Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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until the very year of their banishment, those of
Cagliari and other communities were after 1430

treated in the liarshest manner. They

Persecu- were compelled to live in special quar-

tion and ters and to wear special kinds of caps,

Expulsion, and were not allowed to wear jewels

or to put on shoes of any other color
than black. Jewish traders were forbidden, under
the penalty of losing their goods, to transact business
on Christian feast-days. A Jew who employed a
Christian was subject to a fine of twenty livres.
Foreign Jews were forbidden, under the penalty of
death, to settle in Sardinia without the permission
of the vice-king or the archbishop. A decree issued
in 1481 fixed the penalties for au offense against
Christianity and for the employment of Christian
servants. For the former crime the Jew was to
have his hands cut olT; for the latter he was to re-
ceive 200 stripes and to pay a fine of 200 ducats,
and the servant was to receive au equal number of
lashes. In 1485 the Jews were declared royal prop-
erty and were subjected to the special jurisdiction
of the royal attorney. At the same time they were
forbidden to export any of their belongings from
the i-sland. The decree containing these measures
was communicated by the vice-king Ximene Perez
to the leaders of the Jewish community of Cagliari,
Abraham Mill, Emanuel Mill, Samuel Bondra, Isaac
Sallom, Isaac Aleva, Leon Miro, and others. The
banishment of the Jews from Spain was closely fol-
lowed by that of the Jews of Sardinia.

Biiujo(;raphy : Gazana. StorUi dclla Sanlfgua. ii. 151 : R. E.
J. viii. 2.sf) et sc'i.; S|iano, in Vcssilln Itnaelitico, xxvii. 11.')
it xcr/.; Erscti and Gruher, Kncuc. section ii., part ~7, p. 147;
Griitz, Ocscli. v. .5-'.
.1. I. Bh.

SARDIS : Ancient city of Asia ^Minor and capi-
tal of Lydia; situated on tlie Pactolus at the north-
ern base of ]Mouut Tmolus, about sixty miles from
Smyrna. The town is first mentioned by^^schylus
("Persa\" ed. KirchhofT, line 47), and may be the
"Sparda" of the Old Persian inscriptions of Darius
Hystaspcs(Behistun, i. IT); ]\'rsepolis, e, 12; Nakshi
Rustam. a, 28). It had an eventfid history, ai;d after
the establishment of the Roman province of Asia in
183 B.C. it became the capital of a "conventus" or

The date and early history of the Jewish commu-
nity of Sardis are unknown, although it is clear tiiat
by the second half of the first century b.c. it had

become an infiueutial one; for in a decree of the
profpiestor and propietor Lucius Antouius, ilating
from 50-49 and preserved by Josephus ("Ant." xiv.
10, t^ 17), the Jews are described as having "an as-
.sembly of their own, according to the laws of their
forefathers, and this from the begiiming, as also a
place of tiunr own, wherein thej' determined their
suits and controversies with one another." In obe-
dience to an order of Antouius that the Jews, as
Roman citizens, should be confirmed in their rights
and privileges, the Sardians passed a decree {ib.
% 24) that tlie commiuiity should enjoy freedom of
worship, wliile special measures were takeu to im-
port food which should be ritually clean. A few
years later, in the early part of the reign of Augus-
tus, the proconsul Caius Norbanus Flaccus, at the
express connnand of the emperor, renewed the relig-
ious privileges of the Jews of Sardis and permitted
them to send money to Jerusalem (i/j. xvi. 6, $^ 6).

The single allusion to Sardis in Rev. iii. 1-4 adds
no information concerning its Jewish couuuunity,
nor does the Talmud throw any light on the history
of the Jews in the city, although Sardis may be
meant by "Asia" in a few passages (Sifre, Balak,
ed. Friedmann, p. 47b; 'Ab. Zarah 30a; B. M. 84a).
Its site is now occupied by the ruined village of

Bibliography: Schiirer, Gcscli. 3d ed., iii. 12; Neiibaiier, G.
T. pp. 31(1-311 ; Wilson, Handhaok for Travcllem in Asia
Minor, elc, pp. 82-83, London, 1895.

