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after his arrival he was called as rabbi to Congrega-



tion Adath Emuno, Hobokcn, N. J., which he left in
1874 for Congregation Adath Israel of Boston, Mass.
In 1888 he was elected to the Boston school board
by the unanimous vote of all political parties. In
1894 Schindler retired from the rabbinate to become
superintendent of the Fedenitiou of Jewish Chari-
ties of Boston, but resigned that position in 1899 to
l)ecome superintendent of the Leopold Morse Home
for Infirm Hebrews and Orphanage at Mattapan,
Mass., which position he still (1905) holds.

Schindler is tlie author of: "Messianic Expecta-
tions and Modein Judaism," "Dissolving Views in
the History of Judaism," and "Young West: A Se-
quel to Looking Backward." He has written also
manv articles for tiie "Arena" and other period-
icals.

Bibliography: One uf a Thimgand, p. 5-54, Boston. 1890;
Maxsnclntsetts of Tn-day, p. 274, ib.; Hist(n~!i of the Jews of
Boston, p. 40, lb. 1892; }Vhn''s IK/io in America, 190;i-5.

A. J. Led.

SCHLEMIHL : Popular Yiddish term lor an
unfortunate person. It occurs also in the form
Schlimmilius ("Judische Volksbibliothek," vii.
80). According to Heine ("' Jehuda-ben-Halevy "),
it is derived from the Bible name "Shelumiel," owing
to the fact that the person transfixed by the spear of
Pliinehas for incontinence with the Moabite Avoman
(Xum. XXV. 6) was so killed by mistake. Others
derive the term from a corruption of the expression
"schlinmi mazzal" (unlucky star).

Many of the mo.st popular anecdotes of the ghetto
relate to the experiences of persons who, through
no fault of their own, are pursued by misfortune to
tlie end, and endure it without murmuring. They
resemble in Jewish folk-tales the Gothamites or
"Schildburgcrs" of English and German folk-lore.
Chamisso used the term as the name of the hero of
his popular story, "Peter Schlemihl," but without
much reference to its Jewish meaning. He may
have heard tlie term through Itzig, the Berlin bank-
er, to whom Heine was indebted for his interpreta-
tion of the word.

B!ni.iO(iKAPHV : Ctiaiuisso. Peter Schlemihl, ed. Jacobs, Pref-
ace, p. xii., Loniiim, 189s ; D. Sanders. Deittsches nUrtn -
hucli ; idem, Kritiki)i. U. ]:!7; B. FeLsenthal. in Geiger's
JUd. Zeit. vi. tiO; A. Wiinsclie, in JUdische.sLitteraturhhitt,
viii. i:r).

A. J.

SCHLESINGER, HERMAN: German phy-
sician; born at Adelebsen, Hanover, April 1, 1856;
committed suicide at Frankfort-on-the-Main Aug.
23, 1902. He was an M.D. of Gottingen (1879), from
which university he received a prize for the treatise
" Experimentelle Uutersiichungen liber die Wirkung
Laiige Zeit Fortgegebener Kleiner Dosen Quecksilber
auf Tliiere," published in the "Archiv fiir Experi-
mentelle Pathologic uiid Pharmacie," 1880. After
a postgraduate course in Berlin he settled in Frank-
fort-on-the-Main.

Schlesiiigcr became in 1899 editor of " Die Aerzt-
liclie Praxis." ])ublis]ied at Wlirzburg. He was the
author of " Aerztliclies Handblichlein fur Hygie-
nisch-Diatetisciie. Hydrotherapeutische und Andere
Verordnungeii." 1S91 (6tli ed. 1896; translated into
Italian by Raffaelo Supino, Florence, 1897).

BiBi.iOGR.\PHV: Pa^el, Bioti. Lex.
s. F. T. H.



103



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Scbiller-Szinessy
Schlettstadt



SCHLESINGER, JOSEF: Austrian mathema-
tician; boru at Maiiriscli-Schonberg Dec. 31, 1831.
The son of very poor parents, he had to earn a live-
lihood even as a mere boy. In 1858 he graduated
from the Polytechnic In.stitute in Vienna, at which
institution he became assistant in the following year.
In 1866 he passed the state board examination as
teacher of geometry, and was employed in the
schools of the Austrian capital. In 1870 he was
called to the forestry academy at Marienbrunn,
where he became professor of geometry ; in 1875 he
was appointed in a similar capacity at the agricul-
tural academy at Vienna ; and in 1891 he was sent
as representative of Vienna to the Austrian Reichs-
ratli.

