Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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its ritual use at Passover see Megillot, The Five.

Bibliography: On the history of the interpretation : S. Salfeld,
Das Hiilielied Salomons hei den JUdiKchen ErklUrern des
Mittelalters, 1879; W. Riegel, Die Ausleuuivy des Hohen-
liedcs in der Jlldischen Gemeinde und der Griechixchen
Kirche, 1898 ; E. Ileiiss, La Bible (gives a conspectus of
various schemes); C. D. Ginsburg, Sotm of SoJiffs, 1857;
Cheyne, in Encyc. Dibl. s.v. Canticles. The traditional inter-
pretation (Solomon as bridegroom) is given iu Delitzsch's
commentary, 1875; and the fuller dramatic interpretation
(the shepherd lover) in : Ewald, Dichter, 18t)7 ; W. R. Smith,
Canticles, in Encyc. Brit. 9th ed.; Rothstein, Das Hohe
Lied, 1893 ; idem. Song of Songs, in Hastings' Did. Bible ;
Driver, Introduction (which gives a full outline of the
schemes of Delitzsch and Ewald); Wetzstein, in Budde, TIte
Sonq of Solomon, in The New World, 1894, vol. iii.; idem.
Commentary, in K. H. C; Siegfried, Commentary, in No-
wack's Jfand/fomme))fa»'; and Cheyne, f.c. On the relation
between the Song and Theocritus: W. M. FuUerton, in Uni-
tarian Review (Boston), July, 1886 ; D. 8. Margollouth, Lines
of Defense of the Biblical Revekition, London, 1900. On
the meter : Budde's commentary ; and on the Hebrew text :
this and the commentaries of Graetz and Siegfried.

E. G. H. T.


Shir ua-Shirim.

DREN, THE: Greek insertion in the Book of

Daniel after iii. 23, the only one of the additions to
Daniel that really add to the text of the book. The
title given above is inexact : under it are included
two distinct pieces, namely, (1) the Prayer of Aza-
rias, and (2) the Song or Hymn of the Three. In the
collection of odes or canticles given iu Codex Alex-
andrinus and two other manuscripts (printed in
.Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek," vol. iii.) the
titles of the pieces are respectively: "Prayer of
Azariah"and "Hymn of Our Fathers." The two
compositions shared in the fortunes of the other
Apocryphal writings: attacked and defended by
early Christian writers, they have been adopted as
canonical (or deuterocanonical) by Catholics and re-
jected by Protestants. The older Jewish books do
not quote them, but show acquaintance with part
of their material: in the Midrash (Lev. R. xxxiii.
6) there is a long conversation between Nebuchadnez-
zar and " the three " which, while it makes no refer-
ence to these writings (though the king cites copi-
ously from the Old Testament), illustrates the dispo-
sition to expand the narrative of the Book of Daniel
(comp. 'Ab. Zarah 3a; Sanh. 93a; Ta'an. 18b; Pes.
118a; see Ball in Wace, "Apocrypha").

In the poetical parts (the prayer and the song)
the two recensions, that of the Septuagint and that
of Theodotion, are nearly itlentical: they differ
slightly in the order of verses; and Theodotion sim-
plifies by omitting a few lines. In the prose narra-
tive introducing the poems the Septuagint is tlie
fuller and doubtless the older; Theodotion is supe-
rior in literary form. The two pieces are here sin-
gularly inappropriate. The prayer is a national
petition acknowledging past sins, professing pres-
ent obedience, and imploring mercy. The song is a
doxology calling on all God's creatures to praise
Him; and its expressions are taken from the canon-
ical Psalter (see especially Ps. cxlviii.). These are
not the natural utterances of men in a fiery furnace,
nor do they contain any reference to the existing
situation, except in verse 88 (Swete; A. V. 66), iu
which " the three " are called on to join in the praise ;
but this verse is an addition by the compiler, who
has inserted the two poems (i:omposed before his
time), and has adapted the second to the situation.
In the prosc! part (verse 49, Swete; A. V. 26) the
fourth person of Dan. iii. 25 is accounted for by the
statement that the angel of the Lord descended,
pushed aside the flame, and cooled tlie furnace — an
inartistic insertion ; the Hebrew, with finer feeling,
leaves the reader to infer tlie descent of the angel.
There is no sufticient ground for sMpj)osing that ai y
part of these pieces belonged to the original text of
Daniel. The motive of the addition was the natural
desire to expand a popular story. The material
was, doubtless, derived from current legends; thus,
the cooling of the furnace is mentioned in Pes. 118a.
The date of the prayer is suggested in verse 38 (15),
where it is said tliat at that time there was no
prophet, leader, or sacrifice— jierhaiis l)etween 168
and 165 B.C. (profanation of the Temple by Anti-
ochus); in the song the references to priests and
Temple servants (verses 84-85 [62-63]) point to the
time after the purification of the Temple (about 164




B.C.). The toue of the two pieces is Palestinian,
and the original language was probably Hebrew or
J. T.

