Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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num" (1877); "A Szemuveg," on spectacles (1882);
" Zur Morphologic der Papilla," in " Centralblatt fur
Praktische Augenheilkunde," 1889; " Optische Ver-
werthungvon Brillenreflexen," in Graefe's "Archiv
far Ophthalmologic," 1893; " Ueber Disjunction
des Hornhautepithels," (ii. 1900); " Augenspiegel-
studien zu einer Morphographie des Sehnervenein-
trittes beim Menschen " (1901).

Bibliography: Pallas Lex.; Szlli, EmlekKouyr.

s. L. V.

SZOLD, BENJAMIN : American rabbi and
scholar; a leader of the conservative wing of the
Reform movement in America; born at Nemiskert,
county of Neutra, Hungary, Nov. 15, 1829; died at
Berkeley Springs, W. Va., July 31, 1902. He stud-
ied under Rabbis Jacob Fischer of Shalgaw, Wolf
Kollin of Werbau, and Benjamin Wolf at the Pres-
burg yeshibah, and received the rabbinical authori-
zation from Judah Assod of Bur and Simon Sidon
of Tyrnau. In 1848 he studied in Vienna, but when
the revolution of that j-ear broke out he went to
Presburg. From 1849 to 1855 he tutored in private
families in Hungary, and in the latter year entered
the University of Bieslau, where he remained until
1858. While a student he officiated during the lioly
days at Brieg, Silesia (1857), and at Stockholm,
Sweden (1858). In 1859 he accepted a call from the
Oheb Shalom congregation of Baltimore, in whose
service he remained until his death, first as rabbi and
later (after 1892) as rabbi emeritus. He arrived in
the United States on Sept. 21, 1859, about a month

after his marriage to Sophie Schaar, and imme-
diately took active charge of the congregation.
Under his guidance it grew rapidly, and, actuated by
his example, it became widely known for its strict
observance of the Sabbath. Before Szold's arrival
the congregation had adopted for use in its Sabbath
service the "Minhag America," though on the great
fall holy days it reverted to the "Minhag Ash-
kenaz " ; after much discussion with his congrega-
tion Szold introduced a new prayer-book, " 'Abodat
Yisrael," which closely, followed traditional lines.
The first edition of this prayer-book appeared in
1863, with German translation, and was widely
adopted by congregations in the United States; new
editions were published in 1864 and 1865 (the latter
with English translation), and another, revised edi-
tion in 1871, Rabbis Marcus Jastrow of Philadelphia
and Henry Hochheimer of Baltimore being associated
with Szold in its publication.

During his entire career Szold opposed radicalism,
and fought the extreme tendencies that had al-
ready manifested themselves when he went to the
United States. He took prominent part in commu-
nal life, and besides aiding in establishing the char-
itable institutions of Baltimore, he devoted himself
to helping Russian refugees who had emigrated to
America on account of the iniquitous May Laws.
He was in sympathy with the nationalist (later Zion-
istic) movement, speaking in its favor as early as the
winter of 1893-94 before the Zion Society of Balti-
more. As an exegete he developed a subtle and orig-
inal system in which full account was taken of the
work of the Masorites. His " Commentary on Job "
(Baltimore, 1886), written in classical Hebrew and
conceived in an original and deeply Jewish spirit,
attests the accuracy of his scholarship. His publica-
tions include articles in Jewish and in secular period-
icals, as well as sermons, lectures, religious school-
books, and devotional literature. He wrote also
a commentary on the eleventh chapter of Daniel
(Kohut Memorial Volume), edited "Bibelkritische
Notizen " by Michael Heilprin, and published a
sketch of Moses Mendelssohn on the occasion of the
150th anniversary of his birth. He left numerous

Bibliography: Jewish Comment, x.. No. .5; xviii.. No. 4.
.\. L. H. L.

