Lewi" (published perhaps at Constantinople in
1516), a treatise on the 613 commandments, indica-
ting the passages of the Talmud, Sifra, Sifre, Mekilta,
Maimonides' " Yad," and later rabbinical literature in
which they are treated. According to Shabbethai
BassC'Sifte Yeshenim," s.v. "Moreh Zedek"), the
first part is entitled "Moreh Zedek," and the second
part " 'Abodat ha-Lewi." Solomon states, in the in-
troduction, that he composed this work when he was
still very young. Confusing Solomon's brother,
mentioned above, with Abraham ha Levi of Adria-
nople, Solomon Athias (preface to his commentary
on Psalms) credits the latter with the authorship
of the " 'Abodat ha-Lewi."

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, pp. 310 (No. 814),
438 (No. 26); Furst, UiW. jkd. iii. 224; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. cols. 2309 et seq.
w. B. M. Sel.

ZAHAB : Oriental astronomer, poet, and gram
marian ; lived at Salonica and later at Ephesus, in the
second half of the fourteenth century. Steiuschnei-
der supposes that the name " Sharbit ha-Zahab " is
the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek name "Chrysa-
kokka," borne by the translator of the Persian "As-
tronomical Tables, " which Solomon rendered into He-
brew, perhaps under the title " Mahalak ha-Kokabim "
(Paris, Biblioth^que Nationale, MS. No. 1042; Vati-
can MS. No. 393). Another of Solomon 's translations
from tlie Greek, still extant in manuscript in various
libraries, is the treatise of Ptolemy on the astrolabe.
In addition to these translations, Solomon wrote
"Heshek Shelomoh," a grammatical treatise (Biblio-
thfique Nationale MS. No. 1042); a commentary
written at the request of some prominent Jews of
Ephesus on the " Sefer ha-Shem " of Ibn Ezra ; and
a great number of liturgical poems, some of which
are found in the Roman Mahzor. Several of Solo-

mon's poems (among which one on the alphabet,
entitled "Otiyyot ha-Kodesh Meribot Zu 'im Zw;" is
a masterpiece of elegance) have been published by
David Kohen ("' Ahiasaf," 1893). Solomon wrote also
a commentary on the Pentateuch, in which he
vehemently attacked Karaite Biblical interpretations.
Against tliese attacks was directed the "Iggeret ha-
Zom " of Elijah Bashyazi.

Bibliography: Luzzatto, in Kerem Hemed, iv. 39; Zunz, S.
P. p. 372; (iratz, G'wc/i. viii. 290; Viirst, Oesch. de.'< Kardert.
ii. :}06; Steinschneider, in Hehr. Dittl. xix. 58; idem, Hebr.
Ucberx. p. 536.
T. I. Bu.

TINI : Spanisii exegete of the first half of the tour-
teentli century. GrUtz believes that Solomon be-
longed to the Al-Kustantini family of Saragossa,
several members of which took a prominent part in
the controversy over Maimonides' "^loreh Nebu-
kim." Solomon was the author of a commentary on
thePentateuchentitle(r'Megalleh'Amukkot." which
is still extant in manuscript in the Vatican Library

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 108 of 160)