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with Juda- critics (see Clieyue and Black, "Encyc.

ism and Bibl." s.!'. "Paul and Romans, Epis-
the Law. tie to the "), there is intrinsic evidence
that Paul's hostile attitude to both the
Law and the Jews was the result of his conflicts
with the latter and with the other apostles. There
is no bitter hostility or antagonism to the Law no-
ticeable iu I Thessalonians (ii. 14b-16 is a late inter-
polation referring to the destruction of the Temple),
Colossians, I Corinthians (xv. 56 is obviously inter-
polated), or II Corinthians (where iii. 6-iv. 4, on
closer analysis, also proves to be a late addition dis-
turbing the context); and so little opposition to the
Law does Paul show in those epistles first addressed

to the Gentiles, that in I Cor. xiv. 21 he quotes as
the " law " — that is, Torah in the .sense of Revela-
tion — a passage from Isa. xxviii. 11; whereas he
avoids the term "law " (I'o/zof) elsewhere, declaring
all statutes to be worthless human teaching (Col.
ii. 22).

His antinomian theology is chiefly set forth in the
Epistle to the Romans, manj' parts of which, how-
ever, are the product of the second-century Church
with its tierce hatred of the Jew, e.g.,

Antino- such passages as ii. 21-24, charging

mianism the Jews with theft, adultery, sacri
and Jew- lege, and blasphemy, or ix. 22 and xi.

Hatred. 28 (comp. iii. 2). The underlying mo-
tive of Paul — the tearing down of the
partition-wall between Jew and Gentile — is best ex-
pressed in Epli. ii. 14-22, where it is declared that
the latter are no longer " gerim " and " toshabim "
(A. V. " strangers " and "foreigners"), but "fellow
citizens with the saints" of the Church and fully
equal members "of the household of God." In order
to accomplish his purpose, he argues that just as lit-
tle as the heathen escapes the Avrath of God, owing
to the horrible sins he is urged to commit by his
clinging to his idols, so little can the Jew escape by
his Law, because "the law worketh sin and wrath"
(Rom. iv. 15). Instead, indeed, of removing the
germ of death brought into the world by Adam, the
Law was given only to increase sin and to make all
the greater the need of divine mercy which was to
come through Christ, the new Adam {ib. v. 15-20).
By further twisting the Biblical words taken from
Gen. XV. 6, which he interprets as signifying that
Abraham's faith became a saving power to him, and
from Gen. xvii. 5, which he takes as signifying that
Abraham was to be the father of the Gentiles ijistead
of nations, he argues that the saving grace of God
lies in faith (that is, blind belief) and not in the
woiks of the Law. And so he declares faith in
Jesus' atoning death to be the means of justification
and salvation, and not the Law, which demands
servitude, wliereas the spirit of Christ makes men
children of God (Rom. iv.-viii.). The Pauline Jew-
hatred was ever more intensified (.see ib. ix.-xi., and
comp. ix. 31) — which is clear evidence of a later
origin — and culminates in Gal. iii., where, besides
the repetition of the argument from Gen. xv. 6 and
xvii. 5, the Law is declared, with reference to Deut.
xxviii. 26 and Hab. ii. 4 (comp. Rom. i. 17), to be
a curse from which the crucified Christ — himself
"a curse" according to the Law (Deut. xxi. 23;
probably an argument taken up from controversies
with the Jews) — was to redeem the believer. An-
other sophistic argument against the Law, furnii^hed
in Gal. iii. 19-24, and often repeated in the second
century (Heb. ii. 2; Acts vii. 38, 53; Aristides,
"Apologia," xiv. 4), is that the Law was received
by Moses as mediator from the angels —a quaint no-
tion l)ased upon Deut. xxxiii. 2, LXX. ; comp. Jo-
sephus, "Ant." xv. 5, i^ 3 — and that it is not the law
of God, which is a life-giving law of righteousness.
Furthermore the laws of the Jews and the idolatrous
practises of the heathen are placed ecjually low as
mere servitude of " the weak and beggarly elements "
(= "planets"; Gal. iv. 8-11), whereas those that
have put on Christ by baptism have risen above all

Saul of Tarsus



distinctions of race, of class, and of sex, and have be-
come cliildren of God and heirs of Abraham {ib. iii.
26-29 ; what is meant by tlie words " There shall be
neither male nor female " in verse 28 may be learned
from Gal. v. 12, where eunuchism is advised; see
B. Weiss's note ad loc).