SZOLD, HENRIETTA : Eldest daughter of
Benjamin Szold ; born at Baltimore, Md. Since 1893
she has been secretary of the literary committee
of the Jewish Publication Society of America, and
in connection therewith has translated Darmesteter
on the Talmud (Philadelphia, 1897), and liazarus,
" Ethics of Judaism" (<A. 1900). In association with
Cyrus Adler she has edited the American Jewish
Year Book, and, independently, has contributed
numerous articles to the Jewish periodicals. She
has attended for several years the classes of the
Jewish Theological Seminary of New York.





TA'AMIIil. See Accents; Cantili.ation.

TA'ANIT ("Fasts"): Treatise in tlie Mishnah,
Tosefta, and both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to the
fast-days, tlie practises peculiar to tliem/and the
prayers wliich must be said thereon. In most edi-
tions tliis treatise is tlie ninth in the mishnaic order
of Seder Mo'ed, and is divided into four chapters
containing thirty-four paragraphs in all. The con-
tents may be summarized as follows:

Ch. i. : Concerning the time after which one must

begin to mention rain in the second benediction of

the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" and to pray for rain in the

eighth benediction (§^ 1-3); the time during which

one should fast on account of scarcity of rain — two

successive periods of three days each, and a final

one of seven days— and the distinc-

Contents. tions between these various days with

regard to strictness in fasting (§t; 4-6) ;

nature of the national mourning in case no rain falls

despite many fast-days (§ 7).

Ch. ii. : The ceremonies which must be observed
in fasting (§ 1); the prayers and the blowing of the
trumpet in this connection (^§ 2-5) ; the participa-
tion of the priests both in the fasts of three days
and in that of seven days (§§ 6-7); days on which
public fasts are prohibited according to the Megil-
LAT Ta'anit (§§ 8-10).

Ch. iii. : Cases in which the order of fasting may
be changed, and the trumpet may be blown at the
very beginning of the fast (^§ 1-3); other occasions
on which a fast is held and the trumpet blown,
as when a plague breaks out in a city or when an
army marches against it (§§ 4-7) ; concerning Honi
(Onias) ha-Me'aggel, who prayed for rain (55 8);
cases in which fasting ceases when rain begins to fall


Ch. iv. : Days on which the priests raise their
hands four times to bless the people (§ 1); the insti-
tution of lay assistants (" ma'amadot ") for the sac-
rifice, the time when they assembled, the days on
which they fasted, and the sections of Scripture
which they read on each day (§§ 2-4); the day of
the month appointed for the bringing of the wood-
offering (Neh. X. 34) during the period of the Tem-
ple (§ 5) ; the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth
of Ab, and the five sad events which befell the. Jewish
people on each of these days(^§ 6-7); the festivities
which marked the Day of Atonement and the Fif-
teenth of Ab (the most important day of the wood-
offering) in ancient times in Jerusalem, when the
maidens, dressed in white, danced in the vineyards
and called on the young men to seek worthy brides
for themselves (^ 8).

The Tosefta to this treatise contains much that
elucidates and supplements the Mishnah. Especially
noteworthy are the account of the origin of the
priestly classes (iv. 2), the changes which affect«d
them after the return from the Captivity, and liow
they were again subdivided (ii. 1).

The two Gemaras contain, in addition to the

explanations of individual mishnayot, a wealth
of haggadic sayings, as well as many narra-
tives and legends. The following sayings from
the Babylonian Gemara may be cited here: "Why
is learning compared to a fire? Because, as
many chips burn better together than singly, so
learning is promoted when it is pursued by many
scholars studying in company. " " A .sage who holds
himselfaloof from other scholars deterioratesin learn-
ing." " R. Hanina said he had learned much from his
teachers, but more from his colleagues, and most of
all from his pupils." "Learning is like water; for
as water can not remain in a high place, so learning
can not be the possession of a proud and haughty
man" (7a). "If a pupil finds study difficult, it is
only because he has not systematically arranged the
material to be learned" (8a). "If when Israel is
visited with affliction a man severs fellowship with
his brethren, the two angels who accompany each
one come to him, lay their hands upon his head,
and say: ' This man would not suffer with his peo-
ple; therefore he shall not behold them when they
are comforted and see days of happiness'" (11a).
Among the narratives particular attention should
l)e given to the story of NicoDEMfs b. Gohion
(19b-20a)iind to the legend of Onias ha-Me'aggel,
who slept for seventy years (23a).

