Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

. (page 143 of 160)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 143 of 160)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


6.05


126


6.11


7.41


4.41


6.05


13 6


6.11


7.35


4.43


6.05


137


6.12


7.33


10.19


11.60


1.47


5.55


1210


35....


4.27


5.. 57


1219


6.16


7.45


4.35


5.58


12 17


6.1517.38


4.38


5.58


12 17


6.15


7.35


10.09


11.41


1.39


5.50


1219


April 1....


4.15


5.46


12 36


6.32


7.53


4.25


5.49


12 31


6.30


7.43


4.29


5.50


13 29


6.19


7.39


9.55


11.28


1.28


5.44


12 33


4.07


5.40


12 45


6.25


7.58


4.20


5.44


12 39


6.23


7.46


4.24


.5.45


1236


6.21


7.42


9.47


11-21


1.22


5.41


13 39


lo!!!!


3.58


5.31


12 59


6.30


8.05


4.13


5.37


12 49


6.26


7.50


4.18


5.39


12 45


6.24


7.45


9.37


11.11


1.13


5.36


13 49


15....


3.49


5.24


13 11


6.35


8.11


4.04


5.31


12 59


6.30


7.55


4.10


5.34


12 53


6.27


7.49


9.27


11.02


1.05


5.31


1258


20....


3.40


5.17


13 2;i


6.40


8.16


3.. 57


5.25


13 8


6.33


8.00


4.04


5.29


13 1


6.30


7.54


9.15


10.53


12.59


5.27


13 07


25....


3.33


5.10


13 a5


6.45


8.23


3.51


5.20


13 17


6.37


8.tt5


3..58


5.24


13 9


6.33


7.56


9.06


10.44


12.-52


5.22


13 16


May 1


3.23


5.02


13 50


6.52


8.32


3.43


5.13


13 28


6.41


8.11


3.51


5.17


13 20


6.37


8.02


8.54


10.34


12-43


5.17


1326


5....


3.15


4.58


13 59


6.55


8.38


3.38


5.10


13 35


6.45


8.15


3.46


5.14


13 26


6.40


8.07


8.46


10.27


12.38


5.14


1333


10....


3.08


4.53


14 7


7.00


8.45


3.32


5.05


13 43


6.48


8.20


3.41


5.11


13 33


6.44


8.13


8.36


10.19


12.30


5.09


13 41


15....


3.00


4.48


14 17


7.05


8.53


3.27


5.02 13 49


6.51


8.26


3.36


5.07


13 40


6.47


8.17


8.27


10.11


12.23


5.06


13 49


20....


2.54


4.44


14 25


7.09


9.00


3.22


4.59; 13 55


6.54


8.31


3.33


5.ft5


13 45


6.50


8.22


8.18


10.04


12.17


5.02


13 56


25....


2.48


4.41


14 32


7.13


9.05


3.18


4.56; Ul


6.57


8.a5


3.29


5.02


13 50


6.52


8.26


8.12


9.58


13.13


4.-59


14 03


June 1. . . .


2.41


4.36


14 42


7.18


9.13


3.i3


4.53


14 8


7.01


8.41


3.24


5.00


13.55


6.55


8.31


8.04


9.51


12 06


4.56


1409


5. . . .


3.38


4.35


14 45


7.20


9.17


3.12


4.52


14 11


7.03


8.44


3.23


4.-59


13 58


6.57


8.33


8.00


9.47


12.03


4.54


14 13


10. . . .


3.36


4.34


14 49


7.23


9.21


3.11


4.52


14 13


7.05


8.47


3.22


4.-59


14


6.-59


8.37


7.57


9.45


12 01


4.53


14 15


15....


3.35


4.33


14 .54


7.27


9.24


3.10


4.52


14 16


7.08


8.60


3.22


4.59


14 3


7.02


8.38


7.55


9.43


11.59


4.52


14 17


20....


2.a5


4.34


14.54


7.28


9.26


3.10


4.52


14 18


7.10


8.52


3.22


4.59


14 5


7.04


8.40


7.53


9.41


11.57


4.51


1419


35....