The Pauline school writing under Paul's name,
but scarcely Paul himself, worked out the theory,
based upon Jer. xxxi. 30-31, that the
The Old Church of Christ represents the new
Testament covenant (see Covenant ; New Tes-
and tament) in place of the old (Rom. xi.

the New. 27; Gal. iv. 24; Heb. viii. 6-13, ix.
15-x. 17; and, following these pas-
sages, I Cor. xi. 23-28). Similarly the interpolator
of II Cor. iii. 6-iv. 4, in connection with ib. iii. 3,
contrasts the Old Testament with the New : the
former by the letter of the Law offering but damna-
tion and death because "the veil of Moses" is upon
it, preventing God's glory from being seen; the
latter being the life-giving spirit offering righteous-
ness, that is, justification, and the light of the
knowledge (gnosis) of the glory of God as reflected
in the face of Jesus Christ. It is superfluous to
state that this Gnostic conception of the spirit has
nothing to do with the sound religious principle
often quoted from I Cor. iii. 6: "The letter killeth,
but the spirit giveth life." The privilege of seeing
God's glory as Moses did face to face through a
bright mirror held out in I Cor. xiii. 12 (comp. Suk.
45b; Lev. P. i. 14) to the saints in the future is
claimed in II Cor. iii. 18 and iv. 4 as a power in the
actual possession of the Christian believer. The
highest hope of man is regarded as realized by the
writer, who looks forward to the heavenl}' habita-
tion as a release from the earthly tabernacle (II
Cor. v. 1-8).

This unhealthy view of life maintained by Paul
and his immediate followers was, however, changed
b}^ the Church the moment her organ-
Spurious ization extended over the world.
Writings Some epistles were written in the
Ascribed to name of Paul with the view of estab-
Paul. lishiug more friendly relations to soci-
ety and government than Paul and
the early Christians had maintained. While Paul
warns his church-members not to bring matters of
dispute before "the unjust," by which term he
means the Gentiles (I Cor. vi. 1; comp. Jew.
Encyc. iv. 590), these very heathen powers of Rome
are elsewhere praised as the ministers of God and
His avengers of wrong (Rom. xiii. 1-7); and while
in I Cor. xi. 5 women are permitted to prophesy
and to pray aloud in the church provided they
have their heads covered, a later chapter, obviously
interpolated, states, " Let your women keep silence
in the churches" (ib. xiv. 34). So celibacy {ib. vii.
1-8) is declared to be the preferable state, and mar-
riage is allowed onlj* for the sake of preventing for-
nication (Eph. V. 21-33), while, on the other hand,
elsewliere marriage is enjoined and declared to be a
mystery or sacrament symbolizing the relation of
the Church as the bride to Christ as the bridegroom
(see Bride).

A still greater change in the attitude toward the
Law may be noticed in the so-called pastoral epis-

