Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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den man silit valsclieit triben [wliom one sees deal falsely]
unt <rui)t tr(>\vinni'n olTenbar [and evidently acquire wealth]
mil siinilecliher irahte [with sinful aspirations];
der tUDt wirser vil, dan ob i('h naem ein genslein.
Jan [not at all] hab ich nicht, des goldes rot
Zeu;pben(' umb mine spise [to give for my food],
des uuioz icIi rouben lit den lip durch hungers not [therefore I

must deprive myself and suiter luingei],
der valsch in siiier wise ist scluHlelichei-, dan ich,
unt wil unschuldic sin [the false man acts much worse than I,

and yet wishes to appear innocent]."

Evitk'iitl}' this fiible refers to tlie author's own
circuiiistaneesor at leasttotlioseof liisoorcligionists.

Bod iner( 1759) and Voii der TIagcii (1888) reprinted
the poems from Manesse's collection.

BiBLiofiiiAPMY: AUijemeine DcutscJte BUujraphie, xxxvii.
SU-oI^t) ; (iriitz. <jesc}i. ;id ed., vi. 2;W et ,se(/.; Kurz, Gef^cli.
der I)eitls(lic)^ Litcratur, Hlh ed., i. 76; Allu.Zcit. desJuil.
ISSm, p. 395.
s. S. ]\[an.


Shohet in London in (he liist, half of the nineteeutli

century. He wrote :i commenlary on Yoreh De'ali

in four parts, which were entitled respectively

"Sifte Zahah," " Adne Zaliab," "Lehushe Tebu'ah,"

and "Lehushe Serad." He also ccniipiled an index

to the last-named work which was entitled "Be'cr

Yosef," ami two supplements, "Hczkat ]ia-Bayit,"

and, later, "Mazzebet ]\Ie'ir Yosef" (Konigsberg,


Biblhxjraphy : Fiirst, 7?/7//. ,7i(((. iii.:i9S; Ben.iacob, Ozarha-
Srfarini, p. 70; S. van straaleii, ('(it. Hcbr. liaoktf Brit. Mas.

p. a:i;i.

J. S. O.

SUSSMANN, ELIEZER. See Uokdelsiieim,
Ei.KAZAii St ssMANN i;. Isaac.


Polish scholar of the eighteenth century. He was
the author of " Hoshen Yeshu'ot" (Minsk, 1802), a
commentary on the Pirke Abot.

Bibliography: Benjaeob, Ozar lin-^^efarhh, p. 171; Fiirst,
fiild. Jud. iii. 398 ; Zedner. Cid. llchr. liDolis lirit. Mux. p.
246; S. van Straalen, Cut. Hdir. Boitks Brit. Muk. p. 367.

K. C. S. O.

of the eighteenth century. In 1750 ho. established a
Hebrew- press in the printing-otlice of Johann Janscn
in Amsterdam, and Baruch ben Eliezer JJppmann
Wiener and his sons Jacob and Hayyiin worked for
liim. A few years later Sussmann established an
independent otlice, and engaged, besides the above-
mentioned assistants, the proselytes Simeon and Ja-
col) ben Gedaliah.

From Sussmann's press were issued the following
works: .ludah l)en Beniamin Stadthagen's "Minhat
Yehudali." 170;5; Solomon Hanau's praver-book and
grammatical commentary, ITOO; the Book of Job,
with Bahya's commentary on .same, 176G; the J*cn-
tateuch, with Isaac Pienzlau's "Tikkun Sofcrim,"
1707; and the opinions of INFckor Baruk, 1771.
Shortly after the publication of the last-named work
Sussmann emigrated to licydeii ; lu; remained then;
but a short time, however, and in 1779 he became

associated with J. H. Munnikhuisen in The Hague,

where he published the " ^Iei)bakesh " by Falaquera.

His son Sussmann ben Lob worked, toward the

end of the eighteeiitii century, with the printer Jo-

liaim Levi Rofe of The Hague on the publication of

"Yoreh De'ah."

1')||U,io(;rapiiy: Ersch and Gruher. Encyc. section ii.. s.v.
.Jiidi.sche Ti)lJ<>uraiiliie, pp. 73-74; Fiirst, Bild. Jud. iii. 398.

s. S. O.

