Isidore Singer.

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a proof that Zephaniah endeavored to divide his
prophecies into strophes, nor has Muller been able
to establish the correctness of his views in his later
book " Stroplienbau und Besptmsion " (1898).

.1. K. Zenner, in his book "Die Chorgesflnge ira
Buchder Psalmen " (1896), has endeavored to demon-
strate the existence of an alternate strophe. He
made Ps. cxxxii. the chief object of his research,
and as a result placed lines la, b after lines 10a, b,
because " ilieir responsion had to be made more com-
plete." But this would amount to imposing a me-
chanical, schematic character on the psalm. He
says, further, "First, one chorus sings the first
strophe (2-5); then the second chorus answers with
a responding strophe (11 c< se?.); hereupon follows
a strophe (6, 13. 7, 14) in which the two choruses
alternate verse for verse (alternate strophe); this is
concluded with a second strophe by the first chorus
(8-10, and 1), and a second strophe in response by
the .second chorus (11-18)." In the first place, how-
ever, no sufficient reason can be brought forward as
to why this order of the verses was not preserved in
copying the poem, if it had been so intended. In
the second i)lace, it would be unnatural for Yhwhs
statement, "This is my rest for ever" (14) to be fol-
lowed by the exhortation, "Arise, O Lord, into thy
rest " (8). Ni vard Schloegl (" Canticum Canticorura
Hebraice," 1902) is no more convincing in his the-




ory that ii. 7 and iii. 5 of the Song of Solomon arc;
"versus intercalares. " In tlie opinion of the pres-
ent writer, all these modern theories are too arti-
ficial to suit the old Hebrew poetry. The poets of
the Old Testament placed emphasis on the develop-
ment of ideas rather than on the construction of form.

Bibliography : Julius Ley, Leitfaden der Metrik der He-
brdisclien I'nesie, 1887, pp. 30 et seq.; Ed. Sievers, Metrische
Uiitersuchunyeii, 1901, § 103 (opposes the theories of D. H.
Miiiler). A list of older works on the strophe in the Old
Testament may be found In Ed. KSnig, Stilistik, Rhetorik.
Poetik, 1900, pp. 3J6 ct seq.
E. G. H. E. K.

RUCH HIRSCH) : German railway contractor;
born at Neideiiburg, East Prussia, Nov. 20, 1823;
died at Berlin June 1, 1884. After an unsuccessful
business career in London he emigrated to America,
and for some time taught languages at New Orleans.
In 1849 he returned to London with money made
by trading in damaged goods, and became identi-
fied with the publication of "The Chess Player,"
"Lawson's Merchants' Magazine," and "Sharpe's
London Magazine." In 1855 he settled in Berlin as
agent for an insurance company, and in 1861 obtained
for English capitalists the concession of building
East-Prussian railways. After acting for some time
as agent for different companies, he established him-
self as an independent contractor and built several
railway lines, chiefly in northern Germany, Hun-
gary, and Rumania. He became the owner of vast
establishments for producing all the requisite mate-
rials, as well as of various factories and mines. His
holdings were enormous; at onetime he employed
more than 100,000 persons, and was engaged in
speculations involving nearly £100,000,000. Dur-
ing the Franco-Prussian war (1870-71) he met with
serious reverses, and in 1872, after a ruinous settle-
ment with the Rumanian government on account of
unfulfilled railway contracts, he was forced into
liquidation. He was declared bankrupt in 1875,
and, after standing trial in Russia for alleged fraud-
ulent transactions with a bank, he returned to Ber-
lin, where he lived in partial retirement until his
death. He embraced Christianity while young.

Bibliography : Jciv. Wt)rUl. June 6, 1884.
.1. . G. L.