SONNEMANN, LEOPOLD: German journal-
ist; born at Hochberg, Lower Franconia, Oct. 29,
1831. After having acquired considerable wealth
as a merchant, he founded in 1856 the "Frankfurter
Zcitung," a newspaper published iu Frankfort-on-
the-Main; it soon acquired a leading position in
southern Germany, especially in the commercial
world. Since 1867 Sonnemann has been its sole pro-
prietor and editor.

From 1871 to 1876 and from 1878 to 1884 Sonne-
mann was a delegate in the German Reichstag, as a
member of the People's party (Volkspartei), for
•which his paper has always been a representative
organ. At his first election (1871) he defeated Baron
Rothschild, at the second (1874) Lasker. In 1884 he
was defeated by the Social Democrat Labor.

Sonnemann is at present (1905) a prominent mem-
ber of the aldermanic board of Frankfort-on-the-

Bibliography: Tirockhaus Konvcrsations-Lcrikon; Giesen,
Zivolf Jaltre irn Reiclistage. Beichstaiji'rcdenvon Leopold
Sonnemann, Frankfort-ou-the-Main, 19()1.
s. F. T. H.

journalist; born at Vagujhely, llungar}-, Oct. 1,
1847. He received his education iu his native town,
at the gymnasia at Prague and Presburg, and at the
University of Budapest (Ph.D. 1870). In the year
of his graduation he joined the editorial stafP of the
"Pester Lloyd," on which he served until 1890.
From 1877 till 1890 he was also teacher at the gym-
nasium of Budapest. In the latter year he removed
to Paris and became director of the Baron de Hirsch
philanthropic institutions. He is at present (1905)
director of ihe Jewish Colonization Association and
a member of the Central Committee of the Alliance
Israelite Univcrselle. He was sent by the former
association in 1896 and again in 1902 to the Argen-
tine Republic and to Rumania.

Sonnenfeld has written many articles on science,
literature, and politics for Austrian, Hungarian, and
French papers, and is the author of "Leuau," 1882,
a work on that poet.

8. F. T. H.

SONNENFELS: Austrian family of scholars
and writers, descendants of Wurzbach Lipmann,
members of which became prominent during the
eigiiteenth century.

Perlin Lipmann Sonnenfels : Austrian schol-
ar; son of Wurzbach Lipmann, chief rabbi of Bran-
denburg. Perlin Lipmann emigrated to Austria,
wliere he became the agent of the princely house
of Dietrichsteiu at Nikolsburg. He, together with
his children, embraced the Catholic faith some time
between the years 1735 and 1741. He assumed the
name Alo3's Wiener, and later removed to Vienna,
where he became teacher of Semitic languages at the
university, and Hebrew interpreter at the juridical
court. In 1746 he was knighted and received a pat-
ent of nobility entitling him to use the name Son-
nenfels, which his two sons adopted. Perlin's Avife
remained faithful to Judaism.

Josepti von Sonnenfels.

Joseph von Sonnenfels: Austrian jurist and
novelist; born at Nikolsburg, Moravia, 1732; died at
Vienna April 25, 1817; son of Perlin Lipmann, and
l)rother of Franz Anton von Sonnenfels. Joseph,
who was baptized in his early youth, received his
elementary education at the gymnasium of his native
town, and then studied philosophy at the University
of Vienna. In 1749 he joined, as a private, the regi-
ment "Deutschmei-
ster," advancing to
the rank of corporal;
ujion his discharge in
1754 he took a course
in law at the Univer-
sity of Vienna, where-
after he established
himsel f as a counselor
at law in the Austrian
capital. From 1761
to 1763 he officiated
as secretary of the
Austrian "Arcieren-
garde," and in the
latter year was ap-
pointed professor of
political science at
the University of Vi-
enna, twice acting as
rector magnificus. In
1779 he received the title of "Wirklicher Hof-
rath," and was in 1810 elected president of the
Academy of Sciences, a position which he held until
his death.

