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auditor-general of the Transvaal from 1877 to 1881.
Largely through the influence of Alois Nelmapius,
a Magyar Jewish friend of Kriiger, Rhodes, and Beit,
a Jewish cemetery was consecrated at Pilgrimsrest

in 1878, and a congregation established
Transvaal, on the Barberton Gold fields in 1883.

In the following year Samuel Marks
(borniuNeustadt-Sugind, Russia) went to the Trans-
vaal, and through his coal-, copper-, gold-, and dia-
mond-mines, model farms, and glass, jam, brick, and
spirits factories, accumulated great wealth. An in-
timate friend of President Kriiger, and enjoying the
confidence (ff Generals Botha, DeWett, and Delarey,
and the respect of Earl Roberts, Lord Kitchener,
and Lord Milner, he played no inconsiderable part
in the negotiations for the cessation of Anglo-Boer
kostilities at Vereeniging, May 29, 1902. Of the
big mining-houses which, since the discovery of
gold, control the output in the Transvaal, the Bar-
natos (see Barnato, Barnett Isaacs), Neumann,
Albu, and several members of the firm of H. Eck-
stein & Co., are Jews. For the rise and history of
Jewish life on the Witwatersrand Goldfields see
Johannesburg.

Tiie Pretoria C()iiununit3-, numbering over 1,000,
hjus a synagogue (erected 1898) and a Jewish public
school (opened 1905), the former largely maintained
by, and the latter the gift of, Samuel Marks. M.
Rosenberg is minister and head master. There are
synagogues in Heidelberg and Volksrust (since
1901), Kriigersdorp, Klerksdorp, and Germis-
ton (1903), and Roodepoort (1905). A dramatic
interest attaches to the struggle, continued during a
decade, for the removal of the special Jewish disabil-
ities which existed beside those to which the other
Uitlanders were subject. Though freedom of wor-
ship was granted to all residents in 1870, the revised
"Grondwet" of 1894 still debarred Jews and Catho-
lics from military posts, from the positions of presi-
dent, state secretary, or magistrate, from member-
ship in the First and Second Volksraad, and from
superintendencies of natives and mines. All in-
struction was to be given in a Christian and Protes-
t^int spirit, and Jewish and Catholic teachers and
children were to be excluded from state-subsidized
schools. Though there were servile flatterers and
concession-hunters who thought lightly of these re-
strictions, there were seven Jews among the sixty-
four "Reformers" imprisoned at Pretoria in 1896:
Lionel Pliillips (sentenced to death), Captain Bet-
telheim. Karri Davies, A. Goldring, S. B. Joel, Max
Langerman, and Fritz Mosenthal.

The mass of Jews especially felt the educational
disability very grievously. President Kriiger and
the executive council were frequently petitioned



in every possible manner. A blunt non pos-
sumus, or at best an admonition to trust to God
and the good-will of the president, was the usual
reply. During the franchise discussions conse-
quent upon the Bloenifontein conference, a mass-
meeting of the Jewish inhabitants was called, June
28, 1899, to protest against the exclusion of Russian
and Rumanian Jews from the benefits of the fran-
chise which was about to be extended. For address-
ing that meeting, as well as the Uitlander meeting of
July 26, 1899, the Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz was expelled
from the Transvaal, Dec, 1899. Some weeks before
the outbreak of hostilities, in the middle of August,
when the "Grondwet" was again being revised,
the president urged tlie substitution of the words
"those who believe in the revelation of God through
His Word in the Bible " for the word " Protestant "
in all the above-mentioned articles of the "Grond-
wet," which change would have largely modified
the illiberal provisions; but the Volksraad, both in
secret and in open session, rejected his proposals.