Of tSchlesinger's works may be mentioned: "Dar-
stellende Geometric im Sinneder Neuen Geometric,"
Vienna, 1870; " Die Geistige Mechanik der Natur."
Leipsic, 1888; "Licht fur's Leben," Vienna, 1890;
" Die Entstehung der Physischen und Geistigen Welt
aus dem Aether," ib. 1893.

Bibliography : Eisenberg, Das Geistige Wien, i., Vienna,
1893.
6. F. T. H.

SCHLESINGER, LUDWIG: Hungarian
mathematician ; born at Tyrnau (Nagyszombat)
Nov. 1, 1864; educated at the Realschule, Presburg,
and at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin
(Ph.D. 1887). In 1889 he became privat-docent at
the University of Berlin ; in 1897, assistant professor
at the University of Bonn; and since 1903 lie has
been professor of mathematics at the University of
Klausenburg.

Schlesinger has written essays for the scientific
periodicals and journals, and he is the author of
"Handbuch der Theorie der Linearen Differential-
gleicliungen," Leipsic, 1895-98, and "Einflihrung
in die Theorie der Differentialgleichungen." ih. 1900.

s. ' F. T. H.

SCHLESINGER, MARKUS. SeeGLOGAUER,

MeIK I5EN" EZEKIEL.

SCHLESINGER, SIGMUND : Austrian wri-
ter; born at Vienna 1811; educated at the Schotten-
gymnasium and the University of Vienna (M.D.
1835). He published in 1828 in the " Sammler " a
poem on Ludwig Devrient, and wrote in 1831 a
drama on the marriage of the Austrian crown prince
Ferdinand, which was produced several times on tlie
Vienna stage. In the same 3'ear, using the nom de
plume "Sigmund," lie became a collaborator on the
"Theater Zeitung." In 1833 he traveled thmugli
Moravia, and in 1835 published in Leipsic his " Miilni-
sche Reisebriefe." He went to Dalmatia in 18o7 as
pliysician and served as surgeon in the lionved
army during the years IS48 and 1849. His subse-
quent history can not be tiaced.

Other works by Schlesinger are: "Eleonorevon
Toleilo." Vienna, 1833: " Herhst-Novellen." ih. 1835,
and Leipsic, 1838; and "Vindobona," Vienna, 1837.

Bini.ionRAPHY : Brummer, Deutschcs Dichtcr-Lc.riknii, stutt-
jrart. ].*^7H.
s. F. T. H.

SCHLESINGER, WILHELM S. : Austrian
physician, horn at Tinnye, Hungary. 1839. Edu-
cated at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1864), he



established himself in the Austrian capital, receiving
the " venia legendi " in gynecology from his alma
mater in 1874.

In 1878 Schlesinger founded the "Wiener Medi-
zinische Blatter," to which paper he contributed
many essays. Of his works may be mentioned:
"Experimentelle Untersuchungen fiber Uterusbe-
wegungen " ; " Ueber Reflexbewegungen des Ute-
rus " ; " Ueber die Centra der Gefass- und Uterus-
nerven " ; " Ueber Blutgeschwiilste des Weiblichen
Beckens"; "Zar Architektonik des Weiblichen
Bee kens."



Bibliography : Hirsch, Biog. Lex.

s.



F. T. H.



SCHLETTSTADT : Town in Alsace, about 37
miles south-southwest of Strasburg. In the year
1349, under Emperor Charles IV., its Jewish inhab-
itants suffered during the general persecution of
Jews throughout Germany. They were expelled
from the town, but later returned; they then, bow-
ever, became the object of new persecutions, which
caused Charles in 1387 to place the town under a
ban for two years. The synagogue building dating
from this time still exists. It lias served for different
purposes ; thus, before the war of 1870 it was used as
an arsenal and was called "SainteBarbc." The bur-
ial-ground dates from the thirteenth century, and is
one of the largest in the country ; tombstones bearing
inscriptions of the year 1400 have been found. Dur-
ing the time that Jews were forbidden to live in the
city and during the various revolutions after 1350
most of the tombstones were carried off and used in
building houses, barns, and fences.