tles. Here the Law is declared to be good as a pre-
ventive of wrong-doing (I Tim. i. 8-10), marriage is
enjoined, and woman's salvation is declared to con-
sist only in the performance of her maternal duty
{ib. ii. 12, 15), while asceticism and celibacy are con-
demned {ih. iv. 8). So all social relations are regu-
lated in a worldly spirit, and are no longer treated,
as in Paul's genuine epistles, in the spirit of other-
worldliness {ib. ii.-vi. ; II Tim. ii. 4-6; Titus ii.-iii. ;
comp. Didascalia). Whether in collecting alms for
the poor of the church on Sundaj^s (I Cor. xvi. 2)
Paul instituted a custom or simply followed one
of the early Christians is not clear; from the "We"
source in Acts xx. 7 it appears, however, that the
church-members used to assemble for their commun-
ion meal in memory of the risen Christ, the Lord's
Supper, on the first day of the week — probably be-
cause they held the light created on that day to sym-
bolize the light of the Savior that had risen for them
(see the literature in Schlirer, "Die Siebentagige
AVoche," in "Zeitschrift filr Neutestamentliche Wis-
senschaft," 1905, pp. 1-2). Little value can be at-
tached to the story in Acts xviii. 18 that Paul
brought a Nazarite sacrifice in the Temple, since for
him the blood of Christ was the only sacrifice to be
recognized. Only at a later time, when Pauline and
Judean Christianity were merged, was account
again taken, contrary to the Pauline system, of the
Mosaic law regarding sacrifice and the priesthood;
and so the Epistle to the Hebrews was written with
the view of representing Jesus as "the high priest
after the order of Melchizedek " who atoned for the
sins of the world by his own blood (Heb. iv. 14-v.
10, vii. -xiii.). However, the name of Paul, con-
nected with the epistle by Church tradition, was
not attached to it in writing, as was the case with
the other epistles.

How far, after a careful analysis discriminating
between what is genuine in Paul's writings and
what is spurious and interpolated, he may yet be
regarded as " the great religious genius " or the
"great organizer" of the Christian Church, can not
be a matter for discussion here. Still the credit
belongs to him of having brought the teachings of
the monotheistic truth and the ethics of Judaism,
however mixed up with heathen Gnosticism and
asceticism, home to the pagan world in a form
which appealed most forcibly to an age eager for a
God in human shape and for some means of atone-
ment in the midst of a general consciousness of sin
and moral corruption. Different from
Paul and Simon Magus, his contemporary,
Paulinism. with whom he was at times mali-
ciously identified by his opponents,
and in whose Gnostic system sensuousness and pro-
fanity predominated, Paul with his austerity made
Jewish holiness his watchword ; and he aimed after
all, like any other Jew, at the establishment of the
kingdom of God, to whom also his Christ subordi-
nated himself, delivering up the kingdom to the
Father when his task of redemption was complete,
in order that God might be all in all (I Cor. xv. 28).
He was an instrument in the hand of Divine Provi-
dence to win the heathen nations for Israel's God of

On the other hand, he construed a system of faith



Saul of Tarsus

■which was at the very outset most radically in
conflict with the spirit of Judaism: (1) He sub-
stituted for the natural, childlike faith of man in
God as the ever-present Helper in all trouble, such
as the Old Testament represents it everywhere, a
blind, artificial faith prescribed and imposed from
without and which is accounted as a meritorious
act. (2) He robbed human life of its healthy im-
pulses, the human soul of its faith in its own regen-
erating powers, of its belief in its own self and in