2.35


4.35


14 54


7.29


y.27


3.11


4.53


14 18


7.11


8.52


3.23


5.0O


14 4


7.04


8.41


7.55


9.41


11. .57


4.51


14 19


July 1....


2.39


4.37


14 53


7.19


9.27


3.13


4.55


14 16


7.11


8.53


3.25


5.01


14 4


7.05


8.41


7.-55


9.43


11.-59


4..52


1417


5....


2.42


4.39


14 49


7.28


9.25


3.16


4.57


1414


7.11


8.52


3.27


5.02


14 2


7.04


8.40


7.57


9.45


12.01


4.53


14 15


10....


2.47


4.43


14 44


7.27


9.22


3.19


5.00


14 10


7.10


8.51


3.30


5.05


13 58


7.03


8.38


8.00


9.47


12.03


4.54


14 13


15....


3.53


4.47


14 37


7.24


9.16


3.33


5.03


14 6


7.09


8-48


3.35


5.08


13.54


7.0;J


8.35


8.06


9.-52


12.07


4.56


14 08


20. . . .


3.58


4.51


14 30


7.21


9.12


3.27


5.05


142


7.07


8.45


3.38


5.11


13 49


7.0O


8.33


8.U


9.57


12.11


4.58


1403


25....


3.04


4.. 55


14 22


7.17


9.07


3.32


5.08


13 56


7.04


8.40


3.42


5.14


13 43


6.57


8.29


8.17


10.02


12.16


5.01


13 58


Aug. 1....


3.14


5.00


14 12


7.12


8.58


3.39


5.13


13 45


6.58


8.33


3.48


5.19


13 34


6.53


8.24i


8.28


10.13


13.25


5.07


13 47


5


3.19


5.03


14 5


7.08


8.53


3.43


.5.16


13 38


6.54


8.28


3.52


5.21


13 28


6.49


8.19


8.36


10.19


12.30


5.09


13 41


10....


3.3t)


5 08


13 54


7.02


8.44


3.47


5.19


13 30


6.49


8.22


3.56


5.24


13 21


6.45


8.13


8.46


10.27


13.38


5.14


13 33


15....


3.33


5.13


13 42


6.55


8.37


3..52


5.23


13 22


6.44


8.14


3.59


5.27


13 14


6.41


8.07


8.55


10.35


12.45


5.18


13 25


20....


3.40


5.18


13 31


6.49


8.28


3.. 57


5.2t>


1313


6.39


8.08


4.04


5.29


13 7


6.36


8.00


9.05


10.44


12..52


5.22


1316


25....


3.45


5.22


13 20


6.42


8.20


4.01


5.29: 13 5


6.34


8.02


4.08


5.;i2


12 59


6.31


7.54


9.15


10.-53


12.59


5.27


13 07


Sept. 1


3.. 54


5 29


13 3


6.31


8.06


4,08


5.35 13,50


6.35


7.. 52


4.14


5.37


12 46


6 23


7.46


9.30


11.06


1-08


5.aJ


12 54




3.58


5.33


12 52


6.25


7.59


4.11


5.37


12 43


6.20


r.45


4.16


5.:«


J2 39


6.18


7.41


9.39


11.13


1.15


5.37


12 47


lb;;;;


4.01


5.37


13 41


6.18


7.51


4.15


5 40


12 30


6.14


7.39


4.19


5.42


13 30


6.12


7.a5


9.49


11.22


1.24


5.41


12 38


15....


4.09


5.41


12 39


6.10


7.4)


4.19


5.43


12 24


6.07


7.30


4.23


5.44


13 23


6.06


7.28


9.-59


1 1.32


1.31


5.45


1228


20....


4.16


5.45


12 17


6.03


7.32


4.23


5.47j 13 14


6.01


7.-£i


4.27


5.47


13 14


6.01


7.22


10.09


11.41


1.39


5.50


12 19


25....