From the middle of the fourteenth century until
the commencement of the nineteenth no Jew was
allowed to pass the night within the town limits.
All those that were in Schlettstadt on business had
to leave before night, a bell being rung to announce
the hour for departure. The bell and bell-tower are
still in existence. Tlie first Jew to receive permis-
sion to settle in Schlettstadt (1806) was Solomon
Moise, a German, who subsequently changed his
name to Solomon Dreyfus.

Since 1863 the town has been the seat of a rab-
binate. It has a modern synagogue designed in the
Russian style. The first rabbi was Meyer Ulmo (d.
c. 1886), who was succeeded by the present rabbi,
Benjamin Walil.

Tiie Jews of Schlettstadt at present (1905) number
about 330 in a total population of 9,135.

s. ^l. Lv.

SCHLETTSTADT, SAMUEL BEN
AARON: German rabbi; born at Schlettstadt;
lived at Strasburg in the second half of the four-
teenth centur}'. He was rabbi and head of an impor-
tant yeshibali in the latter city, where he was
higlily respected by both his community and his
pupils, when suddenly he was caused to act in a
case which nearly cost him his life. The com-
munity of Strasburg about 1370 had among its mem-
bers two informers ("moserim"), through whom it
was constantly exposed to the depredatory incursions
of the knights of Andlau. As the Jews could not
summon the two moserim before the Christian court
without involving the powerful knights, they ap-



Schlettstadt
Scbnabel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



104



plied to their rabbi for assistance. The latter se-
cretly constituted a court of justice, which con-
demned the two traitors to death, and the sentence
was carried out on one of them, named Salamin.
The second, however, made good his escape, and,
having embraced Christianity, returned to his

friends and protectors, whom he in-

Condemns formed of what iiad liappened. The

an In- knights of Andlau, followed by an

former to armed mob, came to Strasburg clam-

Death. oring for vengeance on the Jews for

the death of their ally. The Jews,
when questioned about the affair, told the magis-
trates that the man had been executed at the com-
mand of Schlettstadt. The knights consequently
set out toward the latter's house, but Schlettstadt
succeeded, probably through the connivance of one
of the knights, in securing refuge, with his pupils,
in the castle of Hohelandsberg, near Colmar. From
this fortress he petitioned the leaders of the commu-
nity to intervene on his behalf so that he might re-
turn to his home. But either thej' neglected his re-
quest entirely or their action in his behalf was not
forceful enough to be successful; for he remained
six years in confinement.

Tired of waiting, Schlettstadt left his hiding-place
in 1876 and went to Babylonia, where he brought a
complaint before the prince of the captivity (" nasi ")
against the chiefs of tlie Strasburg community. The
nasi, supported by the rabbinate of Jerusalem, wrote
in Schlettstadt's favor a ban ("herem ") against the
community of Strasburg, invoking against its mem-
bers all the curses if they should persist in their re-
fusal to interfere in his behalf. Carmoly ("La
France Israelite," pp. 138-144, Frankfort-on-the-
Main, 1858) and GriUz C'Gesch." 3d ed., viii. 12 et
seq.) think that the prince who issued the herem
was the exilarch David b. Hodiah, and the\' identify
the ban with the one published by Kirchheim in
"Orient, Lit." vi. 739; David b. Hodiah lived almost
two centuries earlier, however.

Armed with this ban, Schlettstadt returned to
Germany. He sojourned at Ratisbon, the rabbis of
which town were territied by the ban written by
the leader of the Eastern Jews. They immediately
wrote to the chiefs of tlie Strasburg community beg-
ging them to use all their energy in obtaining per-
mission for Schlettstadt's return, and threatening
that otherwise they would be put under the ban.
As a result the desired permission was at length
granted. On the day of his arrival all the Jews of
Strasburg went out to meet him, among others his

son Abraham. The latter, while cross-
Returns to ing the Rhine in a boat in order to go
Strasburg. to his father, met with an accident and

was drowned. It is not known how
long Schlettstadt lived after this event; but, as the
narrator of the foregoing events (Joseph Loanz,
whos(! narrative was published by Gratz in "Mo-
natsschrift," xxiv. 408 et seq.) states likewise that a
few years later {c. 1380) all the Jews of Strasburg
were massacred, it is possible that Schlettstadt per-
ished together with his community.