E. G. II. L. II. G.

SARGENES (called also Kittel) : A white linen
gariiieiiti which resembles a surplice and consists
of a long, loose gown with flowing sleeves and
with a collar laced in front, a girdle of the same
material, and a skullcap to match. The name is de-
rived from "sarge" (= "serge"), a woolen stuff
(comp. "sericum," silk, and see Rashi, s.v. pTiJJ',
Shab. 77b). R. Jeremiah in his last testament di-
rected that he should be buried in a white garment
with borders (pn^an pTlTl), in which it was his
custom to attire himself when alive (Yer. Kil. ix. 3).
Brides, bridegrooms, and marriageable girls Avere
dressed in white (Shab. 114a; Ta'an. 26b). A white
robe Avas generally considered a garment of joy.
Being confident of God's willingness to forgive on
Rosh ha-Shanah, the day of judgment, the wor-
shipers were dressed in white (Yer. R. II. i. 1). On
the Day of Atonement the white dress is symbolical
of the angelic purity to be attained when the wor-
shiper shall be finally absolved and pardoned. The
sargenes as a shroud is first mentioned by R. Eleazar
of Worms in his " Ha-Rokeah " and by R. iVIeir of
Rolhenburgin his " Haggahot,"and it is still so used
by all Orthodo.x Jews throughout the w'orld. It is
mentioned by Maimonides in his " Yad" (Shabbat,
XXX. 2) as a reminder of death.

R. Yom-Tob Lipmann Heller (1579-1654) in his
" Lel.iem Hamudot " on Aslieri, " Halakot Ketannot "
("Zizit," Xo. 25, end) refers to the relics of the mar-
tyr Solomon Molko, brought from Regensburg to
the Phinehas Synagogue, Prague, as consisting of
"an Auu.^' Kanfot of yellow silk with yellow silk
fringes, two flags, and a sargenes called kittel"
{b^^P p~>1pL*^ DirJIlD; "sargenes" is the term that
was used in western German}', " kittel "iu eastern




Germany; tlic giuiiR'nt is now known in eastern
Europe I)}' tliu latter name, the former being almost
forgotten). During the lifteentli century brides
dressed themselves in the sargenes before the veil
■was thiown over the face prior to tlie nuptial cere-
mony. The kittel is now worn by the liost at the
Skdki! ceremony on Passover eve, as a symbol of
freedom ; by membersof the community on Yom Kip-
ptu'; and by the hazzan at the musaf service of
yiiemini 'Azeret and at musaf of the tirst day of
Passover. See CosTf.ME; Gesiie.m.

BibliO(;raphv : I. Abrahams, Jejcit-h Life in ihr Middle
Atics, pp. IS. 204, :J92 ; Berliner, Lchcn dt r Dcitlsclicn Judcii
im Mittei(dte)\ pp. 48, 70, 131, Berlin, liMK); Max (irunbaiiiii,
JlUUscli-Dcutfciic Clnet<t()Uiathie, pp. .502-504, Leipsie, 18t<2.

K. J. D. E.

SARGON: King of Assyria; died 70.") jj.c. He
is mentioned in the Bible onl}' in Isa. xx. 1 ; and his
name is jircserved by no classic writer. All modern
knowledge of him dates, therefore, from the discov-
ery of his palace at Kliorsabad, twelve miles north-
east of Nineveh, by Botta in 1843. This palace was
a part of the city of Dur-Sharrukin, Avhicli Sargon
built as a new capital for himself. It was lined with
bas-reliefs presenting an illustrated account of his
reign; and under the foundations of the city gates
also cJnouiclcs on clay were found. From these and
the chronological data of the Assyrian kingdom,
an account of Sargon's reign, which extended from
723 lo 7U5, can be reconstructed.

Sargou succeeded Shalmaneser IV. Whether he
was of royal blood or not is a matter of dispute.
Neither he nor his son Sennacherib claimed royal
descent ; but his grandson Esar-haddon claimed the
king Bel-bani as a remote ancestor of Sargon (comp.
"Journal of the American Oriental Society," Pro-
ceedings, May, 1891, p. cxxxii.). The fact that
Sargon ascended the throne in the same month that
Shalmaneser died indicates that he was looked upon
as the natural successor of the latter. Before his ac-
cession he was general of the armies of Assyria.
The name "Sargon"' was probably assumed on his
acces.sion, in imitation of the famous Sargon of