ZER: Scholar of the eighteenth century. He com-
piled under the title " :\Ie'ir Natib " (Altona, 1793-
1802) a general index, in three volumes, to the to-
safot to the entire Talmud. In the introduction to
this work he mentions as other works written by
himself the following: " 'Ammude Kesef," "Dam-
None of thest; has, however, been published.

Bini.iO(ii!Ai"iiv: Beiijacob, Ozar lia-t^tfnriiii, p. 278; Fiirst.
mill. J Hit. iii. 398; Zedner, I'af. Jlcbr. Bonks Bril. Miis. p.
K. C. S. O.

SUTRO, ABRAHAM: German rabbi ; bom at
Brlick, near Erlangeii, July 5, 1784; died at INUin-
ster Oct. 10, 1869. He studied in the yeshibot of
Furth and Prague, and was in 1814 appointed
teacher in Reichensacliseu by the then existing con-
sistory of Westphalia; later in the same j'earhe was
transferred as teacher to Bevertingen, where he
ofllciateil also as rabbi of the district of Warburg.
After the redistricting of Westphalia he was ap-
pointed " Landesrabbiuer " for the districts of Mi'in-
ster and Dortmund in 1815, and in 1828chief rabbi of
the district of Paderboru, holding the latter posi-
tion until his death. He wrote: " Widerlegung der
SchriftdesHcirn II. B. II. Cleve ' Der Geist des Bab-
biiiismus ■ aus Bibel und dem Talmud " (]\Iunstcr,
1823); and " Milhamot Adonai " (Hanover, 1836; 2d
ed., Fraiikfort-on-the-]Maiii, 1830), a protest against
religious reforms, especially the use of the organ
in the synagogue. He i)ublished also sermons and
articles in the " Zionswiichter " of Altona.

Sutro was an active advocateof the emancipatidn
of the Jews, and during the era of reactiim lie re-
jieatedly petilinned the Prussian Diet to repeal the
oi'dinances declaring the Jews ineligible for public
ollicc. A few months before his death he had the
satisfaction of seeing jiassed the law of Jtily 3,
1H09, which removed all the disabililiesof the Jews.
Some of Sutro's grandchildren have become con-
veits to Chiistiainty ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1902,
p. 48S; 1903, p. ■.VZr)).

Hinr,l()(;i;APMV : I>< f Isr(i)'lil. pp. 8'.'9-s:{l, Mayeuce, 18(i9.

s. D.


American mechanical engineer; born at Aix-Ia-
Chapelle, Bhenish Prussia. April 29, 1830; died at
San Francisco Aug. 8, 1898; educated in his native
town, and at several of the best i)ol3-tcclinic schools
of Germany. At an early age he was itlaced in
charge of his father's extensive woolen mills, but
the revolution of 184S imiioveri-^hed the family and
it was compelled to emigrate to America, settling
in BaltimoH! in 1850. In llie same y^ar, liowever,
the discovery of gold induced Sutro to go to San


(Frutu a thirleenth-ceDtury niauuscript.)




Francisco, where he engaged in business until, sev-
eral years later, the discover}' of mines in Nevada
attracted him thither. He inspected the fields there,
and soon establislied at Dayton, Nev., a stamping-
mill for the reduction of silver ore, which proved a
technical and financial success. The scheme of con-
structing a tunnel to serve as a drain through the
Comstock lode, in which the heat resulting from
the great depth of the shafts had made work im-
possible, originated with Sutro. In 1864 he matured
his plans, and after many efforts to interest Ameri-
can and European capitalists in his venture, he
chartered The Sutro Tunnel Company on Feb. 4,
1865, receiving the approval of Congress in the fol-
lowing year. The construction of the shaft of the
tunnel, which is situated at Sutro, a village in the
Carson River valley, was begun Oct. 19, 1869, and
finislied July 8, 1879. The "main shaft is 12 feet
wide, 10 feet deep, 20,500 feet long, and is 1,600 feet
below the surface.