Among Sonnenfels' many works may be men-
tioned: "Specimen Juris Germanici de Remediis
Juris, Juri Romano Incognitis," Vienna, 1757;
" Ankimdigung einer Teutschen Gesellschaft in
Wien," ib. 1761; " Betrachtungen i'lber die Neuen
Politischen Handlungsgruudsatze der Englander,"
tb. 1764; "Grundsiitze der Polizei, Handlung und
Finanzwissenschatt," ib. 1765-67 (8th ed. 1819);
"Briefe liber die Wienerische Schaubiihne," ib. 1768
(reedited by Sauer, ib. 1884); "Von der Verwand-
lung der Domiinen in BauerngtUer," ib. 1773 ; " Ucber
die Abschaft'ung der Tortur," Zurich, 1775 (2d ed.
Nuremberg, 1782); "Abhandlung uber die Aufhe-
bung der Wuchergesetze," Vienna, 1791 ; " Handbuch
der iuucrn Staatsverwaltung," ib. 1798 ; " Ueber die
Stimmenmehrheit bei Criminalurtheilen," Vienna,
1801 (2d ed. 1808). His " Gesammelte Werke " ap-
peared in ten volumes (Vienna, 1783-87), and con-
tained most of his belletristic works, poems, and

From 1765 to 1767 and from 1769 to 1775 Sonnen-
fels was editor of "Der Mann ohne Vorurtheil," in
which paper he defended the liberal tendencies in
literature. He improved the Vienna stage especially
through his critical work " Briefe fiber die Wiener-
ische Schaubiihne," in which he attacked the harle-
quin of the Vienna theater, causing this figure to be
eliminated from the personnel of the stage.

lie was chiefly instrumental in bringing about the
abolition of torture in Austria (1776). Sonnenfels'
attitude toward Lessing placed the former in a very
unfavorable light, as it was due to his intrigues and
jealousy that Lessing was not called to Vienna. Son-




nenfcls was severely condemned for his action in
this affair.

Franz Anton Sonnenfels, Freiherr von :
Austrian philantliropist ; born at Nikolsbnrg, 3Iora-
via, July 12, 1735; died at Troppau Jan. 11, 1806;
son of Perliu Lipmanu and brother of Joseph von
Sonnenfels, witli whom he was baptized. He was
educated at the gymnasium of his native town, and
entered tis agent the service of the princes of Dic-
trichstein; his extraordinary ability attracted the at-
tention of Emperor Joseph II., wiio bestowed upon
him the title of "Hofrath," and attached him to the
office of the secretary of the imperial liouseliold.
In 1797 he was knighted.

Having no children, he and his wife, Maria Rosalia
(nee Geyer; died March 18, 1811), left their fortunes
to charitable institutions, especially in the city of
Nikolsburg. Sonnenfels was buried in the ceme-
tery of that city, and a monument was erected over
his grave Oct. 21, 1860.

BiBLiocRAPHY : AVurzbach, BiographiKcIies Le.rikon dcs
KaiscitJiums Oesterreich, xxxv. 315 ft saj., 317-343; Brock-
hmis KoH versatioiis-Lcjrikon; Kopetzky, Joseph unci Franz
von Sonnenfels, Vienna, 1883.

s. F. T. H.


Auslrian actor; born at Budapest Dec. 21, 1834.
He was the sou of humble parents, and spent his
boyhood as a tailor's apprentice, working at Iiis
trade luitil his sixteenth year, when he went to