American lawyer and i)<)liti('ian ; born in Germany
Dec. 16, 1825. In 1882 his parents emigrated to the
United States and settled in Pottsville, Pa. He
studied law, and after he had been admitted to the
bar founded (1848) the "North American Farmer,"
which was published in Philadelphia. In 1852 he
resigned his position as editor and established him-
self as a lawyer in Philadelphia. Ten years later
he was elected a member of the Thirty-eighth Con-
gress from the tenth congressional district of Penn-
sylvania; he was elected also to the Thirty-ninth
Congress, and served until 1867.

Bibliography : AUij. Zeit. da* Jiid. 18(58, p. 346; Morals, The
Jfivsof PhUndf'Iphia. I'hiladelphia, 1894; American Jewish
Year liook, mn (1900-1), p. 5:i3.

A. F. T. H.

STRUCK, HERMANN : German painter; born
at Berlin March 6, 1876. He was originally destined
for a rabbinical career, but soon showed marked
talent for drawing and painting, whereupon he en-

tered the Beilin Academy of Fine Arts, where he
studied for five years. Prof. Max Koner being his
chief instructor. He then traveled through south-
ern France, Italy, Belgium, England, and Holland.
Three of his drawings, "Polish Rabbi," "The Old
Jew," and "Old Man in Profile," were purchased in
1901 by the Prussian government for the copper-
plate section of the Berlin Museum.

Struck is a devout Jew, and an ardent student of
the Talmud in his leisure houis. He signs his pic-
tures "Chaim Aron ben David," his Hebrew name.
He furnished the illustrations for Adolf Friedmann's
" Reisebilder aus Palastina " (Berlin, 1904).

Bibliography : Allg. Zeit. de><Jud. Sept. 30, 1901 ; Ha-Zofeh,

Feb., 1903 ; Out unci West, 1904.


STUDENZKI, MOSES: Polish physician;
born in the early part of the nineteenth century at
Zbarasz, Galicia, where his father, Aaron Polak, was
rabbi; died at Warsaw about 1876. Until he was
fourteen Studenzki studied Hebrew and Talmud
under his father, and for the next three years at-
tended the yeshibah of Brody. At the age of seven-
teen he went to Warsaw, where he graduated from
the Lyceum and entered the Alexander University,
studying medicine and philosophy. When that uni-
versity was removed from Warsaw, Studenzki went
to Berlin LTniversity, and finished there his medical
studies (M.D. 1834). He then returned to Warsaw,
where he practised as "physician of the first de-
gree," and where he graduated as "doctor accou-
cheur" in 1846.

Studenzki was the author of " Rofe ha-Yeladim"
(Warsaw, 1847), a work written in both Hebrew and
German, and treating of children's diseases and of
ways to prevent them; it received the approbation
of the Rady Lekarski (board of physicians) of War-
saw and of Hayyim Davidsohu, then rabbi of War-
.saw. The second edition (1876) is in Hebrew only.
He wrote also " Orhot Hayyim " (ib. 1853), a work on
hygiene and a guide for the preservation of health,
and prepared an edition of M. Levin's "Refu'ot ha-
'Am" (Lemberg, 1851), to which he added a treatise
on children's and women's diseases.

Bibliography: Rnfe ha-Yeladim, Introduction; Zeitlin,
Bihl. Pnst-Mendels. pp. 389-390.
s. M. Sel.

kesfehervar; Latin, Alba Reg-ia) : Coronation
city of the Hungarian kings from the time of St.
Stephen to 1527. As early as the fourteenth cen-
tury it contained the most influential Jewish com-
munity of Hungary; and because of the fact that
the royal court frequently visited the city, the
leaders of the Stuhlweissenburg community often
had occasion to be the spokesmen in behalf of Jew-
ish interests throughout the country. The only
known Jewish name of that date, however, is that of
a certain Solomon who appeared as advocate of the
interests of the Hungarian Jews before

Sixteenth. King Sigismund. The Jewish com-

and Seven- munity continued to exist in the

teenth sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,

Centuries, during the Turkish dominion; but

after the expulsion of the Turks

(1686) the Jews also had to leave the city; and it

was not until the time of Emperor Joseph II. that




a Jewish family— that of the innkeeper Hayyim
Stern— was again given permission to dwell there.

