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Soul



■wisdom. From these is derived another attribute,
justice.

Tliese tlieori(!S respecting tlie soid seem In have
been sliared by Ibn Gabirnl and Josepli ibn Zaddik,
who repeatedly asserted in tlieir respective works
the existence of three distinct souls in man. A less
fanciful psychological system was elaborated bj' tlie
Jewisli Peripatetics, especially' by Maimonides. It
wa8 substantially that of Aristotle as propounded by
liis commentators. According to this system the
sou) is a concrete unit having various activities
<tr faculties. It is tlie first principle of action in
an organized body, possessing life potentially. Its
faculties are five: the nutritive, the sensitive, the
imaginative, the appetitive, and the rational; the
superior comprehending the inferior potentiall}-.
The sensitive faculty is that by wiiich one perceives
and feels: it does not i)erceive itself or its organs,
but only external objects through the intervention
of sight, licaring, snieii, taste, and touch. The
senses perceive species, or forms, but not matter, as
wax receives the impression of a seal without re-
taining any part of its substance. The imaginative
faculty is the power to give quite diflerent forms to
tlie images impressed upon the soul by the senses.
Memory is derived from fancy, and has its seat in
the same ])owerof the soul. The appetitive faculty
consists in the ability to feel either a desire or an
aversion. The rational faculty is that which enables
man to think, to acquire knowledge, an<l to discern
<vil actions from good ones. The action of the in-
tellect is either theoretical or practical: theoretical,
when it simply considers what is true or false; and
practical, when it judges whether a thing is good
or evil, and thereby excites the will to pursue or to
avoid it.

Maimonides. except in a tew in.stances, closely
followcfl Aristotle with irgard to the ontological
aspect of the soul. The life of the soul, which is
derived from that of tlie spheres, is represented on
<'artli in three iiotenries: in vegetable, in animal,
and in liuman life. In th«! vegetable it is confined
to the nutritive faculty: in the animal it combines,
in addition, the .sensitive, the appetitive, and, in ani-
mals of a higiier organism, also the imaginative:
while in human life; it comprises, in addition to all
these fa<ulties, tlus rational. As each soul, consti-
tuting tlie form of the body, is indissolubly united
with it and has no individual existence, so the soul
of man and its various faculties constitute with
tlic body a concrete, insepanible unit. With the
death of the body, therefore, the soul witli all its
faeulties. including the lational, ceases to exist.
There is, however, something in tiie human .soul
which is not a mere faculty, but a real substance
having an independent life. It is the acquired in-
tellect, the ideas and notions which man obtains
through study and speculation.

Levi ben (iershon. in " IMilhamot Adonai," fol

li.wcd Maimonides in his psychological system, but

diflcred from Iiim witii regard to the

Levi ben knowledge which constitutes the ac-

Gershon. quired intellect. He divided human

knowledge into three classes: (1) that

which is acquired directly by the perception of the

senses and which relates to the indi\'iduals of this



world ; (2) that which is the product of abstraction
and generalities— ^'.e., of that process of the mind
which consists in evolving from knowledge concern-
ing the individual general ideas concerning its spe-
cies, genus, or family; (3) that which is obtained by
reflection and which is relative to God, the angels,
etc. There can be no doubt as to the objective reality
of the knowledge of the first and third classes; but
there is a question as to that of the knowledge of the
second class. Levi ben Gershon differs from Mai-
monides, holding not only that the generic forms
of things exist in themselves and outside of these
things, "ante rem," in the universal intellect; but,
that even mathematical theories are real substances
and contribute to the formation of the acquired
intellect.

Hasdai Crescas vehemently attacked, both on the-
ological and on philosophical grounds, the princi-
ple of the acquired intellect upon which the psycho-
logical system of Maimonides and Levi ben Gershon
is based. "How," asked he, "can a thing which
came into existence during man's lifetime acquire
immortality ? " Then, if the soul is to be considered
a mere faculty of the body, which ceases Avith the
death of the latter, and only the acquired intellect
is a real substance which survives, there can be no
question of reward and punishment, since that part
of man which committed the sin or performed the
good deed no longer exists. "Maimonides," argues
Crescas, "asserts that the future reward will consist
in the enjoyment derived from objects of which the
intellect is cognizant; but since the soul, which is
the seat of joy, will no longer be in existence, what
is to enjoy?" According to Cre.scas, the soul, al-
though constituting the form of the body, is a spir-
itual substance in which the faculty of thinking
exists potentially.