Noteworthy in the Palestinian Gemara is the ac-
count of the three scrolls of the Law which were
in the Temple and which differed from one another
in various passages. Where two of these scrolls
agreed as regards a reading, it was accepted as the
correct text (iv. 68a). This Gemara contains also a
remarkable saying of R. Abbahu, which is evi-
dently directed against Christianity: "If a man
say, ' I am God,' he lieth ; and if he say. ' I am the
son of man,' he will have to repent; and if he say,
'I shall go up to lieaven,' he will not do it. nor
achieve what he promises " (ii. (i5b). It likewise
relates how Bar Kokba killed Er.KAZAii of Mo-
Di'iM, whom a Samaritan had falsely accused of
treason (iv. 68d).

w. H. J. Z. L.

TABERNACLE : The portable tent-like struc-
ture that served the Israelites as a sanctuary during
their wanderings in the wilderness and in the early
period of their life in Palestine. It is chiefly in Ex.
xxvi. and its parallel, ib. xxxvi. 8-38, that the old-
est sanctuary of Ynwii is mentioned. Its funda-
mental part consisted of a framework of acacia- wood.
Each board was 10 cubits long and H cubits broad
(an old Hebraic cubit measured probably, like the
Babylonian, 55.5 cm.). The nortli and south sides
each contained twenty such boards {ib. xxvi. 18, 20).
The western side consisted of six similar boards {ib.
verse 22), with the addition of two more which were
to join the western with the northern and southern
sides, respectively, in a manner rather obscurelj'
described {ib. verses23-25). These forty eight boards
were fixed in silver sockets, two to each board, by




means of "luiuds" ("yadot"), i.e., tenons, and they
were kept from falling ai)art by five cross-bars on a
side {lb. verses 26-28). The eastern side remained

Since this framework was of course the first part
to be set up {ib. xl. 18), it has been mentioned first
here; but wliat really constituted the dwelling of
the Lord, according to the express words of the Old

Testament {ib. xxvi. 1, 6; xxxvi. 8,
Parts. 13), were the inner curtains, which

gave the structure its characteristic
form. Tlie quality and colors of these curtains were
chosen accordingly; they were woven from the
finest threads, some white, some Ijluish and reddish
purple, and some scarlet. Pictures of cherubim
were also woven in them {ib. xxvi. 1-6). A second
set of curtains was made of goat-hair, which was
the usual material for tents {ib. verses 7-13); these,
by synecdoche (comp. KOnig, "StilistiU," etc., p. 64),

and that the tent-covering is placed upon them
(Ex. xl. 10) is convincing evidence for the opinion
that they enveloped the boards almost completely
lest tliey might become .soiled; they were not
to touch the floor, and so were made only 28 cu-
bits long. This fact would not be so comprehen-
sible had the curtains been merely interior hang-
ings. The objection has been raised, it is true, that
cherubim were woven into them, and that in Solo-
mon's Temple cherubim were carved on the inner
walls; but the latter case presents a necessary modi-
fication which resulted naturally when the dwelling
of the Lord no longer consisted chiefly of curtains,
^loreover, the text contains no suggestion of liooks
or any other appliances by means of which the cur-
tains might have been suspended had they been in-
tended merely to cover the inner surface of the

The examination of the component parts of

The Tabernacle.