4.30


5.. 50


12 3


5.53


7 25


4.26


5.49: 13 5


5.54


7.17


4.30


5..50


13 4


5.54


7.15


iai9


11.-50


1.47


5.-55


1210


Oct. 1....


4.27


5 56


n 47


5 43


7.13


4.32


5.-)4 1151


5.45


7.08


4.34


5.53


1153


5.46


7.06


10.31


12.01


1.58


6.01


11-50


5....


4.31


6.00


1138


5.38


7.06


4.34


5.5(i 1145


5.41


7.04


4.;«


5.-56


1146


5.42


7.01


10.39


12.09


2.02


6.05


11 -51


10....


4.36


8.04


1! 27


5.31


6.. 58


4.37


6.0O- 1135


5.35


6.57


4.39


5.-59


1137


5.36


6.55


10.50


12.18


2.10


6.09


1142


15. . . .


4.41


6.10


11 14


5.24


6.51


4 40


6.ltt 11 34


5.29


6 51


4.42


6.03


1129


5.31


6.51


10..59


12.27


2.17


6.14


1133


20....


4.46


6.14


110


5.16


6.45


4 45


6.0. ! 11 hi


5.33


6.45


4.44


6.06


1119


5.25


6.46


11.10


12.36


3.25


6.18


1124


25....


4.51


6.21


10 49


5.10


6.38


4.49


6. Ill 11 7


5.18


6.40


4.48


6.09


11 11


5.20


6.40


11.20


12.45


232


6.23


11 15


Nov. 1....


4.57


6.29


10 32


5.01


6.31


4 .54


6.16 10,55


5.11


6.34


4.53


6.14


110


5.14


6.35


11.34


12.-58


2.43


6.29


1103


5....


5.01


6.34


10 23


4.57


fi.27


4., 57


6.20 10 48


5.(J8


6.3(1


4.57


6.17


1(1 -54


5.11


6.32


11.42


i.a5


2.49


6.33


10 55


10....


5.05


6.40


1C12


4.52


6.3:^


'5 Ul


6.25 10:}8


5.03


6.27


5.00


6.21


10 47


5.08


6.30


11.52


1.13


2.-56


6.37


10 47


15....


5.09


6.47


10


4.47


6.30


'5 0;5


6. 30 lOliO


5.00


6 25


.5.03


6.26


10 40


5.04


6.28


12.00


1.20


3.01


6.40


10 40


20....


5.14


6.53


9 51


4.44


6.18


,5 09


6.;io 10 33


4.57


6.23


5.06


6.29


10 32


5.01


6.26


12.07


1.26


3.06


6.43


10 34


25....


5.18


6.58


9 4;^


4.41


6.16


15.13


0.39' 10 16


4.55


6 21


5.09


6.34


10 26 |5.00


6.25


12.12


1.31


3.09


6.46


1029


Dec. 1....


5.25


6.. 59


9 41


4.40


6.13


;5.i7


6.44 10 11


4..>5


6.21


5 13


6.38


10 22 5.ttl


6.25


12.17


1.37


3.14


6.49


10 23


5....


5.28


7.03


9 35


4.38


6.14


[5.20


6 471 IDS


4.55


6.22


5.1ti


6.41


10 19


5.00


6.26


1^.22


1.41


3.16


6.51


10 19


10....


5.33


7.08


930


4.38


6.14


5 23


6.51 ! 10 4


4.-55


6.24


5.21


6.4<i


10 15


5.01


6.27


12.25


1.44


ai9


6.-52


10 16


15....


5.35


7.12


927


4.;«


6.15


15.26


6 54 103


4.-56


6.26


5.23


6.49


10 13


5.02


6.28


12.28


1.47


3.22


6..54


10 13


20....


5.38


7.14


928


4.40


6.17


5.29


6.57


101


4.. 58


6.28


5.26


6.-52


10 12


5.(M


6.29


12.30


1.49


3.24


6.55


10 11


25....


5.40


7.16


9!>r


4.43


6.19


5.31


7.01


9 59 ,5.00


6.31


5.28


6.54


1012


5.06


6.31


12.30


1.49


3.24


6.55


1011



Table II.