In 1879 Sutro sold his interest in the company and
returned to San Fnmcisco, where, during the Kearny
riots and sand-lot agitation, he invested heavily in
real estate, not sharing in the general despair of
the city's future. As a result he became one of the
richest men on the Pacific slope, owning about one-
tenth of the area of San Francisco, including Sutro
Heights, which he turned into a beautiful public
park and which became the property of the munici-
pality after his death. He gave the city, also, many
statues and fountains, built an aquarium and baths,
and in 1887 presented it with a duplicate of Bar-
tiioldi's monument, "Liberty I^nlighteniug the

In 1894 Sutro was elected mayor of San Francisco
on the Populist ticket. He was an active collector
of l)ooks and manuscripts, and left a library of over
200,000 volumes, including 135 rare Hebrew manu-
scripts and a large collection of early Americana.

BiBi.ioo R APiiY : America^^ Succefifful Men of AffairK, p. 777,
New York. 18% ; Appletnn'8 Ciiclnpedia of American Bi-
DQrapliij-, vi. 2.
A. I. G. D.

STJTRO, ALFRED: autiior and drama-
tist; bom in London about 1870; educated at the
City of London School and in Brussels. He began his
career with a series of translations of Maeterlinck's
works, all of which except tlje dramas he has trans-
lated from the French. Afterward turning his at-
tention to the drama, he at first collaborated with
Arthur Bourchier in producing "The Chili Widow "
(1896), then wrote in rapid succession "Tiie Cave
of Illusion" (1900), "Arethusa" (1903), "A Mar-
riage Has Been Arranged " (1904), and finally made
a great success with "The Walls of Jericho," pro-
duced at the Garrick Theatre, London, Oct. 21,

Bibliography : Wlxo^s Who, 1904.


SUTRO, THEODORE: American lawyer; born
at Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia, March 14, 1845. Wiien
only five jears of age he emigrated witii his parents
to the United States, and was educated at Harvard
University, from which he graduated in 1871. and
in the law school of Columbia College, at which he
took his-degree in 1874. In the latter year he was ad-

mitted to the New York bar, where he has practised
ever since. When, in 1887, the Sutro Tunnel Com-
pany of Nevada was financially embarrassed Sutro
organized the Comstock Tunnel Company, which
took over the stock of the Sutro (/Ompany, and
thus saved the latter from absolute ruin.

Sutro is well known as an authority in cases re-
ferring to the laws of taxation. He has taken an
active interest in politics, and was commissioner of
taxes in New York city from 1885 to 1898. He has
contributed to various periodicals articles treating
of the laws of taxation, of corporations, of medical
jurisprudence, and of mining.

A. F. T. H.

SVAB, KARL : Hungarian landed proprietor,
and member of the Hungarian Upper House; born
at Csongrad in 1829; educated at the real-school of
Budapest. In 1846 he began to devote himself to
agriculture, but two years later he took part, as
lieutenant and adjutant under Colonel Bene, in the
Hungarian struggle for liberty. On the restoration of
peace Svab resumed his agricultural pursuits, and
was active in the founding of agricultural societies
in the counties of Bekes and Torontal. From 1875
to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian Parliament as a
member for the district of Toruk-Kanizsa, and in
1885 King Francis Joseph I. made him a life mem-
ber of the Hungarian Upper House. Sviib is pres-
ident of the Ungarisch-Israelitischer Landes-Sti-

Bibliography: Sturm, Orsziiagu^lesi Almanach,\^)\-?>.
s. L. V.

SVIIT. See Peiuodicals.

SWALLOW : Rendering in tlie English versions
for "deror" (Ps. Ixxxiv. 4 [A. V. 3]; Prov. xxvi. 2)
and for "sus" or •'sis"(Isa. xxxviii. 14: Jer. viii.
7 [A. V. "crane"]). There are about ten species of
swallow {Ilirundinidce) and the closely allied martin
and swift (Cy/jse^tWff) in Palestine. In the Talmud
"senuuit" is tlie usual name for the swallow, and
the Biblical "deror" is also used. A distinction is
made between the white, the green (or yellow), and
the house swallow (Hul. 62a). The senunit, which,
according to Shab. 77b, inspires the eagle with
dread, may perhaps be intended for another bird of
the species Tyrannua intrepidus, which seats itself
on the back of the eagle and which resembles the

Bibliography : Tristram. Nat. Hist. p. 204 ; Lewysohn. Zoo-
Ingie des Talnmds, p. 206.
K. G. 11. I. M. C.