(Restored by Ferguson.)

were called the "tent" {ib. xxvi. 7; xxxviii. 14, 18;
xl. 19), inasmuch as they formed the chief part there-
of ; and vipon them were placed two coverings, one of
ramskin dyed red, and one of skins of the "tahash."
This latter was probably a seal ; in any case it was
a less common animal than the sheep, which Fried-
rich Delitzsch in his "Prolegomena zueinem Neuen
Hebraisch-Aramaischen Worterbuch " (p. 79) under-
stands by "tahasli." With regard to the first-men-
tioned curtains, some scholars, as Winer ("B. R."
«.v.)and Holzinger (on Ex. xxvi. 15, in "K. H. C."
1900), liave declared that they formed not the walls
of the Tabernacle, but merely an inner covering of
those walls; but the contrary view is much more
probable, and is the one adopted by De Wette,
for instance ("Hebraische Archilologie," § 194), by
Riehm (" Handw5rterbuch des Biblischen Alter-
tums," p. 1559), andbyBaentsch("Handkommentar
zum Exodus," 1900, p. 228); indeed, the circum-
stance that these curtains are called " the dwelling "

Yiiwii's dwelling mentioned above leads to a con-
sideration of its size. The height was undoubtedly
10 cubits ; but the length was not sim-
Size. ply 20 X H cubits, since there must

also be taken into consideration the
eight boards on the western side. These measured
12 cubits by themselves; and, in addition, the tliick-
ness of the two boards by which the western wall
was joined on one side to the southern and on the
otlier to the northern wall {ib. xxvi. 23-25) must
be reckoned in determining the exterior length of the
Tabernacle. The thickness of these boards maj' be
estimated from the following calculation: The
Holy of Holies was 10 cubits high and 10 cubits
long, since lialf of the inner covering, which was 40
cubits long, reached from the lower end of the west-
ern wall to tlie edge of the Holy of Holies {ib. xxvi.
83). This most lioly place in all probability formed
a cube of 10 cubits (comp. "ka'bah" = "cube").
If so the breadth of the Tabernacle must have



OF THE Tabernacle.

(From the Sulxberwr coUectloo in the JawlBh Theologlcl S.mlnary of Am.r.c., N.w York.)

Tabernacles, Feast of



been 10 cubits, i.e., the breadth of its inner space,
whereas the eight western boards measured 12
cubits; and the southern and northern walls must
each have covered one of the 12 cubits of the
western wall; i.e., the boards must eaeh have
been 1 cubit thick. The outer length of the Taber-
nacle was, then, 20 X li + 1 cubit = 31 cubits; and
its outer width was 8 X H cubits. But the inner
length was 30 cubits, and the inner breadth 10
cubits; and since the inner space constituted the
dwelling of the Lord, Josephus says (•' Ant." iii. 6,
§3), not without reason, "its length, when it was
set up, was 30 cubits, and its breadth was 10 cubits."
This tent was divided, by means of a curtain hung
10 cubits from the western wall, into a most holy

place (" Kodesh ha-Kodashim ") and a
Holy holy place (" Kodesh "). This curtain
Place. was called "paroket,"and was woven

from the same four stuffs as the costly
curtains which formed the inner covering (Ex. xxvi.
31-35). The eastern entrance to the holy place,
which was 20 cubits long, was covered by a curtain
{" masak ") of the same materials {ib. verses 36 et
seq.). Finally a court (hazer) formed in a certain
measure a part of the Tabernacle. This court was
100 cubits long and 50 cubits broad {ib. xxvii. 9-13),
and, since the Tabernacle was placed in its western
part, it was rightly called a forecourt. The Taber-
nacle could be taken down (Num. x. 17); and it is
therefore called a " tent." Its form does not need to
have been that of a house (namely, that of Solomon's
Temple), since (despite Holzinger's [I.e. p. 129j and
Baentsch's [I.e. p. 231] statements) tents are some-
times made in an elongated form.

As has been mentioned above, this sanctuary of
Yhwh(Ex. XXV. 8) was in the nature of things called
the " dwelling " par excellence (" ha-mishkan ") and

the " tent " par excellence (" ha-ohel ") ;
Name. but its most frequent designation is