Article xxix. of the constitution of 1839-40 per-
mitted Jews to settle in the royal free cities; and
after that time, as early as 1842, a small congrega-
tion existed there, whose first president was Solomon
Halm and whose first rabbi was Daniel Pillitz.
The latter in 1843 accepted a call to Szegedin,
Mayer Zipser being chosen his successor at Stuhl-
weissenburg in the same year. Zipser was the real
organizer of the community ; but by liis attempts at
ritual Reform, which, although not at all contrary to
Jewish law, were yet in opposition to deepl}' rooted
customs, he brought about a disruption of the
community. His bitterest opponent, who led the
Conservative party in the struggle, was Gottlieb
Fischer, a pupil of Moses Sofer. When Fisclier was
chosen president in 1851 there were so much agitation
and friction in the congregation that the secular au-
thorities had frequently to be appealed to; and in
1858 Zipser decided to accept a call to Kohoucz
(Rechnitz). The Conservatives then succeeded in

inducing Joseph Guggenheimer of

Nineteenth Aussee, son-in-law of Samson Raphael

Century. Hirsch, to accept the rabbinate of

Stuhlweissenburg. He entered on
his position in March, 1859, but the reactionary
changes which he introduced failed to meet with
success, and he resigned voluntarily in March, 1861.
The disagreement, however, had attained such pro-
portions that the Hungarian magistracy finally in-
terfered; and it decreed that the community should
be divided into two parts under a common presi-
dency. Thereupon the two factions, worn out by
fighting and financially crippled, appeared to be
seeking a rapprochement; but this was prevented
by the action of Samson Raphael Hirsch.

The progressive mother congregation now chose
the energetic S. L. Wertheim as president (June 2,
1867); previously (April 22, 1867) it had called
Alexander Koiiut as rabbi ; but their attempts to
win back the dissenters by sheer force of self-abne-
gation proved futile. Kohut caused Stuhlweissen-
burg to be the first cfty in Hungary in which a
separate Orthodox congregation was approved by
a ministerial decree (Dec. 4, 1871). Since that time
the two congregations have worked quietly side by
side. Kohut removed in Sept., 1874, to Pecs (Flinf-
kirchen), and the Stuhlweissenburg congregation
remained withoiit a rabbi until March, 1889, when
the present (1905) incumbent. Dr. Jacob Steinherz,
was elected. S. L. Wertheim, who had conducted
the affairs of the congregation for twenty-fouryears,
died Sept. 2, 1890, and was succeeded in the presi-
dency by Dr. Max Perl, who still occupies the

Bibliography: Low, Zur Neueren QeschicMe der Judcn,
in Nachgelassene ScJiriften, lil.; Reich, Beth-El. II., Buda-
pest, 18.56; Kohn, A Zrklok TOrtenete iVfa(;i/aj'ornu(/o7t ;
Steinherz, A Szekesfehervdn ZridOk TOrtenete.
s. L. V.

STUTTGART : German city, and capital of the
kingdom of Wlirttemberg. The first historical men-
tion of Stuttgart dates from the administration of
Eberhard the Illustrious (1265-1325, and to a some-
what later period belongs the earliest mention of a
Jewish community there, for in 1348-49, the year of

the Black Death, the Jews of Stuttgart, as well as of
other places, met the fate of martyrs in the flames
(Stiiliu, " Wirtembergische Gesch." iii. 244, notes
3-4). A ghetto and a "Judenschule " existed in
this period, and a Jew named Leo is specifically
mentioned (Ilartmann, "Chronik der Stadt Stutt-
gart," Stuttgart, 1886).