SWAN: Tlie rendering of the Authorized Ver-
sion for "tinsiiemet" (Lev. xi. 18; Dent. xiv. 16).
T(he Revised Version, more correctly, gives "horned
owl" (see Lizard; Mole; Owl).

Two species of swan have been found in Palestine,
the whooper, or wild swan {Cygnus musicus, or
ferns), and the Cygnns olor, or mansuetus ; they are,
Iiowever, comparatively rare.

Some take the " barburim abusim " of the Talmud
(B. M. 86b) to mean "swans," though the usual ren-
dering is "fattened hens."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Tnstram, Nat. HiM. p. 249; Lewy.sohn, Zoo-
logie (les Talmuds, p. 194.
E. G. H. L M. C.




SWAYING THE BODY : The liabit of sway-
ing the body during study and prayer lias been
peculiar to the Jews from A'ery early times, and
it is one still practised by them in the Orient and
eastern Europe. In tlie Zohar, II. Jose asks II.
Abba: " Why is it that among all nations the Jews
alone have the habit of swaying the body when they
study the Law? " R. Abba answers; " It illustrates
the excellence of their souls. The spirit of man is
the candle of the Loril ' [Prov. xx. 27] refers to them.
The light of that candle flickers and wavers in uni-
son with the light of the Torah. The Gentiles have
not the light of the Torah, and burn up like straw "
(Zohar, Pinehas, pp. 118b, 119a).

Judah ha-Levi (12th cent.), in his "Cuzari" (ii.
80), assigns two reasons for the habit: (1) it causes
animation and activity; (2) the scarcity of books
compelled many .scholars to use the same volume,
and the necessity of alternately leaning forward to
read developed a habit of swaying which persisted
in later years, when books were more plentiful. The
second explanation is rather ingenious; the custom
of many scholars studying together from one volume
is still in vogue among the Yemen Jews. Tiic first
explanation, however, is in harmony with the idea
of the verse, "All my bones shall say, Lord, who
is like unto thee?" (Ps. xxxv. 10). Jacob ben
Asher, the "Ba'al ha-Turim " (14th cent.), in his
comment upon the passage "When the people saw
it, they removed " (" wa-yanu'u " = "swayed in uni-
son " ; Ex. XX. 18), says: "This accounts for the
swaying of the body during the study of the Torah,
which was received with awe, trembling, and sha-

Nathan of Lunel (flourished in 1176) quotes from
a midrash the custom of swaying at prayer, and
adds, "This is the custom of the rabbis and pious
laymen in France" (" Ha-Manhig," p. 15b, ed. Gold-
berg, Berlin, 1855). The custom is mentioned also in
Abudarham and in Isserles' notes on Shulhan 'Aruk
(Orah Hayyim, 48, 1). R. Jacob Molln was accus-
tomed at the " 'Amidah " prayer " to hold a ' siddur '
in the right hand (iiis left hand, concealed luider his
mantle, resting against his heart), and to sway his
body forward and backward "("Sefer lia-Maharil,"
p. 61a, ed. Warsaw, 1874). The author of " Siiibbole
ha-Leket" (p. 10a, ed. Ruber) (juotes Rashi to ex-
plain the custom of raising oneself on tiptoe three
times when saying "Holy, holy, holy," at tiie " Ke-
dushshah": it is to symbolize the verse, "And the
posts of the door moved [shook] at the voice of him
that cried " (Isa. vi. 4); i.e., they shook in awe of

Perhaps the most jilausible explanation of the
swaying of the body is that of Dr. Simon Brainin.
It was intended, he thinks, to afford the body
exercise during study and prayer, vvhich took up
a large portion of the time of a great number of
Jews (Brainin, "Orah la-IIayyim," p. 126, Wilna,