The influence exercised by Neoplatonism on the
development of the Cabala is particularly noticeable
in the psychological doctrines found in theZohar;
these, but for the mystic garb in which they are

clothed and the attempt to connect the

Psychol- .soul witii the all-pervading Sefirot, are

og-y of the same as those professed by the

the Cabala. Neoplatonists. The soul, teaches the

Zohar. has its oiigin in the Supreme
Intelligence, in which the forms of the living exist-
ences may already be distinguished from one another :
and this Supreme Intelligence may be termed "uni-
versal soul." "At the time the Holy One, blessed
be He! desired to create the world, it came in His
will before Him, and He formed all the souls whicii
were prepared to be given afterward to the children
of men ; and ail were formed befoi'e Him in the iden-
tical forms in which they were destined to appeal'
as the children of the men of this world ; and He saw
every one of them, and that the ways of some of
them in the world would become corrupt" (Zohar
i. 96b). The soul is constituted of three elements:
the rational ("neshamah "), the moral ("ruah "), and
the vital ("nefcsh "). They are emanations from the
Sefirot; and as .such each of them possesses ten po-
tencies, whicli are subdivided into a trinity of triads.
Through the rational element of the soul, which is
(he highest degree of being, and which both corre-
sponds to and is operated upon liy the highest Sefi-



Soul

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



476



rah, the " Crown,"' man belougs to the intellectual
world (^JCTI D^iy^ through the moral element,
which is the seat of the ethical qualities, and whieli
both corresponds to and is operated upon by the
ISetirah "Reauty," man pertains to the moral world
(rn^Vn D^iy) ; and through the vital element, which
is th(! lowest of the three, being directly connected
with the body, and which both corresponds to and
is operated upon by the Sefirah "Foundation," man
is associated with the material world (n'L"yn oi'iy)-
In addition to these three elements of the soul there
are two otliers of a different nature : one is inherent
in the body without mingling with it, serving as an
intermediary between the latter and the soul; and
the other is the principle wliich unites them both.
"At the moment, " says the Zohar, " when the union
of the soul and the body is being effected the Holy
One sends on earth an image engraved with the
Divine Seal. This image presides over the union of
man and wife; a clear-siglited eye may see it stand-
ing at their heads. It bears a human face ; and this
face will be borne by the man who is about to ap-
pear. It is this image which receives us on entering
the world, which grows as we grow, and which
quits the earth when we quit it " {ih. iii. 104a). The
descent of the soul into the body is necessitated by
the finite nature of the former: it is bound to unite
with the body in order to take its part in the uni-
verse, to contemplate creation, to become conscious
of itself and its origin, and, finally, to return, after
having completed its task in life, to the inexhaust-
ible fountain of light and life — God.

According to the Zohar, there are male souls and
female souls, the former proceeding from the mas-
culine Setirot, which are concentrated in the Sefirah
of "Grace," the latter from the feminine Setirot,
which are concentrated in that of "Justice." Before
their descent to earth they are paired; but at tlie
moment of their appearance in tliis world they be-
come separated {ih. i. 91b). The relation of the three
elements of the soul to one another and to the body
is comi)ared by the Zohar to a burning lamp. Two
lights are discernible in the flame of the lamp: a
white and a dim one. The white light is above and
ascends in a straight line ; the dim one is below, and
seems to be the seat of the other. Both, however,
are so indissolubly connected that they form one
flame. On the other hand, the dim light proceeds
directly from the burning material below. The same
phenomenon is presented by the human soul. The
vital or animal element resembles tiie dim light
which springs directly from the burning material
underneath; and just as that material is gradually
consumed by the llame, so the vital element con-
sumes the body, with which it is closely connected.
Tiie moral element is comparable to the hiuher,
wiiite light, which is always struggling to disen-
gage itself from the lower one and to rise higher;
but so long as the lamp continues to burn it re-
mains united to it. The rational element coire-
sponds to the highest, invisible part of the tiame,
which actually succeeds in freeing itself from the
latter and ri.ses in the air {ih. i. 83b). See Escn.x-
Toi.oov ; Immortality ; Transmigration of Soiri-s.