Traces of Jews in Stuttgart are again found in
1393, when mention is made of one Baruch Basel less;
while under the joint rule of the counts Eberhard
the Younger and Ulrich V., the Well-Beloved. Mo-
ses, suruamed JUcklin, lived in the city with his
family and servants, and even received citizenship,
letters of protection and privilege being granted
to him. Whether this Moses Jiicklin is identical
with the Moses Jecklin of Esslingen (1404-51) is
uncertain. During this same period mention is
made of a Solomon who purchased a patent of pro-
tection for eight florins (1435-41), of a Lazarus who
obtained a similar document for ten florins (1437-
1443), and of Kaufman and BeU 1459).
Fifteenth The Jew Brein (?) received the permis-
and sion of Count Ulrich to settle in Cann-

Sixteenth statt and to lend money at interest,
Centuries, although he was forbidden to take
more than one pfennig per pound,
and he had not the right to levy a distress. These
scanty allusions justify the assumption that there
were Jewish communities, even though they were
small, at Stuttgart and Cannstatt in the fifteenth
century; but in 1492 Count Eberhard im Bart,
despite the earnest remonstrances of their zealous
friend Reuchlin, absolutely forbade the Jews to re-
side there longer. Duke Ulrich (1498-1550) and his
successor, Duke Christopher (1550-68), at the urgent
petition of Josel of Rosheim, finally granted safe-con-
ducts to Jews, but refused them residence. Nev-
ertheless, a number of Jews lived at Stuttgart for a
time, though they had no opportunity of establish-
ing a community'. In 1522, moreover, the city passed
into the possession of the emperor Charles V.. and
later of his successor, Ferdinand, while in 1535 the
Reformation was effected.

Conditions changed, however, with the accession
of Duke Frederick (1593-1608), who showed special
favor to the great artist Abraham Calorno, and
even greater favor, in 1598, to Maggino Gabriel!, the
consul-general of a company of Jewish merchants.
He granted the latter the freedom of trade which
they desired, received them gladly, and sold them a
liouse in the market-place, the " Armbrustschutz-
haus," in which they held religious services. The
magistracy of the city, however, aided hy the cour*^
chaplain, Lucas Osiander, brought charges against
them, while the consistory declared that "next to
the devil, the Jews are the worst enemies of the
Christians " ; to this the duke retorted that " the Jew
is no magician, but you and those like you are worth-
less priests, and adulterers"; and Osiander, who had
denounced the Jews from the pulpit, was obliged to
leave the city. On May 23, 1598, Frederick made
an agreement with the members of Gabrieli's com-
pany, assigning them Neidlingen asa residence, but
forbidding them all exercise of religion; and three
months later they left the country.
Despite all the obstacles which were set up by the




authorities and despite; the added restrictions upon
the granting of safe-conducts imposed by Duke
Johaun Frederick (l(>08-28)and the princely admin-
istrator Louis Frederick, some Jews seem to have
remained in Stuttgart, and Duke Eberliard III.
(1628-74) soon ordered their expulsion from the city
"because there were too many of them." Their en-
treaties were unavailing, and only Solomon, Eman-
uel, and the latter's wife, Feile, were allowed four-
teen days to arrange their affairs (" Landesordnung,"
pp. 93, 100).

Nevertheless, Jews evidently continued to reside
at Stuttgart for some time afterward. In 1661 the
complaint was made that travelers on foot be-
tween Stuttgart and Ulm, Augsburg, Strasburg, and
Frankfort carried out and in large quantities of
wares, including goods belonging to Jews, and de-
frauded the government of all excises. But since
such travelers were protected by the citizens of the
towns mentioned as well as of the neighboring dis-
tricts, it was almost impossible to bring one of them
to punishment; the merchants of those cities, more-
over, allowed themselves to be u.sed as shields for
foreign traders, to the disadvantage of
Seven- their class as a whole. The conditions
teenth and were exactly the same with the traders
Eig-hteenth. as with the Jew's, who were restricted
Centuries, to the lending of money and to com-
merce. Altiiough expelled from Wiirt-
temberg, the Jews held their own owing to their
commercial relations in the neighboring regions,
while they were entitled to safe-conducts through the
country in that they were "servants of the empire ";
and the Christian merchants themselves, disregard-
ing all attacks upon the Jt^ws and all the threats
of the government, continued to avail themselves of
their services, and frequently used them as a means
of carrying out some prohibited negotiation {ib. pp.
187-188, 191).