"ohel mo'ed " (ib. xxvii. 21 et seq.).
This term means " tent of mutual appointment, " that
is, " place of meeting [of God with Moses and with his
successors] " (26. xxv. 22; comp. the heathen "har
mo'ed," Isa. xiv. 13). ItAvas a mistake to interpret
"mo'ed " here in a temporal sense, as if it had meant
"tent of fixed time" (Targ., Pesh., Arabic). The
expression means still less " tent of witness " (LXX. :
aKTjvi/ fiapTvpiov, wrongly upheld by A. Zahn, " Das
Deuteronomium," 1891, p. 67). This interpretation
can not be commended on account of the fact that
the expression "ohel 'edut " = "tent of testimony "
(Num. ix. 15, xvii. 22 etseq., xviii. 2; II Chron. xxiv.
6) or "house of testimony " (Ex. xxxviii. 21 ; Num.
i. 50,53) also occurs; for if the same idea was to
have been expressed the same word would have
been used in both cases.

It was natural that the Ark of the Covenant
should have been erected in some protected place ;

and such a place is expressly mentioned

Age and in Ex. xxxiii. 7-11 (which section is

Origin. correctly ascribed to a comparatively

ancient chronicler), and is called "ohel
mo'ed." It is, to be sure, stated in the same place
that Moses used to set up the Tabernacle outside of
the camp (comp. Konig, "Syntax," ^§ 157, 367e),
and its position is so designated in Num. x. 32; xi.

24, 26 et seq., 30; xii. 4, whereas according to Num.
ii. 2, 17; v. 1 et seq., the ohel mo'ed formed the cen-
tral point of the camp. This obscurity in the mem-
ory of Israel is not to be denied ; but, nevertheless,
the question remains as to whether or not the Taber-
nacle, the description of which has been given above,
is to be treated as a pure invention of the later priests,
as is claimed by many exegetes and with special em-
phasis by Baentsch (I.e. p. 220). The argument that
the splendor with which the Tabernacle was fur-
nished according to Ex. xxvi. 1 et seq., precludes its
assignment to the time of Moses is of no weight,
since the passage Ex. iii. 22 et seq. does not admit
the conclusion that the Israelites who came out of
Egypt were wholly destitute. Moreover, it is not
remarkable, as has been claimed, that the tent of
meeting should sometimes have been called " house "
("bayit"; comp. Josh, xviii. with Judges xviii. 31),
since the tent which David erected for the Ark of
the Covenant (II Sam. vi. 17) is similarly called
"house of Jehovah" (ib. xii. 20); and if the Taber-
nacle was a product of the imagination, with Solo-
mon's Temple as its prototype, other differences
between the descriptions of the two would be hard
to explain (e.g., one candlestick instead of ten).

It is probable that the characteristic features of
the place of worship in the Old Testament bore, in
addition to their outward purpose, an
Symbolic inner relationship to religious ideas.
Meaning. The following maj' be considered the
chief of these: the opening of the gate
toward the east had reference to the rising of the
sun (comp. Isa. xii. 1 et seq.); the distinction be-
tween the holy place and the most holy place corre-
sponded to the distinction between heaven and the
innermost heaven ("sheme ha-shamayim "; I Kings
viii. 27, etc.); and the forecourt, according to Isa.
Ixvi.l, symbolized the earth. This interpretation
was suggested by Josephus (I.e. iii. 6, ^ 4), and has
been developed chiefly by Bahr ("Symbolik des
MosaiscLen Kultus," 1837).

K. c. E. K.

Data : Third of the great festivals on which all males
were reqiiired to make pilgrimages to the Temple at
Jerusalem. The celebration of this festival begins
on the fifteenth day of the seventh month (Tishri).
Originallj'it lasted seven daj's; but in the course of
time its duration was extended to nine days. In the
Bible it is variously styled niSDH in. "the Feast of
Tabernacles " (Lev. xxiii. 34 ; Deut. x vi. 13, 16 ; xxxi.
10; Zech.xiv. 16, 18, 19; Ezra iii. 4. ; II Chron. viii.
13); Pi^DXn in, "the Feast of Ingathering" (Ex.
xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22), or merely Jnn, "the Feast" (I
Kings viii. 2; Ezek. xlv. 23; II Chron. vii. 8); or
niiT 3n, "Feast of the Lord "(Lev. xxiii. 39; Judges
xxi. 19). In the Septuagint the first