Biri,iography: F. Delitzscli, ^ytiatrm der DibJischrr Pxticho-
hiijli', Leipsic, liStJl ; (ieitrer. SaddiicUer uiid P)mrisdi:i\ p.



35; Gfrorer, I'hiln intd die Altwaiidriiiii^che ThcosnpJiie, i
373 -tlo, Marburg, 1831 ; Siegfried. Philo von Alexandria als
Ausleocr de.'<Alteii Tentament^, pp. 235 ct *<•(/.; Druinuiond,
Philo Judaiis, oithe Javh^h AlciYuidrian P}nlos()jj)nj i)i Its
Development and Completit)n, i. 314-359, London, 1.S88;
Zeller, Die Philonopliie der (Jriechcn in liner (Jesrlticht-
liclien Entwichlitntj, iii. 393^IL'; Schiirer, Geaeli. iii. 558;
Weber, Die Thcolo{jie des TaJnmds, p. 36 and Index ; Jj.
Bernhardt, Uehcr die Emjni-iKche PsiielioJoiiie der Jiideii
ini Talmud, in Ziinz, Zeitschrijt, i. 501 et aeq.; ,1. Wie.sner,
Die Psycholoiiie des Talmxid.<, in I5erliner's 3/n(/(i2//i, i. Di
et scq.; (JuUniann, Die liclitiionspltilosoiiliie des Satt<lia,
ell. vii.; Scheyer, Die Psneliolof/ie des Maimnnides, Fraiik-
fort-on-tlie-Main, 1845; Brecher, Die Un.<te7-I)lieldieitslelire
liei den Jiulen, Vienna, 1857; Joel, Levi hen (Jerson
als /f(7((/i())Ksj^?n7o.s<)p/i, Breslau, 18tK; idem, Znr (ienesis
der Lehrc Sin)ioza's, Breslau, 1871; idem, Die neUiiiniis-
phUosopliie des Sohar, pp. 1:^8 et seq.; Weil, Pliiloxophie
Reliuieuse dc Levi ben Gerson, Paris, ISOti; uinsbiup. The
Kahitalali. pp. 31 et scq.; Myer, Qahl>alah, p. 110; Karppe,
Etude sur les Uridines du Zohar, pp. 344 et seq„ Paris, liHJl;
S. Rosenliliitl), Der Seelenhetp-if im Alien Testament, in
Berner Stndien, 1898; W. Bousset, Die Religion des Juden-
thums im KeAitestamentlichen Zeitalter, pp. 283, 383,440, Ber-
lin, 1903; G. Brectier, Das Transccndentale, Magie und
Mayische Heilarten im Talnnal, pp. 60 et .^eq., Vienna, 18.50;
A. B. Davidson, Tlie Tlieolofpi of the Old Testamod, pp. 199-
303, Edinburgh, 1904; Unslings, Diet, miile, iii. 164 t'^ ,sY(/.;
S. Horowitz, Die Psjicliolopie liei den Jlidisehen Keli(jio)i.'i-
phdosophcn, in Jaliresbericlit des JUdisch-TheoUmi^selien
Seminars zu Breslau, 1898, 1901 ; Valkut Hadash, pp. 91 et
seq., Presburg, 1859; Jew. Encyc. iii. 457b, s.v. Cabala;
Manasseh b. Israel, Nii^hmat Hauiiim, ii., ch. xvii., xviii.,
Amsterdam, 1651; Schurer, Gesch. ii. 572 (s.v. Esseni^s),
Hi. 380 (s.v. ]Visd<m}), iii. 558 et seq. (s.v. Philo); F. Weber,
Jlldbiche Theohnjie, pp. 212, 225 et seq., Leipsic, 1897.
K. I. Br.

SOULS, TRANSMIGRATION OF. See

Transmiokation ok Souls.
SOUSA. See Sosa.