When Shalmaneser died the Assyrian armies were
besieging Samaria. In the tirst year of Sargon's
reign Samaria fell; and at his command more than
27,0(J()of the inhabitants were deported, Babylonians
and Syrians being brought to take their places.
Under JMerodach-buliidan Babylon revolted, and was
not reconquered until 709. In 720 Sargon sent an
army into Palestine; and at Baphia he defeated
Egypt and her allies. This gave him the mastery
of the west. Between 719 and 708 he undertook
many campaigns against and linally subdued Urartu
in Armenia — a kingdom which had given his ances-
tors much trouble. During the same period he made
several campaigns against the Mo.schi and Tabal
in the Taurus Mountains. In 711 he sent his "Tar-
tan" into Palestine to put down a coalition headed
by Ashdod; it is this expedition which Isaiah men-
tions. In 709 he completed the (■on(iiiest of Baby-
lon, and was crowned king of that countr}-, and in 708
his new capital and palace at Dur-Sharrukin were
completed. In 705 he died a violent death; but the
text which relates the event is so broken that the

nature of the violence is imknown. He was sur-
l)ass((l in ability b}- Tiglath-pileser III., but was one
of Assyria's greatest kings.

BiBi.KKJKAPnv: D. (J. Lyon, KcUKcinifttcrtc Sar{ii))is, l.eip-
sic. l.-^s;}; Wiiiekler. Kcilsvlrrifttexte Smymis. 18>*!); Schrader,
A'. U. ii. .'54 SI ; Rofrers, histm-ji i>f Bahjihniia and Assi/iia,
19(KI, ii. US-1^2; doinLspeed, Histanj uf the Bahnhniiaus
and As'siiiiaiis. 190-'. pp. 24:i-2(W.

.1. G. A. B.

SARGON, MICHAEL: Indian convert to
Chii tianily ; born in Cochin 1795; died about
1^55. He was converted in 1818 by T. Jarrett of
3Iadras, and became the first missionary in India
of the London Society for Promoting Christianity
Among the Jews. In 1820 Sai'gon visited his par-
ents at Cochin, who received him kindly; and for
a time the Cochin Jews seemed to have no objection
to discussing with him his new faith. This reception
appealed to ])romise well for a conversionist propa-
ganda in India; and a local committee of the Lou-
don society was formed in Madras with Sai'gon as
the icpresentative missionary. Madras became the
center of the society's work in Asia. By 1822 Sar-
gou had 116 Jewish children under his chaige at
Cochin; but in 1824 he was transferred to Bomba}',
where he opened under the auspices of the London
society a school exclusively for Jews, obtaining
forty pupils. The residt of his labors in Cochin
was the baptism of one Jew and of two Je' in
1828; and shortly afterward the activity of the Lon-
don society ceased in India.

Sargon and his brother Abraham, however, con-
tinued their educational activity in Bombaj'. whei'e
for nearly thirty years the}' taught the Jewish chil-
dren the tenets of Judaism without any attempt to
convert them. While Sargon is regarded by the
Loudon society as one of its pioneer workers, the
Beni-Israel of Bombay consider him one of the
agents in the revival of religious feeling among

Birti.iOfiRAPHT : W. T. Gidney. Si^cs and Scenes. 2d ed., I.s99,
pp. 226-227; Report of the London Sociel}/ for I'ronxttinu
('hristin)iitti Atvonn tJie Jew!<. 1821, p. 103; H. Samuel,^
Sketch of t)ir J/iVfoij/ of lir)ii-Isracl, p. 21, Boiiit)av, ii.d.

JUDAH : Italian grammarian and Hebrew poet of
the tirst half of the fifteenth century. According
to Carmoly (" Ilistoire des Medecins Juifs," p. 129),
he was a native of Naples and one of the teachers of
Judah ^Nlesser Leon. He was the author of "Rab
Pe'alim," an analytic H'ebrew grammar divided into
several sections. He states in the preface that he
terminated this work on the first day of Elul, 1429.
The part which deals with numbers ("Sefer ha-
Misparim ") is printed at the end of August Justin-
ian's edition of Ruth and Lamentations (Paris, 1520).
Sarko's Hebrew verses, which follow the preface,
were published by Dukes in "Orient, Lit." viii. 441.
According to the latter («6. x. 452), Sarko was the
author also of "Ba'al ha-Lashon," a Heluew diction-
ary, in which lie often quotes his "Rab Pe'alim."
Zunz, however, says ("Z. G." p. 113) that the au-
thor of the " Ba'al ha-Lashou " was a certain Joseph
i). Jozadak. Parma De Rossi ^IS. No. 939, 2 con-
tains verses by various poets, among others Jo.seph
Sarko; but this may be a grandson of the author
of •' Rab Pe'alim " who lived about a century later




(comp. Zuiiz in " Kcroiii Homed," vii. 120). It is
probably witli this lutcr Sarko that Ihii Yaliya
("Shalshelet lia-Kabbalali," p. C3b) confused tlie au-
thor of the "Rab Pe'alini " wlien he says tliat lie
was a contemporary of Elijah Levita.