Schlettstadt is particularly known for his abridg-
ment, entitled " Kizzur Mordekai " or " Mordekai
ha-Katon" (.still unpublished), of Mordecai ben Hil-



lel's " Sefer ha-Mordekai." Both Carmoly and Gratz
think that Schlettstadt wrote the work in the for-
tress of Hohelandsberg. Although Scldettstadt
generally followed Mordecai b. Hillel, yet in certain
instances he deviated frtmi his predecessor, and he
also added certain laws which are not found in the
"Sefer ha-Mordekai." That his work was con-
sidered as an independent one is shown by the fact
that it is quoted, now alone, now together with
Mordecai ben Hillel's work, by Israel Bruna (Re-
sponsa. No. 163), by Israel Isserlein ("Pesakim,"No.
192, passim), who refers to it as the "Mordekai" of
Samuel Schlettstadt, by Jacob Weil (Responsa, No.
88), and by Jacob Molln (Responsa, No. 155; "Min-
hagim," section "Sukkot"). Schlettstadt further-
more furnished Mordecai b. Hillel's work with numer-
ous notes ("Haggahot Mordekai," first published at
Ri va di Trento, 1558, as an appendix to the " Sefer ha-
^lordekai," and afterward included in box-heads in
the text of that work). The author of the "Hag-
gahot " was for a long time unknown. Zunz was
the first to point out (in Steinschneider, " Hebr.
Bil)l." ix. 135) that they were written by Schlett-
stadt. Internal evidence of his authorship is af-
forded by the following references by Schlettstadt
himself: "In the 'Mordekai Katon ' which I com-
posed " (" Mordekai " on Yeb. 110) ; " I, Samuel, the
small one " {ib. Git. 456). In many other places the
author refers to his "Kizzur Mordekai" simply
as "my work" {ib. Yeb. 106, passim; Ket. 304; Kid.
544). Finally, Jacob Weil (I.e. No. 147) refers to
Schlettstadt's responsa.

Bibliography : Besides the sources mentioned in the article,
Kohn, in Moimtgsclirift, xxvi. 429 et seq.; S. Landauer, in
Gemeinde-Zeitung fiir Elsass-Lothringen, Strasburg, 1880,
No. 15.
s. M. Sel.

SCHLOESSINGER, MAX: German philolo-
gist and theologian ; born at Heidelberg Sept. 4,
1877; educated at the public school and the gymna-
sium of his native place, the universities of Heidel-
berg, Vienna, and Berlin (Ph.D. 1901), the Isra-
elitisch -Theologische Lehranstalt at Vienna, the
Veitel - Heine - Ephraim'sche Lehranstalt and the
Lehranstalt fur die Wissenschaft des Judenthums,
Berlin (rabbi, 1903). In 1903 he went to New York
and joined the editorial staff of The Jewish En-
cvcLOPEDi.\, which position he resigned in 1904,
on his appointment as librarian and instructor in
Biblical exegesis at the Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

Schloessinger has published "Ibn Kaisan's Com-
mentar zur Mo'allaqa des 'Amr ibn Kultum nach
einer Berliner Handschrift," in C. Bezold's "Zeit-
schrift filr A.ssyriologie luid Verwandte Gebiete,"
vol. xvi., part i., i>p. 15 et seq., Strasburg, 1901.

A. F. T. H.

SCHMELKES, GOTTFRIED S. : Au.strian
physician; born at Prague Sept. 22, 1807; died at
Interlaken, Switzerland, Oct. 28, 1870. Educated
at the universities of Prague and Vienna (^I.D.
1837), he became in 1838 physician to the Jewish
hospital at Tnplitz (Tei)litz), Bohemia, at which
watering-place he estahlislicd himself as a i)liysician,
practising there until his death.