In the year 1679, Jews were again permitted to
settle in Stuttgart; in 1706 tliey "were allowed to
engage in traffic at public fairs, and in the following
year to receive pledges: and in 1712 the Jews Solo-
mon Frankel, Leon Wolff, Marx Nathan, and Baer
obtained the privilege, despite the opposition of
the district, of trading tliroughout the country. In
1710, however. Model Low of Pforzheim, a favorite
of tlie Count of Wlirben, had received permission
to deal in cattle and jewels, and he liad become
jealous of the new favorites of the duke and had
intrigued against them in a most scandalous man-
ner; but finally his slanders were exposed, and he
was imprisoned on Jan. 31, 1721, although he was
released in 1726 to carry his case to the highest

By this time a community had again been formed
in Stuttgart, but it frequeqtly suffered under the
enforcement of various oppressive laws; for many
ordinances were enacted against the Jewish re-
ligion, and circumcision, e.g., could be performed
only abroad. The reign of Carl Alexander (1733-
1737), on the other hand, brought many amelio-
rations and an increase in the number of commu-
nities. His confidential adviser, Joseph Silss Op-
PENHEIMEK, Conferred upon Moses Drach the right
of printing playing-cards (Feb. 25, 1734), while

Jacob Uhlmann was given the contract of supplying
rations for thetroopsof the district (March 18, 1734),
and on Jan. 21, 1737, Oppenheimer himself again re-
ceived the privilege of granting rights of residence
to Jewish families. The fall of Oppenheimer on
March 12 of the same year in consequence of the
sudden death of the duke brought terror and de-
struction on all the Jews of Stuttgart. The sons
and sons-in-law of Levin were expelled, but Marx
Nathan, Noah and his associates, Solomon Meir,
Moses Drach, and Elijah Hayyim were permitted
to remain, altho\igh they were exposed to the fury
of the people until the provost was ordered to pro-
tect them.

The Jewish community of Stuttgart was now ap-
parently fully organized, for amikweh is mentioned
in 1721 {ih. p. 171). During the control of the ad-
ministrators Carl Rudolf and Peter
Community Carl Frederick the laws against the
Organized. Jews were again enforced, and in 1739
they were expelled, although their re-
call soon followed. The court bankers Seeligmann
(1741) and Ullmann (1743) were permitted to reside
in the city. One of the laws issued about this time
decreed that circumcision might be performed only
in a; this offers sufficient evidence
that the community possessed a synagogue (even
though it may have been but a small room for
prayer), in which circumcisions had taken place;
and the prohibition was probably due to the fact
that children in being carried through the street
aroused the displeasure of the populace. Another
law required that notice was to be given immediately
of the presence of non-resident Jews (1747), and the
court banker Seeligmann was fined ten florins for
having sheltered a Jew from another city without
the knowledge of the provost. The charge that
the Jews celebrated the Sabbath with too much
noise is another proof of the existence of a com-
munity at that time, and a still stronger confirma-
tion is found in the patent which was conferred
on the two bankers Seeligmann and Ullmann and
on Seeligiuann Baiersdorfer, authorizing them to
install such butchers and other officials as were
necessary, and to celebrate private worship within
proper bounds. Non-resident Jews, however, who
might arrive on the day before the Sabbath, Avere
obliged to leave at the close of the latter.