its inherent tendencies to goodness, by

His declaring Six to be, from the days of

System of Adam, the all-conquering power of

Faith. evil ingrained in the flesh, working

everlasting doom; the deadly exhala-
tion of Satan, the prince of this world, from whose
grasp only Jesus, the resurrected Christ, the prince
of the other world, was able to save man. (3) In
endeavoring to liberate man from the yoke of the
Lav.-, he was led to substitute for the views and hopes
maintained by the apocalyptic writers the Chris-
tian dogma with its terrors of damnation and hell
for the unbeliever, holding out no hope whatso-
ever for those who would not accept his Christ as
savior, and finding the human race divided between
the saved and the lost (Rom. ii. 12; I Cor. i. 18; II
Cor. ii. 15, iv. 3; II Thess. ii. 10). (4) In declaring
the Law to be the begetter of sin and damnation
and in putting grace or faith in its place, he ignored
the great truth that duty, the divine "command,"
alone renders life holy ; that upon the law of right-
eousness all ethics, individual or social, rest. (5)
In condemning, furthermore, all human wisdom,
reason, and common sense as "folly," and in ap-
])ealing only to faith and vision, he opened wide
the door to all kinds of mysticism and superstition.
(6) Moreover, in place of the love greatly extolled
in the panegyric in I Cor. xiii. — a chapter which
strangely interrupts the connection between ch. xii.
and xiv. — Paul instilled into the Church, by his
words of condemnation of the Jews as " vessels of
wrath fitted for destruction" (Kom. ix. 22; II Cor.
iii. 9, iv. 8), the venom of hatred which renilered
the eartli unbearable for God's priest-people. Prob-
ably Paul is not responsible for these outbursts of
fanaticism ; but Paulinisni is. It finally led to that
systematic defamation and profanation of the Old
Testament and its God by Marcion and his followers
which ended in a Gnosticism so depraved and so
shocking as to bring about a reaction in the Church
in favor of the Old Testament against the Pauline
antinomianism. Protestantism revived Pauline
views and notions; and with these a biased opinion
of Judaism and its Law took possession of Chris-
tian writers, and prevails even to the present (comp.,
e.rj., Weber, "Jildische Theologie," 1897, where
Judaism is presented throughout simply as "Xo-
niismus"; Schilrer's description of the life of tlic
Jew "under the law" in his "Gesch." 3d ed., ii.
464-496; Bousset, "Religion des Judenthunis in
Neu-Testamentlichen Zeitalter," 1903, p. 107; and
the more popular works by Harnack and others;
and see also Schechter in "J. Q. R." iii. 754-766;
Abrahams, " Prof. Schiirer on Life Under the Jewish
Law," ib. xi. 626; and Schreiner, "Die Jlingsten
Urtheile iiber das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 26-34).

For other Pauline doctrines see Atonement;
Body in Jewish TnEOLOGY; Faith ; Sin, Origi-

Bibliography: Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bihl. s.v. Paul,
where the main literature is given ; Eschelbacher, ZJas- Ju-
denthum und da^ irese/t des Christeiithums, Berlin, 190-5;
Gratz, Gcsch. 4th ed., iii. 413 425 ; Sloritz Loewy, Die Pauli-
nisclte Lchre vom Oe^ctz. in Monaisschrift, 1903-4 ; Claude
Monteflore, Rahhinic Judaism and the Epistles of Pauh
in J. Q. R. xiii. 161.

SAUL WAHL. See Waul, Saul.

CAIGNART DE : Christian archeologist and nu-
mismatist ; born at Ijille March 19, 1807 ; died in Paris
Nov. 5, 1880. He first adopted a military career,
and in this way became custos of the Museum of
Artillerj', Paris, in 1842. He then made a voyage
to Palestine, paying particular attention to the
country around the Dead Sea. On his return he
claimed to have discovered the ruins of Sodom and
Gomorrah, and presented to the Louvre a sarcoph-
agus which he insisted was that of King David.
Among his many works, those of Jewish interest
(all published in Paris) are: "Voyage Autour de la
Mer Morte," 1854; " Recherches sur la Numisma-
tique Judaique," 1854; " Dictionnairedes Antiquites
Bibliques," 1857; "Histoire de I'Art Judaique,"
1858; "Voyage en Terre Sainte," 1865; "Histoire
d'Herode, Roi des Juifs," 1867; "Numismatique de
la Terre Sainte," 1873 (the standard work on the
subject previous to Madden's); "Sept Si^cles de
r Histoire Judaique," 1874.

Bibliography : Larousse, Diet.; La Grande Encyclopedic.
T. J.

SAVANNAH : Important commercial city of
Chatham county, Georgia ; situated on the Savannah
River. It was founded in 1733 bj' Gen. James Ogle-
thorpe, and received its charter about half a century
later (1789). It constituted the central point of the
colony of Georgia, intended as a refuge for all per-
sons fleeing from religious persecutions; and the
spirit of its founder is best expressed in the words of
Francis Moore ("A Voyage to Georgia," p. 15, Lou-
don, 1744), who says that Oglethorpe "shew'd no
Discountenance to any for being of different Persua-
sions in Religion." On the arrival of the first He-
brew settlers (1733) the trustees of the colony in-
formed General Oglethorpe that they did not purpose
" to make a Jews' colony of Georgia . . . and that
they hoped they [the Jews] would meet with no
encouragement." The general ignored the sugges-
tions of the trustees, and called their attention to
the good offices of Dr. Nufiez, who was one of the
first Hebrew arrivals in Savannah.