Some of the most heroic deeds of the three years'
Boer war — as the Gun Hill incident before Lady-
smith — were due to the dash and daring of Jewish
soldiers like Major Karri Davies. Nearly 2,800 Jews
fought on tlie British side, and, according to care-
ful enumeration, the London " Spectator " declared
that the percentage of Jewish soldiers killed (125)
in the war was relatively the largest of all. Within
the Boer ranks the story of the Jew is much the
same. They were with the " Vierkleur " on every
battle-field; Jewish "Irreconcilables" fought to the
bitter end, and several Jewish prisoners were to be
found at St. Helena, Bermuda, and Ceylon.

Among the most ardent supporters of Cecil

Rhodes' "Cape to Cairo all British Route" were

Jews like Alfred Beit and, later, the Weil family at

Mafeking. Jews lived with Loben-

Rhodesia gula about 1865, and D. F. Ki.seii,

and Non- later of Pretoria, was his chief ailviser

British from 1868 to 1873, and immediately
Territories, after his fall in 1893 Jewish couirrc-
gations were established in Buluwayo
and even as far north as Salisbury. The former
has now a Jewish population of 330, with a syna-
gogue (I. Cohen, B.A., minister), a Zionist society,
and charitable organizations. In the Matabele
rebellion of 1896 fourteen Jews fought, and their
proportion among the defenders of Mafeking was
exceptionally large. Annual services are held in
a few places in Bechuanaland and the Kalahari
Desert. In Portuguese territory, some Sephar-
dic Jews in Louren^o Marques are attempting the
formation of a permanent congregation, with syna-
gogue, bet hayyim, and hazzau.

Jewish congregational life throughout South
Africa is growing not only extensively, but inten-
sively. The Zionists have established seventy-four
societies, forming the South-African Zionist Federa
tion (S. Goldreich, president, to whom Lord Milner
entrusted the gradual readmission, after the war,
of nearly the whole alien Jewish population of the
Rand). Intermarriage, alarmingly prevalent in
former years, is diminishing, and Jewish religious
education, at present seriously neglected, is the
most insistent topic of discussion in every Jewish



South Carolina

South and Central America



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



480



center. When it was found that the war had left
behind it a spirit of prejudice against the poorer
Eussian Jew, the Jewish Board of Deputies for tlie
Transvaal and Natal was formed in order success-
fully to vindicate him from false and imaginary
charges (Jews furnish but 5 per cent of the offenders
against the illicit liquor laws in such a large Jew-
ish center as Johannesburg). The other objects of
the board are to Anglicize and naturalize the poorer
alien immigrant and to prove to the coast authorities
that Judao-German is a European language (one of
the requisites for immigration). The inaugural pub-
lic meeting of the board w^as held July 28, 1903, at
which the high commissioner delivered a memorable
address. A similar board for Cape Colony was es-
tablished the following year in Cape Town.

No complete and reliable data as to the exact
size of the Jewish population in the various col-
onies are available, as the answer to
Statistics, the denominational question on the
census enumeration paper is not com-
pulsor}-. Approximately, Cajie Colony has 20,000
Jews; Natal, 1,700; Rhodesia, 600; the Orange
River Colony, 1,500; Portuguese territory, 200; and
the Transvaal, 25,000 (7,988 males over 21): a total
for South Africa of 47,000 in a white population of
1,100,000.

Bibliography: Joel Rabbinowitz. in Jew. Chrnn. May-Aug.,
1895; idem. Early Histori/ of the WitwaterKtciitd Old He-
hrew Congretiation. Cape Town, 1899 ; S. CronwriRht-Schrei-
ner, T)\e Annora Goat, 1898; Julius Mosenthal, in Cape
Monthlii Manazlne, 1857; A. Wilmot, HiKtonj of Our Own
Times in South Africa, vol. i.; N. Isaacs, Travetx and Ad-
ventures in Eastern AfiHca, 2 vols., London, 18l3t) ; John Bird,
An)iah of Natal. Pietermaritzburg, 1888; J. Foreyth In-
gram, The Story of a)t African. Seaport. Durban, 1899; G. M.
theal. History of South Africa, lS-iU-lsr,k; J. H. Hertz, The
Synafioque, Bloemfontein. 1899; idem, Tlie Uitlander Agi-
tation, in Menorah Monthly, Sept.. 1899; idem. The Jctrs
and the Uitlander, in American Hebrew, Sept. 29, 1899;
idem. The Boers and Reliyions Toleration, in Jfic. Chron.
Feb. 9, 19110; idem, Tlie Inauyural Prdilic Meeting of the
Jewish Board of Deputies for tlte Transvaal a)id Natal,
Juhi S!S, IMS, and The First Annual Report of the Board ;
The Jewish Year Book (Englisli ed.), 5651 (1890-91), 5mi
(1893-9:j), 5665 (1904-5).