Day
of Month.



Jan. 1.
10.
21.
31.
10.
20.
March 2.
12.



Feb.



April 1.

11.

21.

May 1.

■ 11.

21.

31.
June 10.

20.

30.
July 10.

20.

30.
Aug. ».

19.

29.
Sept. 8.

18.

28.
Oct. 8.

18.

28.
Nov. 7.

17.

27.
Dec. 7.

17.



L. 60° N.

St. Petersburg,

Russia.



Sun-
rise.



8.57
8.51
8.:}4
8.13
7.47
7.18
6.50
6.21
.5.51
5.19
4.49
4.20
3..53
3.28
3.05
2.28
2.38
2.36
2.44
2.58
3.19
3.40
4.02
4.28
4..53
5.16
5.38
602
6.26
6.51
7.16
7.42
8.07
8.;{0
8.48
8.59
9.02



Length
of Day.



h. 111.

6 20
6;i5

7 17

8 3

8 5»i

9 52

10 44

11 38

12 28

13 30

14 25

15 18
169
10 58

17 44

18 21
18 44
18 52
18 40
18 14
17 34

16 51
16 5
15 8
14 14
13 21
12 29

11 as

10 41
9 47
8 55
83
7 16
6.37
69
5 .57
60



Sun-
set.



3.17
3.26
3.51
4.16
4.43
5.10
5.34
5.59
6.19
6.49
7.14
7.38
8.02
8.26
8.49
9.09

9 -M

9.24
9.12
8.,5:]
8.31
8.07
7.36
7.07
6.36
6.07
5.37
5.07
4.;j8
4.U
3.45
3.2;i
3.07
2-57
2.56
3.02



L. 58°.

Scotland ; Government

of Novgorod,

Russia.



Sun-
rise.



8.41
8.36
8.22
8.03
7.40
7.13
6.47
6 20
5..52
5.23
4.55
4.28
4.03
3.41
3.20
3M
2..58
2..57
3.04
3 15

3.;«

3.5!}
4.14
4.35
4.58
5.19
6.40
6.01
6.24
6.46
7.08
7.31
7.54
8.15
8.31
8.42
8.45



Length
of Day.

h.in.
6.52
7 5

7 41

8 23

9 10
10 2

10 52
1140

12 30

13 22
1413
15 2

15 49

16 32

17 14

17 45

18 4
18 10
18
17 40
176
16 25
15 41

14 54
14 4
13 15
12 25

11 37
10 45

9 .57
9 8
8 2.5
84
7 7
6 43
6 31
6:J4



Sun-
set.



3.33
3.41
4.03
4.26
4..50
.5.15
5.39
6.00
6.22
6.45
7.08
7.30
7.52
8.13
8.34
8.51
9.02
9.07
9.04
8.55
8.39
8.18
7..55
7.29
7.02
6.34
6.05
5.38
5.09
4.43
4.19
3.56
3.38
3.22
3.14
3.13
3.19



L. .56°.

Government of Moscow

Nijni-Novgorod,

Russia.



Sun-
rise.



Length
of Day.



8.28
8.23
8.11
7..52
7.33
7.09
6.44
6.19
5.53
5.26
5.00
4.35
4.12
3.52
3.34
3.22
3.15
3.14
3.20
3.30
3.46
4.03
4.22
4.43
5.02
6.21
5.40
6.(X)
6.20
6.41
7.02
7.23
7.44
8.03
8.18
8.28
8.31



li.m.
7 18

7 31
83

8 4:5

9 24
10 10

10 .56
1142

12 28
1316
14 3

14 48

15 21

16 10

16 46

17 13
17 30
17 36
17 28
17 10
16 40
16 5
15 25
14 40

13 5(1
13 11
12 25

1 1 39
10.53
10 7

9 23
8 41
8 02
7 31
7 9
6 59
72



Sun-
set.