Vienna to better his con-
dition. On his first eve-
ning in the Austrian
capital the boy visited
the Ilofburgtheater and
witnessed a performance
of "Der Erbforster,"
which made such an im-
pression upon him that
he sought out Dawison,
then in the zenith of his
fame, and announced
his determination to be-
come an actor. Dawi-
son, at tirst amused by
the lad's audacity, soon
became interested in
him, and linally placed him in the care of Laube,
who permitted him to study at tlu; Hoflnirgtheater.
Having gleaned a supcrticial knowledge of acting,
Sounenthal made his debut Oct. 30, IS.")!, at the
Stadttheater, Temesvar, as Phiibiiti in "Thi'irnier
von Notre-Dame." The next live years he spent in
touring various small towns of Hungary, and after
three stays of considerable duration at IIermannsta<lt
(1802), Grat/. (1854), and Konigsberg (1855) respect-
ively, he made liis Vienna debut at the Hofburg-
theater (May 18, 1856) as Mortimcvm " :\raria Stuart."
He failed to please either public or critics, and would
have been dismissed if he had not triumphed the
next evening as Ilerzorj in Hackliindcr's " Der Ge-
heime Agent." When he repeated his success as
Don Carlos, Laube engaged him for tlic next three
years; and on the expiration of that time, for a life

In 1870 Sounenthal was appointed assistant man-
ager, antl in 1884 chief manager, of the Hofburgthea-

Adolf Sonnentlial.

ter; and from 1887 to 1888 he acted as its director.
His twenty-tifth anniversary at this theater was
celebrated by all Vienna, and the emperor conferred
an order of nobility ui)on the former Jewish tailor's
apprentice. In 1896 the celebration of his fortieth
anniver.«ary was marred by the anti-Semitic feeling
of the Vienna city council, which, because of his race,
refused to extend the freedom of the city to him.

Sonnenthal's repertoire is most extensive, and in
spite of his unattractive features he has succeeded in
roles that demand a pleasing personality, such as
Romeo, Kean, and Egmont. Of other parts played
by him may be mentioned: Hamlet, Slacheth, \Val-
leimttin, Uriel Acosta, JS'ntlian der Weise, Othello,
Bolingbroke, Fiesco, Marcel de Pn'e in " Wildfeuer,"
Itochester in " Waise von Lowood," Bolz, JWtm'ss,
Graf Waldemar, Hirst Li'ibbenau in "Aus der Ge-
sellschaft," Fox in " Pitt luid Fox," Ringelstern, Pasa,
Raoul Gerard in "Aus der Komischen Oper," Konig
in "Esther," Faust, Tell, Clavigo, ]\'ero, Fritz Mar-
low, Kerbriand, Mellefont in "Miss Sara Sampson,"
Marc Antony, Richard II., Henry 17., Fabricins, and
Graf Trast.

Bibliography: Ludwisr Eisenherp, Adolf Sounenthal. Dres-
den, ISXK); A. BettelhMin. Biouraphische BUttter, imi\. pp.
iil ct sf(i.: Metiers Kiiuver.''ations-Lf.rikon ; Dn.^f GeMifte
Wien,i. o3o-536; Kohut, BertUtnite Israelitisclic Mttnner
unit Frauen, pp. 227 et seq.; AUg. Zeit. des Jud. 18i91,
p. 190.
s. E. Ms.

rabbi; born at Szeut Martou Turocz, Hungary, June
24, 1839. He received his education at Boskowitz,
]\[oravia, where he obtained his rabbinical diploma
in 1863, and later studied at Hamburg and at the
University of Jena (Ph.D. 1864). He was succes-
sively rabbi at Warasdin, Prague, New York, and
St. Louis, Mo., and is now (1905) officiating at the
Temple B'nai Yeshurun, Des Moines, Iowa.

Soiineschein has contributed for more than forty
years to numerous German and English periodicals.

Biui.H)(;itAriiY : Tlic American Jewish Year Book, 1903-

l'.i(14. ]). 101.

A. F. T. H.

SONNINO, SIDNEY, BARON : Italian poli-
tician; born at Alexandria, Egypt, in 1849. His
fatiier-was a Jewish emigrant fiom Leghorn, andhi3
mother an English Protestant. He grew up iu
Florence among a circle of kindred spirits including
such men as the historian Pasquale Villari; Karl
Hillebrand, the German literary investigator; and
licopoldo Franchetli. In company with the lasl-
named, Sonnino undertook an expediiion to south-
ern Italy and to Sicily, the result being a joint publi-
cation in which was embodied Sonnino's treatise
"1 Contadini di Sicilia,"on the peasants of the latter
place. Another treatise of Sonnino's, entitled "La
Mezzadria in Toscana," deals with the leasehold
svstem by which the peasants of Tuscany hold their
farms. In both of these treatises Sonnino shows
his intimate acquaintance with economic conditions,
and his deep interest in the welfare of the poorer