The Jews of Savannah prospered both materially
and religiously, and led a peaceful existence until
the outbreak of the American Revolution, when they
became scattered, several of them enlisting in the
Revolutionary arm}-. On the ratification of the
treaty between Great Britain and the United States
they began, however, to return to Savannah, and
shortly afterward were again prominently identified
with the commercial and industrial growth of the
city. When the independence of the United States
was declared, and Washington was elected presi-
dent, the Jews of Savannah extended their congrat-


Saxon Duchies



ulations to the chief magistrate in a letter signed by
Levy Sheftall, the president of the Mickwa Israel
congregation ; the letter was suitably acknowledged.

Since the declaration of the independence of the
United States the Jewish community of Savannah
has enjoyed an almost uninterrupted era of tran-
quillity. An exodus of Jews which took place be-
tween 1797 and 1820 was soon offset by the arrival
of new settlers; and the history of the growth of the
Mickwa Israel congregation (see Georgia), wliich
was founded shortly after the arrival of the first
Jewish settlers, gives ample evidence of the pros-
perity of the Savannah community.

Among the ministers who have served the Mickwa
Israel congregation special mention sliould be made
of Dr. Jacob de la Motta and the Rev. I. P. Mendes.
The latter, who was appointed to the rabbinate in
1877, had officiated for four years previously as rabbi
of the Portuguese congregation in Richmond, Va.
He was born in Kingston, Jamaica, Jan. 13, 1853;
studied at Northwick College, London ; and received
the degrees of M.A. (1892) and D.D. (1899) from the
University of Georgia, being the only Jew in the
state of Georgia on whom the university bestowed
an honorary degree. He published " Pure Words," a
collection of prayers; "First Lessons in Hebrew,"
dedicated to the Council of Jewish Women; a book-
let of "Children's Services" for use in his own con-
gregation ; and a collection of special prayers for
Sabbath services and Sunday-school. He died at
Savannah June 28, 1904.

In addition to Congregation Mickwa Israel, Savan-
nah now (1905) has the congregations B'nai B'rith
Jacob and Agudas Achim (incorporated 1904), be-
sides the following communal organizations : Daugh-
ters of Israel, founded 1891 ; Chevra Gemiluth
Chesed, 1887; Hebrew Benevolent Society, 1851;
Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society, 1853; Mickwa
Israel Temple Gild, 1894; Orphan Aid Society,
1880; anda Young Men's Hebrew Association, 1874.

At present the Jews of Savannah number between
2,800 and 3,000 in a total population of 54,244.

A. F. C.

SAVIOR. See Messiah.

SAVOY : Ancient independent duchy ; part of
the kingdom of Sardinia from 1720; ceded to France
in 1860; and now (1905) forming the departments
of Savoie and Haute-Savoie. When in 1182 the
Jews were expelled from France by Philip Augus-
tus, many of them sought refuge in Savoy, espe-
cially in tlie cities of Chambery, Yenne, Seissel,
Aiguebelle, Chillon, Chatol,and Montmelian (comp.
Joseph ha-Kohcn, "'Emek ha-Baka,"
A Refuge p. 71); and a new contingent of set-
from tiers arrived after the second French

France. expulsion in 1306. Toward the end
of the thirteenth century Amadeus V.
granted the Jews of his dominions many privileges;
these were renewed Nov. 17, 1323, by Edward, who
accorded special favors to Vivant de Vesos, to Mag-
ister Agin, Vivant's son-in-law, and to Harasson de
Bianna. In 1331 Aymon the Peaceful reduced the
yearly taxes of the Jews of Savoy from 2,000 gold
florins to 1,300.