J. J. H. H.

SOUTH CAROLINA: One of the thirteen orig-
inal states of the United States. Most of the events re-
lating to Jews occurring in this state have been con-
nected with the town of Ciiaiu.kston, and will be
found treated under that caption. It is only neces-
sary here to deal with matters relating to the state
in general, and to give additional information re-
garding Charleston which has become accessible
since that article was written.

The very beginnings of the constitution of South
Carolina should have encouraged Jewish immigra-
tion to that state from England, since the original
charter drawn up by John Locke, in 1669, granted
liberty of conscience to ail, including "Jews, Hea-
tiien, and Dissenters." However, advantage does
not .seem to have been taken of this liberality till
the year 1695, when a Jew is referred to as liv-
ing in Charleston — probably Simon
Early-' Valentine, who is actually mentioned

History, three years later as holding land in the

state. There must have been others.

since as early as 1703 protest was raised against

"Jew strangers" voting in the election of members

to the Common House of As.semblv. Most of the



early Jewish settlers of South Carolina seem to have
come from London or the English colonies, and some
of them appear to have been connected with the Bar-
bados trade in rum and sugar. In 1740, owing to
the refusal of the trustees of Georgia to allow the
introduction of slaves into that state, a number of
Jews removed from Georgia to South Carolina, and
in 1748 some London Jews connected with the Da
Costas and Salvadors, who had sent a number of
Jews out to Georgia, proposed a plan for the acqui-
tion of a large tract of about 200,000 acres of land in
South Carolina. After considerable correspondence
with the Colonial Office, through General Hamil-
ton, the project was dropped as a concerted plan;
but on Nov. 27, 1755, General Hamilton sold to
Joseph Salvador 100,000 acres of land, situated near
Fort Ninety-six, for £2,000. Twenty years later
Joseph Salvador sold to thirteen London Sephardic
Jews 60,000 acres of land for £3,000, and transferred
20,000 acres of the remainder to Rebecca Mendes da
Costa, in settlement of a claim which she had upon
him. This land was known as the "Jews' lands."
Prior to this, Salvador's nephew Francis had ar-
rived at Charleston (Dec, 1773), and purchased a
great deal of landed property in the same neighbor-
hood, some of it from his uncle and father-in-law.
A Jew from London, Moses Lindo, was one of the
chief instruments in increasing the indigo manufac-
ture of the state. He arrived in 1756, and spent in
the following year £120,000 in purchasing indigo;
and as a consequence of his activity this industry
quintupled in the state between 1756 and 1776. Undo
was appointed inspector-general of indigo.

During the Revolutionary war Jews of South
Carolina were found on both sides. Francis Salva-
DOH was a delegate to the Second Provincial Con-
gress, which met in 1775-76 and in Avhich South
Carolina was declared an independent state. Most
(nearly 40 out of 60) of the members of the Charlestcm
company of militia commanded by Richard Lushing-
toii were Jews, for it was drawn chiefly from the
district in which they lived. This gave rise to the
tradition of an entirely Jewish regiment, or com-
pany, fighting in behalf of the Revolu-
A "Jew- tioii. One of them, Joseph Solomon,
ish " was killed at the battle of Beaufort,
Company. 1779, and another, David Cardozo,
distinguished himself in the attempt
to recapture Savannah. Among those who peti-
tioned General Lincoln to surrender Charleston, in
May, 1780, were several of the prominent Jews of
the town; and during its occupation by Sir Heniy
Clinton several Jews proved their "loyalty," being
reported favorablj' by a committee appointed by
Clinton. The majority, however, were on the "pa-
triot " side, and left Charleston after the surrender.
They returned in 1783, several of them becoming
auctioneers or brokers. It is recorded that Meyer
]\Ioses succored the American wounded, while Morde-
cai Meyers furnished supplies for the colonial army.