SOUTH AFRICA : Jewish concern with South
Africa began, indirectly, some time before the dis-
covery of the Cape of Good Hope, by the participa-
tion of certain astronomers and cartograpliers in the
Portuguese discovery of the sea-route to India.
There were Jews among the directors of the Dutch
East India Company, which for 150 years adminis-
tered the colony at the Cape of Good Hope. Dur-
ing the seventeenth and the greater part of the
eighteenth century the state religion alone was al-
lowed to be publicly observed ; but on July 25, 1804,
the Dutch commissioner-general Jacob Abraham de
iNIist, by a proclamation whose provisions were an-
nulled at the English occupation of 1806 and were
not reestablished till 1820, instituted in the colony re-
ligious equality for all pei-sons, irrespective of creed.
Jewsdid not arrive in any numbersat Cape Town
l)revious to the twenties of the nineteenth centuiy.
Benjamin Nordcn, Simeon jVIarkus, together with a
scoi'e of othei's arriving in the early thirties, were
commercial pioneers, to whom is due the industiial
awakening of almost the whole interior of Cape
Colony ; thus, the development of the wool and hide
trades will always be associated with the names of
Julius, Adolph, and James Rosenthal. B}' their

enteipiise in going to A.sia and le-

Introduoe turning with thirty Angora goats in

the Mohair 1856 the}' became the oiiginatois of

Industry, the mohair industry; Cape Colony

yields now more than one-half of the
world's su]q)ly of mohair. Aai'on and Daniel do
Pass were the fust to open up Namaqualand, and for
many years (1849-86) were the largest shipowners
in Cape Town, and leaders of the .stealing, whaling,
and fishing industries. Jews were among the first
to take to (jstrich-farming (e.//., Joel Myers, in the
Aberdeen district); and the lirst rough diamoud



477



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Soul

South Africa



discovered on the Kimberley Diamond Fields was
bought l)y Lilienfeld of Hopetowu. Jews are
among the directors of the De Beers Consolidated
Diamond Mines, which controls a great part of the
world's diamond output to-day.

These pioneers did not, however, confine their
activity to trade. Capt. Joshua Norden was sliot
at the head of his ]\Iounted Burghers in the Kafir
war of 1846; Lieut. Elias de Pass fought in the
Kafir war of 1849. Julius Mosenthal (1818-80),
brother of the poet S. Mosenthal of Vienna, was a
member of the Cape Parliament in the fifties.
Simeon Jacobs, C.M.G. (1832-83), who was judge
in the Supreme Court of the Cape of Good Hope, as
the acting attorney-general of Cape Colony intro-
duced and carried in 1872 the Cape Colony Re-
sponsible Government Bill and the Voluntary Bill
<abolishing state aid to the Anglican Church), for
"both of which bills Saul Solomon, the member for
Cape Town, had fought for decades. Saul Solomon
(b. St. Helena May 25, 1817; d. Oct. IG, 1892), the
leader of the Liberal party, has been called the " Cape
Disraeli." He several times declined the premier-
ship and Avas invited into the first responsible minis-
try, formed by Sir John Molteno. Like Disraeli, too,
he early left the ranks of Judaism, but always re-
mained a lover of his people. He went to Cape
Town when a lad, where, with his
The brother Henry, he started a printing-

Solomons, office and, later, founded and edited
the "Cape Argus." Descendants of
these two brothers. Justice Solomon, Sir Richard
Solomon (attorney -general of the Transvaal), and
E. P. Solomon, are to-day among the most eminent
men in South Africa. The few other St. Helena
Jews wlio settled there during Napoleon's banish-
ment, the Gideon, the Moss, and the Isaacs families,
were all related to the Solomons, and, like the
members of the last-named family, most of them
drifted from Judaism.