Bibliography: Tiukes. Knntres ha-Maaoret, pp. ^:!-24; Fiirst,
Bilil. Jiid. iii. Uii>; Steinsclineicler, Cat. Bodl. col. 1521.

P. jVI. Sel.

poet of Jewisii birth; llourislicd in the first half of
the seventeenth century. He was born at Kashan
of a rabbinical family, but later embraced jMoham-
niedaiiism, and went to India as a merchant. In
the city of Tatta, Karachi, he became infatuated
with a young Hindu named Abhichand, whom he
converted to a mixture of Judaism and Mohammed-
anism. In 1647 Sarmad was in Haidarabad, not far
from Tatta, and there meeting ]\Ioshan Fani, the au-
thor of the "Dal)istan-i Madhahib," or "School of
Sects," he gave him the material for a meager chapter
on the Jews. According to IVIoshan Fani, Sarmad
held that man's life and death are a day and a night
succeeding each other iudetinitely at regular inter-
vals of one hundred and twenty years each, and that
at death the body passes partly into minerals and
partly into vegetables, animals, and the like. This
doctrine shows Hindu influence, while liis view that
allusions to Mohammed exist in the Old Testament
bears the impress of Islamitic teaching. During the
rule of Shah Jehan, Sarmad was unmolested; but
Aurungzebe soon after his acces.sion to the throne
in 1658 charged him with heresy and caused him to
be put to death.

Sarmad was a poet of considerable ability; and
several of liis quatrains are still preserved. He is
chiefly noteworthy, however, for having edited, to-
gether with Moshan Fani, a portion of AI)hichand's
Persian translation of the Pentateuch. This version,
cited in the "Dabistan" as far as Gen. vi. 8, differs
materially from the earlier Judteo-Persian transla-
tions by Jacob Tawus and others (see Jew. Encyc.
iii. 190, vii. 317).

BiBLiOGRAPiiv : T}}e DahiMaji, or School of Manners, trans-
lated from the Persian by Shea and Troyer, vol. i1., Paris,
lS4:i; Rieu, Catahigne of the Persian Mainuscripts in the
BrUisJi Museum, London, 1881.
s. L. IT. G.


Castko S.\ km i:\To.

SARPHATI, SAMUEL : Dutch physician and
economist: born at Amsterdam Jan. 31, 1813; died
there June 23, 1806. After tini.shing his medical
studies at Leyden (M.D. 1838) he established him-
self as a physician in Amsteidam. He founded a
society for tlie cultivation of land fertilized by the
town sewage (Maatschappij van Landbouw en Laud-
ontginning); and on his initiative the first school of
commerce was established, before the state had oi -
ganized this branch of secondary instruction.

After a journey to London in 18,52 Sarphati founded
a society for the erection of a palace for exhibitions
of natural industries, and to disseminate his plan
published the periodical "De Volksvlijt." In 1804
the Palys voor Volksvlijt was dedicated on a spot
then on fhe outskirts of the town, but now the cen-
ter of a new Amsterdam, with a Sarphati Straat, a

Sarphatikade, and a Sarphati Park in which his
monument has been elected. The first houses of
tills new city were built by him. To provide people
with cheap bread he founded the Maatschappij
voor ]Meel-en-Bioodf'abriekeii ; and on his initiative
the Amstel Hotel was built (March 26, 1866) in the
street later named alter him.

Sarphati was a member of the Provinciale Staten,
officer of the Eikenkroon, and a member of the
Order of the Netherlands Lion.

BtiiLiOGRAPHY: A. C. Wertheiin, S. Sarphati, In Eigen
Haard, li. 148, with pottrait.
s. E. Sl.

SEPH: Italian rabbi of the seventeenth centur}' ;
pupil of I{. Zebi Ilirsch b. Isaac in Cracow. He
was rabbi in Venice, and labored as such together
with Leon of Modena. He corrected several books
which were printed in Venice, and supplied them
with notes; and he printed the "Haggahot" of his
teacher Zebi Ilinschon Jacob "Weil's "Shchitot u-Be-
dikot," to which he added his own notes. Sarsino
published " Seder ha-Nikkur" (Venice, 1692), contain-
ing rules and regulations for porgiiig ; but this is said
to be only an extract from a work of his teacher.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. 1223-1224; Furst,
Bilil. Ju<l. iii. 247, s.v. Sarsiiia; Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot
Gedole Yisrael, p. 164 ; Beniacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 412,
No. 138 ; Fuenn, Kencset Yisrael, p.'557.
w. B. J. Z. L.