As a member of Parliament, in which he has held
a seat since 1882, Sonnino is chiefly occupied with
financial and foreign questions. He is an earnest
champion of the German-Italian alliance. As leader

So rani



of tlio Left Center lie Avas one of llie most active
and successful opponents of Depretis' cabinet,
especially of Magliani, the minister of finance,
■\vliom lie repeatedly accused of extravagance. Dur-
ing Perazzi's ministry Sounino filled the office of
assistant secretary of state in the department of
finance; and from 1893 to 1896 he held the portfolio
of finance in Crispi's cabinet. J5y his wide knowl-
edge of national economy and his shrewd financial
operations he has rendered the Italian state valuable
services. Since (^risi)i's fall Sonnino has been one
of the most prominent members of the parliamen-
tary Opi)osition.

Bibliography : Telesforo Sarti, II Parlamento Snhalpino e
Nazi07iale, 'IVrni, 1890; A. de Gubernatis, Dictimmairc
liitematlnnol iters Kci-^ivains chi Jour. Florence, 1888; I.uigi
Brenpri, / M(>rih<t)i<li di Monteritorio. 1889.



SOIIANI, UGO: Italian jurist and deputy;
born at Pitigiiano May 4, 1850. He studied law in
his native town and in Mondavi, Leghorn, and Pisa,
graduating from the university of the last-named
city in 1872. He then established himself as a coun-
selor at law ill Florence, acting also for several
years as secretary of the Jewish community of that
city. In 1900 he was elected to the Chamber of
Deputies as the representative of Scansaiio, district
of Grosseto, and Avas reelected in 1904.

Sorani is the author of the following works: "I
Partiti Politici," "Maggioranze e Minoranze," and
•' Suir Esercizio Provvisorio del Commercio Concesso
al Fallito" (Florence, 1891); "Delia Ricerca della
Paternita" (3d ed. ib. 1892); "La Banca d 'Italia,
Provedimenti Legislativi, Stato Finanziario e Pro-
poste di Assestamento " {ib. 1894); " Delia Cambiale
e deir Assegiio Bancario " and "II Fallimento "
(Rome, 1896); "La Donna" (3d ed.
1896); aud"Sull Disegno di Legge ])cr il Riordi-
namento dell' Iniposta di Ricchezza Mobile" (Piti-
giiano, 1897).

Bibliography : Tl M's.-<iUi) rxmr/iVico, iskhi, p. :i()i.

s. U. C.

SOSA (SOSSA, SOUS A), DE : Envoy of
King John IlLof Portugal to the court of Pope Paul
III. (1534-50). While he was at Rome the Maranos,
seeking relief from the severity of the Inquisition,
urged the jiope to send a papal nuncio to Portugal
ill their interest. 'I'his measure was opposed by tiie
court, and, at first, likewise by the pope; but the
Jewish envoy finally succeeded in gaining the ac-
(luiescence of the latter. The envoy's letter to the
king informing him of this fact begins with the
words. "Rome is a prostituted Babj'loii, and I feel
as if I were in licll." Li a letter to the Kmg of
France, De Sosa designates Ijippomano, the papal
nuncio who had lieen selceted to fill the i)ost of
Jiapal nuncio in Poitugal, as a man "with tiie hands
of an p]sau and the voice of a Ja(!ob."

I!;rapmv : Kavserlinsr, ''fV.^r/;. ihr Jinlrii in Paytugal.
pp. 22!!. 2:tl. Berlin, IStiT.

.' S. ().

SOSA, GOMEZ DE. Sec Gomi./. dk Sos.\.

gu(!se envoy at and governor of Goa. in the mid-
dle of the si.xtcenth century. In Crangaiiore, six-
teen miles from Cochin, which at that time had

a large .lewish communit}-, he discovered several
bronze tablets with ancient inscriptions. An old
Jewish philologist of Calcutta declared that they
were written in "Malabaric, Chaldaic, and Arabic"
and referred to privileges which had been granted
to the Jews of that locality. He translated all the
inscriptions into Hebrew, and they were later ren-
dered into Portuguese. The Hebrew translation of
one of these privileges was in the possession of a
certain Leo, cantor of the Greene Street Synagogue
in New York, in the fifties of the nineteenth cen-
tury. See Cochin.

Bibliography': Kayserling, OckcIi. <\er Juden in P(yrtiigal,
pp. 164-1 •>;■>.
•T. S. O.