In general it maybe said that Carl Eugene (1744-
1793) was well disposed toward the Jews. In 1758 he
granted Aaron Seidel, the court banker of the Prince
of Ansbach, the monopoly for three months of pur-
chasing all silver for the ducal mint, while pro-
tected Jews of Hechingen were made subcontractors.
In the following year the court bankers Mark and
Elias Seeligmann were authorized to import French
salt for a period of twenty years, while in 1761
they were empowered to purchase forage for the
Frencli army; and four years later the prohibition
against dealing in cattle at the annual fairs was re-
pealed. The right to purchase tartar at the ducal
cellars was conferred on the merchants Sontheimer
and Consorten. The inhabitants resented these proofs
of the duke's friendship for the .Tews, but he disre-
garded their restrictions, even after his reconciliation
with them (Jan. 27, 1770); and his decree of Feb.




10, 1779, that no Jew should be deprived of the right
of resideuce uuless convicted of crime, brought new
families to the community of Stuttgart, wiiile the
destruction in 1782 of the gallows erected for Oppen-
heimer likewise evinced a friendly attitude toward
the Jews. In tlie year before liis death Duke
Frederick Eugene (1793-97) permitted the widow of
tlie court banker Kaulla of Hecliingen to establish
a mercantile house at Stuttgart (Nov. 2, 1797).

Conditions became worse, however, under Fred-
crick William (duke and elector, 1797-1805), who re-
pealed the protection formerly accorded the Jews;
but notwithstanding all commercial and industrial
annoyances and obstacles, the life of the commu-
nity was maintained. In 1799, despite the opposi-
tion of the Christian merchants, the contract for pro-
visioning the army was given to members of the
Kaulla family; and in 1802 the royal bank of Wilrt-
temberg was founded with the cooperation of this
family. The official religious census of 1808 gives
the following heads of in the city : Isaac L5w
and his wife Friederike; Solomon Aaron and his
wife Rebekah ; Uhlmann and his sister Henele ; Maier
and his cousin Jonas Lazarus; Councilor Kaulla
and his wife, Avith their boarders and servants, Am-
son Heymann, Jacob Joseph, Solomon Bloch, Low
Bernstein, Hayyim Mayer, and Hayyim Hayyim;
Kaulla and household, with coachmen, servants,
and cooks; Moses Feit; the protected Jew Benedict
and his wife Rosina, with their children Seligmann,
Isaac, Jacob, Wolf, Fradel, and a grandson, to-
gether with their maid servants.

When Wurttem])erg became a kingdom in 1806 a
vast improvement was effected in the condition of
the Jews in the country at large, especially in the
community of Stuttgart. By a decree
Nineteenth of June 27, 1806, King Frederick I.
Century, conferred on the imperial and royal
councilor Jacob Raphael Kaulla and a
number of his relatives the citizenship of Wiirttem-
berg for themselves and their descendants, in recog-
nition of the services which he had rendered the
country on critical occasions, and this family has
since exerted an influence for good on the Jews of
the entire district, especially on their coreligionists
in Stuttgart.

In 1808 the need of a synagogue was felt, and the
raising of funds was authorized. At this time only
those Jews were permitted to reside in the city who
had property amounting to twenty thousand gulden ;
and they were obliged, by an enactment of July 18,
1819, to pay twelve florins each for protection. Two
years later the right of citizen.ship was denied them.
Now began the struggle for the elevation and
equality of the Jew^s, and one of the members of the
committee appointed in 1820 to determine ways and
means for tlieir civil and moral improvement was
Nathan Wolf Kaulla of Stuttgart. At the same
time Karl Weil was another active cliampion of
their rights; he proposed a law which was sub-
mitted to the government in 1824. and aided in set-
tling other legal matters as well, while Samuel
Mayer, who later became professor at Tubingen, also
defended the Jews. The result of the work of this
committee of 1820 was the law of 1828 regarding
Jewish education and emancipation; and the devel-

opment of the communal life of the Jews of Stutt-
gart under the new enactments was rapid.

In 1832 a self-dependent c(mimunity of 126 mem-
bers was founded under an ordinance of Aug. 3, and
Stuttgart was made the seat of a rabbinate which
comprised Stuttgart, P>sslingen, Ludwigsburg, Hoch-
berg, and Aldringen. In the following year the

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 137 of 160)