HA-LEVI. See Moses Saekteles ben Iss.\chah

SARUG (SARUK), ISRAEL (called also
Ashkenazi) : Cabalist of the sixteenth century.
A pupil of Isaac Luria, he devoted himself at the
death of liis master to the propagation of the lat-
ter's cabalistic system, for which he gained many
adherents in various parts of Italy. Among
the most prominent were Menahem Azariah da Fano,
whom he persuaded to spend large sums of money
in the ac([uisition of Luria's manuscripts, and Aaron
Beiechiali of i\Iodena, author of the "Ma'abar Yab-
bok " (" Ma'abar Yabbok, Korban Ta'anit," i.). Sa-
rug lectured also in various places in Germany
and in Amsterdam. In the latter city one of his
disciples was Abraham de Herrera.

Sarug was tiie author of: a cabalistic essay enti-
tled "Kabbalah," published in the "Mazref la-Hok-
mah" of Joseph Delmedigo (Basel, 1029); "Haii-
hagot Yosher," or "Tikkiin Keri," or " Keri Mikra"
(Salonica, 1752), hodegetics to asceticism ; and " Kon-
tres Ne'im Zemirot Yisrael," a cabalistic commen-
tary on three of Luria's piyyutim for Sabbath.

BiBMO(iRAPiiv : steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1173: Griitz,
Gesch. X. 420; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 7UU.
s. L Bu.

Salonica in the sixtei-nth and seventeenth centuries;
died shortly before 1626. He was a pupil of Mor-
decai INIatalon, and in his turn was the teacher of
Hayyiin Shabbethai. He was the author of va-
rious works both rabbinic and cabalistic, most of
which were burned in the fire at Constantinople in
1606. Some of his responsa were published b}' his
son Joseph Sason under the title "Torat Emet"
(Venice, 1626). His text of agreements ("haska-




mot") for renting houses and other property is to
be found in AbnUuun ha-Levi's "Ginnat Weradini "
(part relative to tlie Tur Hoslien IMislipat, No. 6).
Shabbethai Bass ("Siftc Yeshenim," p. 80, No. 201)
mentions a work of Sason's entitled "Sefat Emet "
(n.p., n.d.). consisting of uovelhe on tlie Tosafot to
the Talmud. Both Ue Rossi (" Dizionario," ii. 123)
and Wolf C'Bibl. Ilcbr." i., No. 184) confuse this
worlc with that of Moses Hagi/, declaring that it
was republished at Amsterdam in 1706.

Bini.ioCTRAPHY: Azulai, Shcm ha-dntolim. i.,s.v.; Conforte,
Kt}tc hn-Diiidt, pp. -t:ib et scq.\ Fiienn, Kf)icsct llaraeU P.
H^; Fiirst, BiU. Jud. iii. t!.50; Steinscbneider, Cat. liodl. col.

E. c. M. Ski,.

SASON, ABRAHAM : Italian cabalist ; flour-
ished in Venice at the beginning of the seveuteentli
centurj'. He was the author of the following works :
"Kol Mebasser" (Venice, 1605), a commentary on
Daniel ; " Kol Sason," on the arrival of the Messiah,
printed together with the jireceding work; and
"Appiryou Shelomoh " ((7'. 1609), essays on Cabala
and mysticism.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. nodi. col. 709; Zedner,
Cat. Hehr. Books Brit. Mm. p. 3a ; Furst, Bibl. Jud. iil. 3.50.

K. I. Br.

Talmudist; flourished at Sated at the end of the
seventeenth century; a pupil of Lsaac Alfandari.
He was the author of "Bene Ya'akob" (Constanti-
nople, 1714), consisting of a commentary on a part of
Isaac b. Abba Mari's " Sefer ha-'Ittur," and fourteen
responsa and novelhe on Maimonides' " Yad " and
-on Jacob b. Asher's four Turim. Owing to Sason's
premature death (at the age of thirty-one), this work
was left untinished.

Bini.iOGRAPHY: Azulai, Shem ha-Gednlim, i.,fi.v.; Conforte,
Kore ha-Dorot, p. 4Sa ; Fiirst, Bilil. Jud. iii. 3.t0; Stein-
schneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 13.5:3.