3.46
3.54
4.14
4.35
4.57
5.19
5.40
6.01
6.21
6.42
7.03
7.23
7.43
8.02
8.20
8.a5
8.45
8.50
8.48
8.40
8.26
8.08
7.47
7.23
6..58
6.32
6.05
5.;59
5.13
4.48
4 25
4.04
3.46
3.34
3.27
3.27

3.:o



L. 54°.
Ireland ; North Germany ;

Governments of Wllna,
Grodno, Minsk, Moghilef.



Sun-
rise.



8.17
8.12
8.03
7.46
7.27
7.05
6.42
6.18
5..54
5.29
5.05
4.42
4.30
4.01
3.46
3.34
a29
3.28
3.33
3.42
3.57
4.12
4.29
4.47
5.06
.5.24
5.41
5.59
6.18
6.37
6.56
7.15
7.34
7.52
8.06
8 15
8.19



Length
of Day.

h.in.
740

7 53

8 2:$
8.57

9 3ti

10 18
110
1144

12 26
1310
13.53

14 34
1515

15 .52

16 23

16 49

17 2
17 8
17 2
16 46
1618
15 47
15 1 1
14 m

13 48
13 5
12 23

11 51
10 ,57
1014

9 35
8 57
8 22
7.5:5
7 3:i
725
7 26



Sun-
set.



3.57
4.05
4.25
4.43
5.03
5 23
5.42
6.02
6.20
6.39
6.58
7.16
7.35
7.53
8.08
8.23
8.31
8.36
8.a5
8.28
8.15
7.59
7.40
7.17
6.54
6.29
6.04
5.40
5.15
4.51
4.31
4.12
:5..56
3.45

3.:»

3.40
3.45



Day

of Month.



Jan. 1


10


21


31


Feb. 10


20


March 2


22


April 1


11


May 1


11


21


31


June 10


20


30


July 10


20


:jo


Aug. 9


19


29


Sept. 8


18


28


Oct. 8


18


28


Nov. 7


17


27


Dec. 7


17


27



L. 52°.

Holland ; Governments

of Warsaw and

Orenburg, Russia.



Sun-
rise.



8.07
8.03
7.54
7.40
7 21
7.01
ti.40
6.17
5.55
5.31
5.08
4.46
4.27
4.10
;!..56
;5.46
;5.40
3.40

:s.45
:).5:j

4.07

4.;.'0
4.:i6

4..5:5
5.11
5.27
5.41
5..")9
6.15
().:i2
6.50
7.07
7.26
7.43
7..')6
8.04
8.08



Length
of Day.



h. in.

80
811
8:i7
9 9
9 48

10 2<5

11 4

11 46

12 24

13 6

13 47
U25

15 1

I5;f4

16 2
1() 25
16 40
16 44
16:!8
16 24
15 58
15 31

14 57
14 18
1:5 :58
12.59
12 23
n 41
II :5
10 25

9 47
9 13
8 38
8 11
7 515
7 47
7 48



Sun-
set.



4.07
4.14
4Mi
4.49
5.09
5.27
544
6.0:5
6.19
6:57
6.-55
7.11
7.28
7.44
7.58
8.11
8.:.'()
8.:>4
»Si
8.17
8.05
7.51

7.:«

7.U
6.49
(i.26
6.04
5.40
.5.18
4.57
4.37
4.20
4.04
3.54
:j.49
:5.51
3..56



L. 50°.
England ; (iovernments
of JitoHiir, Kiev, Pol-
tava, and Kharkov,
Russia.



Sun-
rise.



7.58
7..54
7.46

7.;5:5

7.16
6.57
6.34
6.17
5.55
5.:53
5.12
4. .52

4.:i4

4.18
4.05
3.56
3.51
;5.51
3.56
4.0;}
4.15
4.27
4.42
4.57
5.14
5.28
.5.42
5.58
6.14
6.:50
6.45
7.01
7.19
7.34
7.46
7.,54
7..59



Length


Sun-


of Day.


set.


li.ni.