SOSA, SIMON DE : One of the wealthiest
Maranos in Portugal in the middle of the seventeenth
century. He was one of the conspirators, led by
the Archbishop of Braga, who intended to burn the
royal palaces, murder King John IV., and abduct
the queen and the princes. The conspiracy, how-
ever, was detected in time, and Sosa, with the other
conspirators, was executed.

To the .same family probably belonged Isaac de
Sosa Brito (who carried on a correspondence with
Francis de Oliviera) and Gabriel de Sosa Brito.
The latter was a famous mathematician and cos-
inographer, and his works are described in " Mem. de
Lit. Port." (iv. 329). These two brothers flourished
in the seventeenth centur}'.

Bibliography: De Olivieni, Memoirca de Pdrlttual (eU. De
Haye), 1743, pp. :i79 rf seq.: Kavserling, Gesch. dir Juden in
P(>rtU(j(d, pp. ;i(17, :n2 (note 2).
.r. S. O.

SOSIUS, CAIUS : Roman general. Although
Herod had been made king of Judeaby the Romans,
he was forced to wrest the country from the Has-
monean Antigonus; and as the aid which he had
received from Rome was insufficient, he went to
Samosata to obtain reenforcements from Antony,
who ordered Sosius, the legate of Syria, to give the
king his active support (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 15,
§^ 7-9; idnn. " B. J." i. 16, g§ 6-7). Sosius reached
Jerusalem with a large army in the spring of 37 B.C.,
and he and Herod, following the tactics of Pompey
twenty-seven years before, directed the battering-
rams against the city's northern walls. Progress
was difficult, however; for the beleaguered garrison
made freciuent sorties and destroyecl the Roman

The first wall was carried only after a siege of forty
days, and the second wall fell fifteen days later.
The defenders of Jerusalem made a desperate stand
between the walls of the Temple and in the upper
city; but these positions were finally car-
ried "on the solemnity of the fast" {nj hprif rf/c
vrjCTeiaq), this of Josejihus being freijuently
interpreted as denoting the Day of Atonement, al
though it more probably refers to .some Sabbath
("Ant." xiv. 16, ^S 1-3; " B. J." i. 18, i^g 1-3; Dion
('assius, xlix. 22; Seneca, "Suasoriorum Liber," ii.
21; Tacitus, "Hist." v. 9). It would appear frcnii
Dion Cassius that the city was taken in 38 B.C. ; but
the statements of Josephus, which indicate the year
37, are more trustworth}-.

Antigonus surrendered to Sosius, entreating him




on his knees for mercy; but the Roman tauntingly
called him "Antigone" and put him in chains, while
the soldiers were given a free hand to pillage and
murder in the city, so that Herod was well pleased
wlien his rich gifts had induced his ally to with-
draw with his troops. During the siege Sosius did
not prevent those within the city from receiving
sacrificial victims for the Temple ; and after the
capture of the place he showed his reverence for the
Sanctuary by ricli donations ("Ant." xiv. 16, ^4).
It appears from coins and from the triumphal fasti
that he received the title of "imperator" and the
privilege of celebrating a triumph in honor of his
victory over Judea.

niBLiOGRAPHY : Griitz. G'esch. 4th ed., iii. 196 ; Schiirer. Geach.
3d ed., i. 314. 357-359; Prompngraphia Imper-ii Rnmnni,
ill. 253; Dnger, t^itzungsherichte der Acndemie zii MU,n-
Chen. 1895, pp. 273-377.

o. S. Kr.


sian-American Talmudic scholar, mathematician,
and scientific author; born at Birzhi, government
of Kovno, Sept. 17, 1837. When lie was only ten
years old he prepared a calendar for the year 5608
(= 1847-48). At the age of nineteen he went to
liigaas a teacher of Hebrew, and there made the ac-
quaintance of Professor Novik, who gave him ac-
cess to the library of the polytechnical school, where
lie studied German and perfected himself in secular
sciences, on which he published articles in Jewish
periodicals. In 1875 he was invited to Berlin by
H. S. Slonimski to act as coeditor of "Ha-Zefi-
rah," but as he refused to write against Lichtenfeld,
Slonimski's antagonist, he was dismissed. In 1888
lie settled at Warsaw as editor of the scientific and
cabalistic departments of "Ha-Eshkol." He went

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 113 of 160)