The first congregation in South Africa was founded
in Cape Town in Nov., 1841, and the initial service
was held in the house of Benjamin Norden, at the
corner of Weltevreden and Hof streets. Later a
room was hired at the corner of Bouquet and Si.
John streets, S. Rudolph, a German merchant, con-
ducting the services. He was succeeded by a min-
ister of the name of Pulver, who soon left for Aus-
tralia. In 1859 the congregation, consisting tlicn of
about fifteen families, extended a call to Joel Rub-
binowitz (1829-1902), who for twenty-three years
worked indefatigably for his congregation, and for
tlie scattered Jewish families in the coast towns and
the interior of Cape Colony and the Orange Free
State. Through his ett'orts the first synagogue in
So\ith Africa was erected in "The Gardens," in
1862. His successor was A. P. Ornstein (1836-
1896) of Melbourne. In 1895 A. P. Bender (b.
1863; M.A. Cambridge) Ijecame tlie
Syna- minister of the congregation. Ben
gogues and der, as did Rabbinowitz, takes a lead-
Con- ing part in every humanitarian en-

gregations. deavor in Cape Town. There arc-
now (1905) three other .synagogues in
Cape Town— the Beth Hamidrash, the New Hebrew
Synagogue, and the Wynberg Synagogue; there



are also a Zionist hall, a Hebrew public school, and
various social, philanthropic, and literary societies.
The present president of the Old Hebrew Congrega-
tion, H. Liberman, is mayor of Cape Town.

There are synagogues in "Worcester Road,
Robertson, and Steytlersville ; Graaf Reinet
(with a congregation since 1861) and Grahams-
town (seventy jears ago an important Jewish set-
tlement) have no synagogues. Oudtshorn, with
a Jewish population of 400, has a congregation
(founded 1883), a synagogue (built 1890; M. Woolf-
son, minister), a bet ha-midrash, and a Jewish pub-
lic school. Port Elizabeth (Jewish population
600) has had a congregation since 1862 and a syna-
gogue since 1870, the rabbinate having been filled
by S. Rappaport, D. "Wasserzug, and J. Philips.
Jewish services were begun in Kim^berley in
1869, a regular congregation being formed in 1873,
with Col. David Harris, C.M.G. (served under Gen-
eral Warren in 1885, and in various native wars;
prominent in the defense of Kimberley in 1899-
1900), and G. H. Bonas, J. P., for many years alter-
nate presidents. In the new synagogue (1901), to
which Cecil Rhodes was a large donor, is a memo-
rial tablet to all Jewish officers and soldiers who fell
in the late Anglo-Boer war; its ministers were
M. Mendelsohn, A. Ornstein (who died very young
and was given a public funeral), M. L. Harris,
andE. Joffe; the present incumbent is H. Isaacs.
Alfred Moselv, C.INI.G., of KofTyfontein and Kim-
berley, established the Princess Christian Hospital
at Pinetowu, Natal, in 1900, and equipped and con-
ducted the ]\Iosely Industrial and Educational Com-
missions which were sent to the United States in
1902 and 1903.

In Natal, Nathaniel Is.\.\cs, in 1825, was among
the first to venture into the realms of Tchaka, the

Attila of South Africa. Dr. Theal,
Natal. the eminent historian of South Africa,

pronounces Isaacs' "Travels in East-
ern Africa" indispensable to a student of early
events in Natal. Isaacs left Natal in 1831, when
Tchaka's successor had prepared to massacre the
few whites living there; and he spent the remainder
of a long life in Gambia and on an island in the Gulf
of Guinea. But seventeen years l)efore the formal
aiHiexation of Natal by the British, and ten years
l)cfore it was reached by tlie Boers. Nathaniel Isaacs
was its "Principal Clncf.'' The importance of the
following document warrants its reproduction in
full.

"At Tdiaka's Principal Resi(1«^nco,
Toopooso, near tin- Uivcr Magatee.
Sept. 17. 1828.
" I, Tcliaka, KitiR ami Protcclor of the Zooloos, do hprebyrre-
ate, in prescnoeof my principal cliicfs ami si ranpcrs assembled,
my friend. Mr. Natlianid Isaacs. Induna Incnola, or rnncii>iil
Cliicf of .Natal, and do praiil and niaiie over to liiin, his heirs or
executors, a free and fnll possession of my territory from the
Inda.ss River westwards of Natal to the tJmsliloti eastwards
of Natal, with IIH) miles inland from the sea, includimr the Bay
of Natal, the islands in the hay, the forests and the rivers l>e-
iween the boundaries here enumerated. I also make over to
him the people he now lias in his service topether with the
MaliiV)an tribe. 1 also prant him a free and exclusive ripht to
tralllc with inv nation and all people tributary to the Zoohxis.
So does the powerful Kinp Tchaka of the Zooloos recompense
Mr. Nathaniel Isaacs for the services rendered to him to suhdue
'Hatia en (Joma,' for presents received from him and for the