8 18


4.16


8 29


4.23


8 .53


4.39


9 23


4..56


9.58


5.14


10 'M


5.31


11 13


.5.47


11 46


0.03


12 24


6.19


13 2


6.:35


13 39


6.51


14 14


7.0t>


14 47


7.21


1518


7.:56


15 44


7.49


16 5


8.01


16 18


8.09


16 22


8 13


16 16


8.12


16 4


8.07


15 42


i..>i


15 17


7.44


14 45


7.27


14 10


7.07


13 :{2


().46


12 .57


(> 25


12 21


6(«


11 43


5.41


115


.5. 19


10 ;>9


4. .59


9 57


4.42


9 25


4.26


8 52


4.11


8 2J)


4.03


8 13


:5..59


87


4.01


86


4.05



L. 48°.

South Germany ; Governments

of Yekaterinoslav and

Kamenetz-PodoKsk,

Russia.



Sun-
rise.



7.. 50
7.46
7.39
7.27
7.11
6..53
6.;i5
6.17
5..57
5.36
5.15
4.56
4.40
4.25
4.13
4.05
4.01
4.01
4.06
4.13
4.24
4.35
4.48
.5.02
5.16
5.30
5.4:5
5..57
6.12
6.26
6.41
6..">5
7.12
7.26
7.:58
7.46
7..50



Length
of Day.



h.m.
8 34

8 45

9 7
9a5

10 8

10 42

11 14
1146

12 20
12,56

13 ;53

14 6

14 25

15 4
15 28
15 47

15 58

16 2
15 .56
15 44
15 24
15 1
14 32
14
13 28
12 53
12 19
11 44
119
10:37
10 5

9:57
9 6
8 45
8 29
82:5
8 34



Sun-
set.



4.24
4.31
4.46
5.02
5.19
5.:55
5.49
6.0:5
6.17
6.32
6.48
7.02
7.15
7.29
7.11
7..52
7., 59
8.03
8 02
7.57
7.48
7.:!6
7.21
7.02
6.44
6.23
6.02
5.41
5.21
5.0:5
4.46
4.:52
4.18
4.11
4 07
4.09
4.14



L. 46°.

Austria ; Governments of

Odessa and Kherson,

Russia.



Sun-
rise.



7.42
7.:59
7.:53
7.22
7.07
6.51
6.34
6.16
5.,57
5.:57
5.19
5.01
4.45
4.;52
4.20
4.14
4.09
4.10
4.14
421
4.31
4.40
4. =2
5 a")
.5.19
5.:i2
.5.44
5.56
6.09
6.27
6.:56
6,50
7.a5
7.19
7.:50
7.38
7.42



Length
of Day.



h.iii.
8,50

8 59

9 19
9 45

10 16

10 46

11 16

11 48

12 20

12 .54

13 25
i;5 56

14 25
14.50

15 14
15 29
15 42
15 44
15 to
15 26
15 10
14 51
14 25
13 ,54
13 23
12 49
12 17
11 ,57
11 15
10 40
10 15

9 47
9 20
8.59
8a5
8,39
8 40



Sun-
set.



4.32
4.38
4.-52
5.07
5.23
5.37
5..50
6.04
6.17
631
6.44
6..57
7.10
7.22
7.34
7.4a
7.51
7..54
7.54
7.49
741
7.31
7.17
6.59
6.41
6.21
6.01
5.43
5.24
5.07
451
4.:57
4.25
4.18
4.15
4.17
4,22



Sun, Rising and Setting:
Superstition



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



596



Table III. — Duration of Dawn and Twilight According to Astronomical Calculation.
Northern and Southern Latitudes Compared.



Dates








for Nortlieri)


30°


40°


45°


LiUit lilies.










h. in.


h. in.


h. in.


Jan. 1


1 27


1 39


1 48


11


1 26


1 38


1 47


21


1 24


1 3(i


1 45


31


1 2;?


1 34


1 43


Feb. 10


1 22


1 3:3


1 41


20 ....