Name. designation is rendered b}' ^ eoprij (ruv)
OKTjvuv or Tfjc aKTjvomiyia^; the second
by 7) Eoprj/ avvTcXeiac or awayuy^^. II Macc. x. 6 has
7/ Tuv aKf/uuv iopTT]; Josephus ("Ant." iv. 209; comp.
ib. iii. 247) and the New Testament (John vii. 2)
dKTivonriyia; Philo (" Dc Septenario," § 24) ffiiv^va/; and
Plutarch ("Symposiaca," iv. 6, 2) (tutivt}. In later
Hebrew literature jn (Aramaic, KJn) is generally



Tabernacles, Feast of

From the frequent notice of it, as well as from its
designation as "the Feast," it would seem that the
Feast of Tabernacles held the most prominent place
among Israel's festivals. That it was agricultural
in origin is evident from the name the "Feast of
Ingathering," from the ceremonies accompanying it,
and from the season and occasion of its celebration :
"At the end of the year when thou gatherest in thy
labors out of the field " (Ex. xxiii. 16. xxxiv. 22, R.
v.); "after that thou hast gathered in from thy
thrashing-floor and from thy wine-press " (Deut. xvi.
13, 16, R. v.). It was more particularly a thanksgiv-
ing for the fruit harvest (comp. Judges ix. 27) ; but
coming as it did at the completion of the entire hE.r-
vest, it was regarded likewise as a general thanks-
giving for the bounty of nature in tne year that had

Critical Vie-w : Connected with the possession

of the land, it may have had a Canaanitish prototype
(see Judges I.e.). Early, however, it appears as an
Israelitish festival, celebrated yearly at Shiloh with
dances by the maidens in the vineyards (ib. xxi. 19)
and with family pilgrimages and sacrifices (I Sam.
i. 3, 7, 21). Such even then was its prominence that
it alone was celebrated at a central sanctuary, where-
as the other festivals, it would seem from the ab-
sence of express statement regarding the question,
were celebrated, if at all, at local shrines.

In early times the festival had no fixed date.
Under the early kings it was apparently celebrated
in the eighth month. In this month the Temple was
completed (I Kings vi. 38); and it is most probable
that the dedication followed immediately (ih. viii. 2,
65, would therefore be erroneous, as its dating in-
volves a delay of eleven months). This date is
further confirmed by the report {ib. xii. 32) that
Jeroboam "ordained a feast, in the eighth month, on
the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast
thatisin Judah." But in the earlier laws nodefinite
time is appointed. As in I Sam. i. 20, so in Ex.
xxxiv. 22, the phrase is at the "revolution of the
year," or "when thou hast gathered in tiiy labors
out of the field" (Ex. xxiii. 16). It is simply the
"Feast of Ingathering," one of the three pilgrimage
festivals, when all males are obligated to appear at
the sanctuary (xxiii. 17, xxxiv. 23); no further direc-
tions as to the manner of celebration are given.

No more definite is the date in Deuteronomy,
-where the festival is called "the Feast of Taber-
macles" (xvi. 13-16), and, as in Exodus, its celebration
is observed " after that thou hast gath-
The Date, ered in from thy thrashing floor and
thy wine-press" (xvi. 13). Further
particulars, however, are here added. The celebra-
tion is to take place only at the divinely chosen sanc-
tuary. It is to be a joyous season, and, in the human-
itarian spirit of Deuteronomy, the unfortunate and
the dependent are to share in the festivity. The
holiday is to last seven days (as already presupposed
in I Kings viii. 66). The dwelling in booths is here
taken for granted— presumably as an existing prac-
tise going back to the custom of living in booths dur-
ing the fruit harvest, a custom which has survived
to this day in Palestine. Further, it is ordained
•that every seventh year— the "year of release"—
IheLawas to be read to the assemble<i multitude
XI.— 42

(xxxi. 10. 11). It is also assumed that the Feast of
Booths was the season for bringing to Jerusalem the
first-fruits — a command for which Deut. xxvi. 1-11

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