South Africa



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



478



great attention to my people in the mission sent witti htm and
Captain Kiiif< to conclude an alliance with his Britannic Maj-
esty. All this and my former gifts I do confirm, and, wishing
peac« and friendship, I sign myself,

his
Tchaka X Esenzengercona
mark
his
John X Jacob, interpreter [a Hottentot]."
mark

Later Jewish events in Natal merely reproduce,
ou a smaller scale, those in Cape Colony. Daniel de
Pass was among the first sugar-planters in Natal,
and Jonas Bergthal (1820-1902) took his seat in the
Natal legislative assembly years before Jews were



Vryheid a second synagogue, which was dedicated
in April, 1904.

Jews settled in what was formerly the Orange
River Sovereignty, wlien its white population did not
exceed 4,000. Isaac Baumann. born
Orange in 1813, arrived at Graaf lieinet in 1837
River and moved to Bloemt'ontein in 1847.
Colony. He and Martin Pincus were for a long
time the principal merchants in the
Orange Free State. For fortj' years after the estab-
lishment of the Orange Free State in 1855, one or
two German Jewish families, many of them from
Hesse-Cassel, were to be found in nearly every ham-
let, together controlling the larger portion of the




Synagogue of the Witwatersrand Old Hebrew Co.ngregatiqn, JoHANNESBUK(i ; Oldest sy.nagoglk in tiik Tka.\sv4al.

(From a photograph.)



admitted to Parliament in England. In the nine-
ties A. Fass was member of Parliament and M. G.
Levy mayor of Maritzburg. Congregational life
began at the time? of tiie Zulu war. Services were
held in Maritzburg, J. Kram mini.stering to the
religious requirements of the few Jews in the entire
colony. Services were held in Durban in 1874, a
cemetery was laid out in 1878, and a synagogue
was dedicated on Jan. 1, 1884. Tlie ministers have
been Feinstock, J. Kram, and the present incum-
bents, A. Levy and S. Pincus. The Durban Jewish
population, which before the late Anglo-Boer war
was only about 200, now numbers l,2r)0; a new syn-
agogue was dedicatcid there in June, 1904. Durban
lias a Zionist hall and various subsidiary communal
organizations. Through the aiuiexation of the Vry-
heid district to Natal in 1902, that colony has at



trade of the Free State. An amiual Yom Kippiir
service was instituted in Isaac Bauniann's house in
1871, in wliicii year the first Jewisli funeral occurred
The Bloemfontein congregation was established
in 1887; a beautiful .synagogue was consecrated in
March, 1904, in the presence of the lieutenant-gov
ernor, the executive council, and the justices of Ui-,-
colony.

Despite their small number Jews have from the
first occupied an enviable position in the Orange
Free State. Isaac Baumann was twice mayor of
Bloemfontein and also director of the national bank.
M. Leviseur, a veteran of the Basuto war (1864-66).
lias been connected with the State Museum, the
Volkshospital, and nearly all other state instilutiouH
since their respective foundations; and W. Elirlich,
the president of the congregation, is also deputy-



479



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



South Africa



mayor of Bloenifontein, chairman of the Chamber of
Commerce, and member of the Inter-Colonial Kail-
way Conference. The Jewish population of Bloeni-
fontein is nearly 800.

A few Jews lived in the territory across the Vaal
even before the seventies. M. de Vries, a Dutch Jew,
was public prosecutor of the Transvaal in 1^68 and
chairman of the Volksraad in 1872, and ])articipated
in the Potchefstroom convention of 1870. Daniel
F. Kisch (1840-98) held Yom Kippur services in
Pretoria after 1876; he was justice of the peace and



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 115 of 160)