1 22


1 :«


1 40


March 1


1 21


1 31


1 :»


11


1 21


1 31


1 40


21


1 21


1 :«


1 41


31


1 22


1 ■M


1 43


April 10


1 24


1 36


1 47


20


1 26


1 40


1 53


30


1 28


1 45


2


May 10


1 31


1 51


2 6


20


1 34


1 56


2 14


30


1 36


2


2 25


June 9


1 37


2 4


2 35


19


1 38


2 4


2 M


29


1 38


2 4


2;J4



.50°



h. in.
2 1
1 59
1 .57
1 54
1 53
1 51



49

.50 !

52 :

.55 !

°»!

221
233
3 40 '
3 45 '



5;-)°


60°


h. m.


h. m


2 20


2 48


2 17


2 44


2 13


2 38


2 9


2 30


'> 7


9 »>r






2 5


224


2 3


2 21


2 6


2 24


2 13


2 31


2 15


2 41


2 30


3 10


3


....



Dates for
Southern
Latitudes.



Dec. 16.

6.

Nov. 26.

16.

6.

Oct. 27.

17.

Sept. 27!

17.

7.

Aug. 28.

18.

8.

July 29.

19.

9.

June 29.

19.



Dates

for Nortlierii

Latitudes.



Julv 9

" 19

29

Aug. S
18
28

Sept. 7

17

■'7

Oct ."7

17
.>-■

Nov. 6
16
26

Dec. 6
16
26



30°


40°


45°


50°


55°


60°


h. in.


h. in.


h. in.


h. m.


h. in.


h. in.


1 36


2 1


2 26









1 33


1 55


•^ 15


3 40






1 32


1 51


2 9


2 41






1 29


1 46


2 3


2 24






1 26


1 42


1 55


2 14


3 5




1 24


1 38


1 49


2 4


2 27


3 i2


1 23


i 35


1 46


1 58


2 17


2 50


1 22


1 ;«


1 43


1 .53


2 10


2:«)


1 21


1 32


1 40


1 50


2 5


2 25


1 21


1 31


1 39


1 49


2 3


2 23


1 21


1 :i2


1 40


1 50


2 4


2 22


1 22


1 :«


1 40


1 51


2 5


2 24


1 23


1 34


1 42


1 54


2 8


2 28


1 25


1 36


1 44


1 56


2 11


2 36


1 26


i 37


1 46


1 58


2 15


2 40


1 27


1 38


1 47


1 .59


2 17


2 43


1 27


1 39


1 48


2


2 19


2 4ti


1 27


1 39


1 49


2 1


2 20


2 49



Dates ft)r
Southern
Latitudes.



June 9.

May 30.

" 20.

10.

April 30.

20.

10.

March 31.

21.

11.

1.

Feb. 20.

10.

Jan. 31.

21.

11.

I.

Dec. 26.



Table IV. — Duration of Dawn and Twilight in Jewish Law (According to Maimonides, Calculated to be

li Periodical Hours).















Latitudes, North.














Dates.
























30°


36°


40°


42°


44°


46°


48°


50°


52°


54°


5(i°


58°


00°










h. m.


h. ni.


h. m.


h. m.


h. lu.


h. in.


h. ni.


h. m.


h. m.


h. m.


h. m.


h. m.


h. m.




Junp 2;J..




Dec. 22..
13..


1 23
1 23


1 27
1 27


1 30
1 30


1 31
1 30


1 32
1 32


1 34
1 3;}


1 36
1 35


1 38
1 37


1 40
1 39


1 43
1 42


1 46
1 45


1 49

1 48


1 .53


Jan. 1


11..


July 1..


1 52


10


1..


11.


3..


1 22


1 26


1 29


1 29


1 31


1 32


1 34


1 36


1 38


1 40


1 43


1 46


1 49


20


May 21..


21..


Nov. 2-3..


1 21


1 24


1 27


1 28


1 m


1 31


1 32


1 34


1 36


1 38


1 40


1 42


1 45


3((


11..


Aug. 1..


13..