Some authorities are opposed to the swaying of
the body, especially at prayer. Samuel ha-Nagid
(1027-55), the author of " Mebo ha-Talmud," in
one of his poems describes the principal and the
students of the yesiiibah he visited as "swaying
trees in the desert " (quoted in "Ila-Mizpah "; see

biljliography). !Menahem Azariah di Fano (1548-
1620) forbids any motion of the body at the " 'Ami-
dah " (" 'Asarah Ma'amarot," article " Em Kol Hai,"
^ 38, Amsterdam, 1649; idem, Respousa, No. 113,
Venice, 1600). Another opponent of the custom
was Isaiah Horowitz (1555-1630), who said that the
swaying of the body may be allowed at the singing
of hymns, butnotatthe "'Amidah," for one should
bear in mind that such violent motion would not be
tolerated in the presence of even a temporal king
(comp. Isa. vii. 2; "Shelah,"ed. Amsterdam, 1698,
p. 250a).

Bini.iOGUAPHY: Lewysolin, Meknre Minha(jim, g 2, Berlin,
1846; Senior Sachs, ia ZederUiium's Ha-Mizpali, St. Peters-
biiig, 1886.
.1. J. D. E.

SWEDEN : Kingdom of northern Europe. The
existence of Jews in Sweden in the seventeenth cen-
tury is vouched for by church records at Stockholm,
from which it appears that several Jews had joined
the Lutheran Church, a condition at that time im-
posed upon an}' Jew who desired to settle in Sweden.
In 16H1, for example, two Jews of Stockholm, Israel
Mandel and Moses Jacob, together with their fam-
ilies, twenty-eight persons in all. were baptized in
the German church of that city in the presence of
King Charles XL, the dowager queen Ulrika Eleo-
nora, and several high state otlicials.

In 1680 the Jews of Stockholm petitioned the
king that members of their race be jiermitted to re-
side there without abandoning their
Baptism a creed, but the application was denied
Condition because the local consistory had re-
of fused to indorse it. On Dec. 3, 1685,

Residence. Charles XI. ordered the governor-
general of the capital to see that no
Jews were permitted to settle in Stockholm, or in
any other part of the country, "on account of the
danger of the eventual influence of the Jewish relig-
ion on the pure evangelical faith." In case Jews
were found in any Swedish community, they were
to be notified to leave within fourteen days.

In the seventeenth century, however, the Jewish
question had merely a religious aspect in Sweden, and
had not yet assumed the character of a race problem.
Through court patronage Jewish merchants were
occasionally appointed royal purveyors; and during
the warlike reign of Charles XII.' (1697-1718) the
king usually had one or more wealthy Jews with
him in the field, to take care of the paymaster's de-
partment of his army. Through their influence per-
mission was obtained (1718) for Jews to .settle in the
kiniidom without the necessity of abjuring their re-
ligion. After the death of Charles XIL (1718) the
Swedish government was financially embarrassed
for a long time, and the royal household was often
relieved from pecuniary (HIHculties by the Jewish
merchants of Stockholm, who. as a
Permission reward for their accoiiunodations, in-
to Settle, sisted on the granting of additional
privileges to themselves and their co-
religionists. As a consequence the concession of
1718 was renewed, and supplemented by royal
edicts of 1727, 1746, and 1748, but the permission
had reference only to settlement in the smaller cities
and rural communities.




In 1783 an ordinance was issued by which the Jews
were permitted, on certain conditions, to settle any-
where in tin; kingdom, and to practise freely tlie
tenets of tlieir religion. It was, however, specified
that Jews were ineligible for government positions
and for election to Uw legislative assembly; they
were, moreover, forbidden to establish schools for
the propagation of their creed, and to combine with
their religious services sucli ceremonies as might
possil)!^' cause discpiietude in the minds of tlie gen-
eral population.