Savoy was especially prominent in the tragedy of

the Black Death in 1348. Chambery, its capital,
was alleged by the accusers of the Jews to have
been the place where the poison for the wells, the
supposed origin of the plague, was prepared by
Rabbi Peyret and a rich Jew named Aboget. In
consequence of this accusation Jews were massacred
at Chambery, Chillon, Chatel, Yenne, Saint-Genis,
Aiguebelle, and Montmelian. In the last-mentioned
town the Jews were imprisoned, and while they
were awaiting judgment the populace invaded the
prison and massacred them, with the exception of
eleven persons who were later burned alive in an
old barn filled with inflammable materials. A doc-
ument relating to that persecution has preserved the
names of the victims of Aiguebelle. These were:
Beneyton, Saul, the Jewess Joyon, Lyonetus, Soni-
nus, Vimandus, Bonnsuper, Samuel, ]Mouxa, Beney-
ton, Coen, Helist, Jacob and his son Bonionus, Par-
vus Samuel, Abraham, Benyon, Sansoninus, Samuel,
and Magister Benedictus. However, the persecu-
tion was soon forgotten, and the Jews of Savoy
resumed their occupations, which consisted chiefly
in money-lending and trading in jewelry. Their
success in the former is evidenced by the fact that
the dukes themselves were very often their debtors.
In 1366 the wife of Amadeus VI. pawned her jewels
to two Jews; and in 1379 the treasurer of Savoy
was charged to pay to the Jews Agino Ruffo and
Samuel of Aubonne 200 gold florins for a crown the
queen had bought from them. In 1388 the plate of
Amadeus VII. was deposited with a Jew named
Aaron as security for the sum of 800 gold florins.

A new persecution occurred in 1394 at the instiga-
tion of Vicente Ferrer (Joseph ha-Kohen, I.e. p. 75).
In 1417 the Jews of Savoj'' were charged with pos-
sessing books wliich contained blasphemies against
Christianity; and two converted Jewish physicians,
Guillaum Saffon and Pierre of Macon, were commis-
sioned to examine all books written in Hebrew. A
similar charge was brought in 1430,

Hebrew and the Hebrew books were again
Books examined, the examiner being a con-
Examined, verted Jewish physician named Ayme,
who ordered them to be burned. From
the year 1429 the condition of the Savoy Jews grew
more and more precarious. In that year Amadeus
VIII. expelled the Jews from Chatillon-les-Dombes.
A year later he annulled all the privileges that had
been granted to the Jews by his predecessors. He
confined the Jewish inhabitants to special quarters,
in which they were locked during the night and
during Holy Week, and he ordered them to wear on
the left shoulder a cloth badge in the shape of a
wheel, half white and lialf red, four fingers in width.
He also renewed the old prohibition against keeping
Christian servants, and forbade the buying of sacred
vessels or any merchandise without the presence of
witnesses or of a notary. At the instigation of a
converted Jewish physician named Louis, of Nice
or Provence, who had been charged by his god-
father, Duke Louis, to make an inventory of the
Jewish books of Chambery, a persecution broke out
in 1466. This persecution is, according to Gershon,
identical with that reported by Solomon ibn Verga
(■'Shebet Yehudah," No. 11) to have taken place in
1490. Toward the end of the fifteenth century, fol-




Saxon Duchies

lowing upon the general banishment from Spain in
1493, the Jews were ordered to leave Savoy. It
seems, however, that a small community remained
in Chambery, which, according to Victor de Saiut-
Genis ("Histoire de Savoie," i. 455), still existed in

Of the prominent men connected with Savoy may
be mentioned the following: R. Aaron of Cham-
bery, commentator on the Pentateuch ;
Rabbis and R. Jacob Levi of Chambery ; R. Solo-
Scholars, mon Colon, father of Joseph Colon;
and Gerslion Soncino, who, in his pref-
ace to the Hebrew grammar of David Kimhi, says
that he collected in Chambery the "Tosafot Tuk "
(see Eliezer of Touques). Numerous Jewish
physicians lived in Savoy, the most prominent
among them being: Samson, physician to Amadeus
V. ; Palmieri, body-physician of Amadeus VI. and
ph3'.sician of the city of Chambery ; Hellas of Evian,
invited in 1418 to attend the daughters of the Count
of Savoy ; Isaac of Annecy ; Jacob of Chambery,
physician to Bonne de Berri, mother of Amadeus
VIII. ; Solomon, physician to Amadeus VIII. ; and

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