1 20


1 23


1 26


1 26


1 28


1 rio


1 30


1 32


1 33


1 34


1 36


1 38


1 41


Feb. 9


1..


11..


3..


1 19


1 20


1 21


1 23


1 2;-)


1 26


1 27


1 29


1 30


1 31


1 32


1 34


1 m


19


April 21..


21..


Oct. 24..


1 17


1 18


1 19


1 20


1 22


1 2:3


124


1 25


1 26


1 27


1 28


1 29


1 ;3o


March 1


11..


Sept. 1..


14..


1 15


1 16


1 16


1 17


1 18


1 19


1 20


1 21


1 21


1 22


1 2:3


1 24


1 25


11


1..


].>


4..


1 13


1 13


i 13


1 14


1 15


1 16


1 16


1 17


1 17


1 18


1 18


1 19


1 20


21




24..




1 12


1 12


1 12


1 12


1 12


1 12


1 12


112


1 12


1 13


1 12


1 12


1 12













("hamez") on the day before Pa.ssover is fixed at
the end of the foiirtli hour of the day ; that for
burning hamez, at the end of tlie fifth. Mordecai
Jaffe holds that in each case the hour equals yV of
the iengtli of the day from sunrise to sunset ("Le-
bush ha-Tekelet," 238. 1), while ^Moses Isserles and
later authorities claim that tlie dawn and tiie twi-
light of the same day form i)art of tliat day. The
tal)le on page 592 for the 14th of Nisan in the years
1005-7 (the first being an intercalated year) gives the
time-limit for eating and for burning hamez accord-
ing to JalTeand Isserles respectivcl}', in the latitude
of New York city (40° N.). See Horology.

Key to the Tables.

Table T. is for latitudes 44' to 28 N., including the
United States from Maine to Florida, and records,
for intervals of five days in every month during
the year, the time of sunrise and sunset, also the
beginning of dawn and the ending of twilight.
South of latitude 28° to the equator there is little
variation in the time of twilight ; and there are few,
if any, Jewish settlements reciuiring a special table.
In the right-hand column of the table sinular infor-
mation for Jerusalem is given.

Table II., for latitudes 60 to 46^, covering the
northern countries of Europe together with Canada,
gives the time of sunrise and sunset at intervals of



ten days. The tiiues of dawn and twilight are
omitteil for the reason that the duration of the astio-
uomical dawn and twilight in these regions is much
longer than that as fixed by Maimonides.

Table III. gives the duration of dawn and twi-
light for northern and southern latitudes, according
to astronomical calculations.

According to strict rabbinical law, the astronom-
ical dawn and twilight ought to be divided equally
between night and day. To avoid possible error,
however, the}' are actually divided into three equal
parts: (1) actual day; (2) actual night; and (3)
the middle part, doubtful. The doubtful part, as
noted above, is always calculated "on the safe side " ;
e.g., on Friday evening as "night " .ind on Sabbath
evening as "day " ; also on Yom Kippur as "day,"
to complete the fast. For example, Yom Kippur of
1904 fell on Sept. 19, which date was near the autum-
nal equinox, when sunset was about 6 p.m. The
astronomical twilight for latitudes 44° to 28° N. va-
ried from 98 to 82 minutes, two-thirds of which (66
to 54 minutes), added to 6 p.m., would make the
fast expire between 7.06 and 6.54 p.m. In case
Yom Kippur is far removed from the autumnal
equinox the variations increase. For example, the
tigures for Yom Kippur of 1905, falling on Oct. 9,
give the following results (comp. Table I. under
Oct. 10):



597



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Sun, Rising- and Setting
Superstition



Latitudes.



44° N.
4:i°....
40°....
3«°-:}ti

30°-28



«-l




o








~ >>


o;


ti'5








01


OD


►J




h. m.




U 16


.5.2.5


1123


5.29


1126


5.31


11 2.5


5.31


11 :i4


5.a5


11 37


5.36



a tc'^



o ^ —
is '^ >



6.50
V.UO
6.58
6..58
6..5r
6.55



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 143 of 160)