The internal affairs of the Jews centered in the
Congregation Beth Elohim Unveh Shalom, founded
in 1750 for the Sephardic Jews of Charleston. It
would ajipear that another congregation, formed by
the Jews of the German rite, and also called Beth
Elohim, came into existence somewhat later. The



481



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



South Carolina

South and Central America



Sephardic congregation worshiped in Union street
from 1750 to 1757; in King street from 1757 to 1764;
in Eedersford street in 1764; and in Hasell street, in
the " Old Synagogue," from 1764 to 1781. By 1791
it consisted of more than 400 persons. The "New
Synagogue " was built in 1794. In connection with
this congregation a Hebrew benevolent society had
been founded in 1784.

Owing to the liberal constitution of South Caro-
lina and the fortunate position of the Jews at
Charleston, that city by 1800 liad the largest Jewish
population in North America. Beth Elohim had
107 contributing members in that year,

Largest and 125 members two years later The

American most distinguished member of the

Con- community in the early part of the

gregation century was Meyer Moses. He Avas

in 1800. a member of the legislature in 1810,
and commissioner of free schools later.
The influence of the Jews in South Carolina at this
time was shown by the fact that they were inti-
mately connected with the introduction of .free-
masonry into the state, Emanuel de la Motta, who
was educated at Charleston, being one of its leading
exponents, while Abraham Alexander, who was
honorary reader of the Beth Elohim congregation,
was one of those who introduced the Scottish rite
into America.

In the AVar of 1812 a Jewish youth named Jacob
Valentine, a descendant probably of the tirst Jew
mentioned in the annals of South Carolina, served
in the Palmetto regiment, and in the Mexican war he
was wounded in the storming of Cherubusco. Jacob
de la Motta served as surgeon in the United States
army during the War of 1812.

In 1822 a congregation known as tiie "Tree of
Life " seems to have been established in Columbia,
which also has a Hebrew benevolent society dating
from that year.

Soutli Carolina was the earliest state in the Union
to show Reform tendencies. In 1824 twenty-seven
meml)ers of the Congregation Beth Elohim of
Charleston petitioned the vestry for the use of the
vernacular in the prayers, and for their shortening,
as well as for the preaching of English sermons.
On the rejection of the petition a number of the pe-
titioners resigned and organized the Reform Society
of Israelites. A second split in the congregation,
for a similar reason, took place in 1840, owing to the
attempted introduction of the organ into the serv-
ice, and a new congregation was formed, known as
Shearith Israel.

During the Civil war Jews from South Carolina
joined the Confederate army to the number of 182,
of whom no less than twenty -five were killed. Five
brotliers of the Moses family joined the Confederate
ranks. Benjamin Mordecai, the father of one of the
soldiers, is stated to have been the first material
contributor to the Southern cause, having donated
$10,000 to South Canjlina at the beginning of the
war. During the reconstruction period many South
Carolina Jews removed northward. The total num-
ber of Jews in the state at the present day (1905) is
estimated at 2,500. Ik'sides Charleston and Colum-
bia, communities exist at Darlington, Florence,
Orangeburg, and Sumter.
XL— 31



Bibliography: B. A. Elzas, The Jews of South Carolina,
Ctiarleston, 1903 la collec-tion of pamphlets reprinted from
the Chaileiftoii jVeir.s and Coimer, and giving a nunDber of
facts drawn from early records and newspapers); the works
given in the bibliography to the article Charlk3T0.\.
A. J.

SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA : Cer-
tain portions of the American continent which were
first colonized by the Spaniards and Portuguese,
and wliich still remain Spanish- and Portuguese-
speaking. As regards the period during which
these countries were under Spanish dominion their
interest for Jewish history is concerned almost entire-
ly with the Maranos, or Neo-Christians, secret Jews
who nominally professed the Catholic religion; for
settlements there were made only subsequent to the
expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and Span-
ish law did not permit the existence of professing
Jews on the soil of Spanish colonies. The same ex-
clusion was enforced in the Portuguese colony of
Brazil after the formal expulsion of the Jews from
Portugal in 1508. Both in Spanish and in Portu-
guese America, therefore, the chief external events
referring to Jews are connected with the Inquisition,
but as this was never formally established in Brazil,
there is a notable difference between the fortunes of
the Jews in Portuguese and those of the Jews in
Spanish America, which regions will accordingly be
treated separately.

Though the Inquisition was never established in
Brazil, it had its " familiars" in that country, who
spied upon secret Jews, and, in case of detection,
seized tliem and sent them to Lisbon to be tried by
the tribunal there. On the other hand, a favorite
method of punishment by the Inquisition of Lisbon
was to transport convicted relapsed
Portuguese Jews to the colony of Brazil, it is said,
America : twice ever}' year. The earliest notice

Brazil. of Jews in the country refers to some
who had been thus banished in 1548.
In the same year, however, several Portuguese Jews
transplanted sugar-cane from Madeira to Brazil, and
Jews were connected with the sugar industry of the
country for the following two centuries. During
the twenty years following the arrival of the first
Jewish settlers they were joined by man}' vol-
unteer exiles of the same faith, until their prom-
inence in trade became noticeable ; and edicts were
issued by Don Henrique, regent of Portugal, on
June 20, 1567, and March 15, 1568, forbidding Mara-
nos to settle in Brazil. This edict, however, was re-
pealed for the sum of 1,700,000 crusados (§714,000)
given by the ^Maranos of Lisbon and Brazil, and the
privileges of residence and free commerce were
granted to Neo-Christians by an edict of May 21,
1577.

When Portugal was seized by Philip II. in
1580, Spanish regulations against the existence of
Jews, secret or other, in Spanish dnminif)ns applie<l
to Brazil also; but the insecure hold of Spain on the
great Portuguese colony prevented a rigid applica-
tion of the Spanish rule, and in 1610 mention is
made of Jewish physicians in Bahia, then the capital
of Brazil; it is stated also that the richest persons
there were Jews, owning ]iro]ierty amounting to
from 60,000 to 100,000 crusados. The Dutch West
India Company, founded in 1620, was largely re-



South and Central America
Spaeth



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



482



cruited from the Maranos of Brazil, aud it was un-
doubtedl}' due to the troubles in that country that
no branch of the Inquisition was established there.

From 1618 to 1654 the Dutch made repeated at-
tempts to take possession of Brazil, aud during the
•whole time the Jewish element in that country re-
mained friendly to the Dutch and inimical to the
Spanish and, after 1640, to the Portuguese. Thus,
as early as 1618 Francisco Kibiero, a Portuguese
Jewisli captain who had relatives in Holland, is said
to liave assisted the Dutch in their attempts upon
the B.azilian coast. When Bahia was captured in
1624 the Dutch were welcomed by about 200 Jews,
to whom freedom of worship had been promised.
The capital, however, was recaptured the following
year b}- the Portuguese. Most of the Jews of Bahia
moved to Recife (Pernambuco) when the latter city
was captured by the Dutch in 1631. So promising
was the position of the Jews in Brazil that Ephraim
Sueiro, brother-in-law of Manasseh b. Israel, emi-
grated to that country in 1638, and was to have been
followed by Manasseh himself, who dedicated th(!
second part of liis " Conciliador " to the comnuiuity
at Recife (1640). Two years later no less than 600
Jews from Amsterdam, including Isaac Aboab
da Fonseca and Moses Ra))hael Aguilar, embarked
for Recife. The}'' spread tliroughout the country,
forming congregations at Tamarico, Itamaraca, Rio
de Janeiro, aud Parahiba; and in 1646 some of them
raised large sums to assist the Dutch in defending
the coast.