Tlie government was desirous of attracting
wealthy Jews to the country, but it was equally
careful to keep out itinerant usurers, quite a num-
ber of whom had in previous years entered Sweden
from Germany. Any foreign Jew who lauded in
Sweden was accordingly required to report, within
eight daysof his arrival, to the local authorities, and
to produce his passport and a certificate of charac-
ter, as well as a statement of his purpose in coming
to the country. These cerliticates were issued b}'
the elders of the congregation to which the im-
migrant belonged in his native country, and had to
be verified by the municipal authorities of the place
in which the immigrant had last resided. If the
certificates were unsatisfactory, the authorities were
at liberty to e.\pel the holder; but in case lie was
admitted he was directed to Stockholm, Gothen-
burg, or Norrkoping. Jews who were residents of
the country jirior to the ])romidgati()n of this ordi-
nance were called upon to present their certificates
of character to the proper authorities, togetiier with
a statement setting forth in which citj- they desired
to settle and make their living. The or-
Restricted dinance enumerated the diflferenttrades
to Three the Jews were permitted to follow.

Cities. and it stipulated also that the}'' should
apprentice their sons to Swedish trades-
men in one of the three cities mentioned above.
In order to prevent the overcrowding of the mer-
cantile field it was prescribed that no foreign-born
Jew should be allowed t<i start in business luiless he
possessed at least 2,000 riksdaler (about 8800) in
cash or negotiable securities; a native-born Jew
need have only 1,000 riksdaler.

As to the retail business, the Jews were prohibited
from selling victuals, liipior, and drugs, and they
were jiermitted to retail their special articles of food,
wine, ka.sher meat, mazzot, etc., among themselves
onl}'. Furthermore, the Jewish retail dealer was not
permitted to offer his goods for .sale in markets out-
side the city in which he was located, and he was
compelled to conduct his business in open shops and
was forbidden to peddle from house to or in
the streets.

The Jews were allowed to establish synagogues in
the above-meniioned three cities, and to keep rabbis
and other clerical officials. Intermarriages between
Jews and Christians were forbidden. For every
Jewish marriage celebrated a fee of six riksdaler
Avas to be paid to the orphanage of the roj'al guards,
this stipulation being intended as a compensation to
the army for the exemption of the Jews from mili-
tary .service. In order to protect the interests of de-
scendants of immigrant Jews the state ordered that,
on the d^ath of a Jew, the elders of the congregation

should make an inventory of his estate and submit
an account thereof, either to the orphans' court or
lo the municipal authorities. The Jews, however,
had the right to appoint guardians of minois; and
a rabbinical court had jurisdiction in inheritance
cases. In litigations between Jews and Christians
where the facts could not be established except
under oath, the Jew nn'ght be ordered to take the
customary Jewish oath in the synagogue in the
presence of the judge. A Jew convicted of perjury
became liable to expulsion from the country.

The ordinance of 1782 contained a separate clause
leferring to "particularly wealthy Jews, or such as
are proficient in some trade almost, or quite, un-
known in the country." Such persons could,
through the Department of Commerce, petition the
king for privileges and concessions other than those
granted in the general ordinance.

After 1782 the Jews gradually secured concession
after concession from the government, but those
living in Stockholm grew overconfident, and car-
ried their ambitious designs so far that a feeling of
indignation arose among the general population
against the ambitious Jewish financiers. This aver-
sion to the Jews grew more pronounced as their
privileges Avere more widely extended; and it
reached the limit in 1838, when a new
Reaction- ordinance was promulgated which
ary Decree abolished nearlj' all the former rcstric-

of 1838. tions upon their civic rights (in this
ordinance the Jews were, for the first
time, designated "]Mosaiter," ^■.^., adherents of the
Mo.saic faith). As a result a serious uprising took
place in the capital ; and numerous complaints were
presented to the government, denouncing the alleged
undue preference shown the Jews at the expense of
other citizens. On Sept. 21 of the same year the
government was compelled to revoke the new ordi-

During the following years the book-market was
deluged by brochures for and against the"Mosa-
iter." This controversy between sympathizers and
antagonists of the Jews continued until ]840,iwlien
the Connnons in the Riksdag petitioned the gov-
ernment to reestablish the ordinance of 1782 in its
original form. The friends of the Jews tried to
show that the petitioners were actuated by religious
intolerance, but their adversaries openly declared
the question to be one not of religion, but of lace.
The anti-Semites in the Riksdag endeavored to
prove that the Jews had greatly abused the rights
and jirivileges granted them in 1782, and that they
had done so at the expense and to tlie detriment of

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 146 of 160)