E. c. M. Sel.

perhaps, author; lived in the si.xteeuth centur}'.
He edited the "Mahazor Sefardi " (Venice, 1584);
and a Jewish calendar for the period 1585-1639 w'as
printed the same year at Sason's expense. The au-
thor of " Shemen Sason, " Joseph Sason, may be iden-
tical with the subject of this article. This work is
a treatise on the Masorah, in which are quoted the
ancient works thereon, e.,(7.,the "Shte Ahyot." It
is cited in Lonsauo's " Or Torah " and Norzi's " Min-
hat Shai " (comp. Dukes, "Koutres ha-Masoret," p.
24, Tubingen, 1846).

Jlini.iociRAPiiY : Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. iii. 2.50; Steinschneider and
tassel, JUdisclii: TupoQiriphie, in Ersch and Gruber, Eiicyc.
section ii., part 38, p. 58, note 12.
K. C. M. Skl.

SASPORTAS : Spanish family of rabbis and
scholars, the earliest known members of which lived
at Oran, Algeria, at the end of the sixteenth century.
The name seems to indicate that the family origi-
nally came from a place called Seisportas (= "six
gates"; comp. Jacob Sasportas, "Ohel Ya'aljob,"
Nos. 21, 63). Later it was mispronounced "Sas-
portas, " " Saportas, " " Saporta, " and " Sforta " ; and
Jacob Sas]iortas himself gives his name in an acros-
tic as Nt3~l"IDtr. A Saporta family lived later in
Montpellier, France. The Sasportas family, with

the Cansinos at Oran, then a Spanish colony, re-
mained loyal to the Spanish kings, who were at war
with the Moors. Members of both families com-
peted for the office of government interpreter (see
Jacob b. Aaijon Sasportas). It may be added
that Aaron Sasportas, the earliest known member
of this family, was a descendant in the tenth genera-
tion of Nahmanides (Jacob Sasportas, l.r. No. 24).
The more prominent members aie the following:

Isaac ben Jacob Sasportas : Rabbi of the Por-
tuguese community at Amsterdam in the beginning
of the eighteenth century. He left in manuscript
a collection of rabbinical decisions, poems, sermons,
and letters in Spanisli, Portuguese, and Hebrew,
besides a Spanish translation of two responsa writ-
ten in Hebrew in 1720 (comp. Steinschneider, " Hebr.
Bibl." xi. 41).

Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas : Rabbi, cabalist,
and auti-Shabbethaian ; born at Oran 1610; died at
Amsterdam April 15, 1698; father of Isaac b. Jacob
Sasportas. He became rabbi successively of Tlem-
9en (at the age of twenty -four), Morocco, Fez,
and Sali. About 1646 he was imprisoned by the
Moorish king, but succeeded in escaping with his
family to Amsterdam
(c. 1653). He stayed
there till the disorders
in Africa ceased, when
he was called back by
the King of Morocco
and sent on a special
mission to the Spanish
court (c. 1659) to ask
for aid against the
rebels. On his return
he was invited to the
rabbinate of the Portu-
guese community of
London (1664). Ac-
cording to David
Franco Mendes (in
"Ha-Meassef,"1788, p.
169), Jacob had ac-
companied Manasseh b. Israel to London in 1655.
Owing to the outbreak of the plague in London in
1665, Jacob went to Hamburg, where he officiated
as rabbi till 1673. In that year he was called to Am-
sterdam and appointed head of the yeshibah Keter
Torah, founded by the brothers Pinto. Two years
later he became dayyan and head of the yeshibah
at Leghorn, and in 1680 he returned to Amsterdam,
where he was appointed liead of tiie yeshibaii 'Ez
Hayyim. After the death of Isaac Aboab (1693) he
was appointed rabbi of the Portuguese community,
which offlce he held till his death.

Jacob was one of the most violent antagonists of

the Shabbethaian movement; he wrote many letters

to various communities in Europe, Asia, and Africa,

e:diorting them to unmask the impostors and to

warn the people against them. He

A Virulent wrote: "Toledot Ya'akob " (Amster-

Anti-Shab- dam, 1652), an index of Biblical pas-

bethaian. sages found in the liaggadah of the

Jerusalem Talmud, similar to Aaron

Pesaro's "Toledot Aharon," which relates to the

Babylonian Talmud only; "Ohel Ya'akob" (ib.

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