There were said to be no less than 5,000 Jews in
Recife when it capitulated to the Portuguese, spe-
cial clau.sesof the capitulation referring to the Jews.
They found it, however, impossible to remain in
Pernambuco, and scattered throughout North Amer-
ica, though a large number, including Aboab and
Aguilar, the Pereyras. the Mezas, Abraham de Cas-
tro, and Joshua Zarfati, returned to Amsterdam,
while Jacob de Velosino, the first Hebrew author born
on American soil, settled at The Hague. Others went
to Cayenne and Curasao, and it is generally assumed
tliat the first Jewish settlers in New Amsterdam
came directly fiom Pernambuco (see, however, New
Yohk). There still remained a number of Maranos
on Brazilian soil, whose existence is known mainly
through the actions of Brazilian " familiars." Thus
Isaac de Castro Tartas, who lived there, was trans-
ported to Lisbon Dec. 15, 1647. The number of
Brazilian Maranos was augmented by exiles trans
ported from Portugal between 1682 and 1707 for the
crime of Judaizing. These were closely watched,
and in case of relapse they were returned to Lis-
l)on. Thus, on Oct. 10, 1723, five Jews who had
been returned from Riode Janeiro were ])unished at
an auto da fe at Lisl)on. On Oct. 19, 1739, Antonio
Jose da Sii.v.a, poet and dramatist, who was origi-
nally from Brazil, wasburnc<l at the stake, togethci-
with his mother and wife. Nevertheless, the Jews
flourished in Brazil throughout the eighteenth
century, and it is reported that in 1734, after the
discovery of diamonds, they controlled the market
for those gems. The action of the Incjuisition in
returning so many Jews from Brazil to Lisbon had
a deleterious effect upon the sugar trade, which
the Jews almost monopolized ; and many sugar-



mills were clo.sed at Rio de Janeiro until Pombal
put an end to the transportation of Maranos from
Brazil to Lisbon.

As early as Oct., 1511, Queen Joan of Spain is-
sued an edict restricting the Maranos from immi-
grating into New Spain ; and the activity of the
Inquisition in the Spanish colonies of America was
specifically directed against the Maranos and tlieir
descendants. Thus, Charles V., under date of Oct.
15, 1538, directed the Inquisition to attend not to
the natives, but to the European inmiigrants and
their offspring; and at an uncertain date before 1604
Philip III. issued a rescript forbidding any newly
converted persons, or the offspring of such persons,
to settle in the Spanish possessions in the East or
West Indies. As a matter of fact, the first auto da
fe in the New World took place in Mexico in 1574.
Four years later three Jews were dealt with by the
Mexican Inquisition. The most distinguished of t he
Mexican Maranos was Luis de Caiabajal, who was
for some time governor of one of the provinces of
Mexico. He was charged with Juda-

Spanish izing on the accusation of Dona Isal)el
America : de Herrera in 1590, certain members of

Mexico. the Caceres family being included in
the same charge. Carabajal's nephew
of the same name was actually executed at an auto
da le in Mexico, Sept. 8, 1596. On the strengtli
of a confession, still extant, which he wrote while
a prisoner of the Inquisition he is said to have Iteen
the first Jewish author in America (see Cak.mia.iai.).
In 1607 a relative of his, Jorge de Almeida, wiis tried
by the Inquisition of Mexico on the charge of Juda-
izing, aud during the proceedings no less than
thirty-two residents of Mexico were denounced as
Judaizers. On March 22, 1609, Almeida was con-
demned to be executed in effigy. At the trial of
Gabriel de Granada, which took place in Mexico l)e-
tween 1642 and 1645, no less than 107 persons were



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 116 of 160)