Of Schmelkes' works maybe mentioned: "Phy-



105



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Schlettstadt
Schnabel



sikalisch-Medizinische Darstellung des Kohlenmi-
neral-Moors und Desseu Anwendung zu Biidern,"
Prague, 1835; "Die Tliernialbader zu Teplitz,"
Berlin, 1837; "Teplitz und Seine Mineralquellen,"
Dresden and Leipsic, 1841 ; "Teplitz Gegen Lali-
mung," Dessau, 1855; "Teplitz Gegen Neuralgien,"
Berlin, 1861; "Sedimente Meiner Praxis an den
Thermon zu Teplitz," ib. 1867. He wrote also some
poetry. Schmelkes proposed the building of the
hospital for invalid soldiers of the kingdom of Sax-
ony, founded at Toplitz in 1849, and was its chief
physician until his death.

Bibliography : Hirsch, Biog. Lex.; W. Bacher, Dr. G.
Schmelkes. in Rahmer's Israelitische Wochen.-<chrift, 1871.

s. F. T. H.

SCHMID, ANTON VON : Christian publisher
of Hebrew books; born at Zwettl, Lower Austria,
Jan. 23, 1765; died at Vienna June 27, 1855. His
father, an employee of tlie convent, destined him
for the clerical career, and with this view Anton
received a collegiate education at the convent. He
continued his studies at the Zwettl seminary in
Vienna to prepare himself for the university, but,
declining to become a clergyman, he had to leave
the institution. In 1785 he entered as an apprentice
the establishment of the court printer Kurzbeck.
Schmid attended the Oriental academy, and in con-
sequence was assigned to Hebrew typesetting, for
which he had a great predilection. Having become
acquainted with Jewish scholars and booksellers and
with the wants of the Hebrew reading public, he
bought from Kurzbeck his Hebrew types in order
to establish himself as a printer and publisher; but
through the intrigues of the Vienna printers he was
unable to obtain from the government the requisite
permission to pursue that calling. Thereupon he
presented a petition to Emperor Francis II., Avho
granted him the privilege on the condition that he
would present a copy of each book printed by him
to the imperial libraiy.

Schmid's great success soon enabled him to buy
Kurzbeck's entire printing establishment. In 1800
the government prohibited the import of Hebrew
books, to the great advantage of Schmid, who with-
out hindrance reprinted the works issued by Wolf
Heidenheim in Rodelheim. The printing was under
the supervision of Joseph della Torre and afterward
of his son Adalbert, and Schmid became more and
more prosperous. By the year 1816 he had presented
to the imperial library eighty-six works comprising
200 volumes; and Jiis great merit was acknowledged
by a gold medal from tlie emperor. He then en-
larged his establishment, printing Arabic, Persian,
and Syriac books also, and upon the donation of 17
new Oriental works in 44 volumes to tlie court
library he received a title of nobility. A few years
later he made a tliird donation of 148 works in 347
volumes, presenting a similar gift to the Jewish re-
ligious school of Vienna. His son Franz Schmid
took charge of the establishment in 1839, and sold
it to Adall)ert della Torre in 1849. Among the
principal works published by Schmid were the He-
brew Bible with German translation and the com-
mentary of the Biurists, the Talmud, the Hebrew
periodical " Bikkure ha 'Ittim," the works of Mai-



monides and of Judah Lob Ben-Zeeb, and Jewish

prayer-books and catechisms.

Bibliography: Wurzbaeh, Bworop/) ij?c?ies Lexikoiu xxx.
209-212; Letteris, Wiener Mittheilungen, 1855, Nos. 28-31.

J- S. Man.

SCHMIEDL, ADOLF: Austrian rabbi and
scholar; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, Jan. 26, 1821.
He held the office of rabbi at Gewitsch, Moravia,
from 1846 to 1849, during which time he contributed
to tlie journals " Kokebe Yizhak " and " Der Orient."
In 1849 he was called as " Landesrabbiner " to Teseh-
en, Austrian Silesia, where he officiated until 1852.
Leaving Teschen, lie held successively the rabbinates
of Bielitz, Prossnitz, Sechshaus (1869-94; now a
part of Vienna), and Leopoldstadt, the second dis-
trict of Vienna, where he still (1905) officiates.

Besides numerous contributions to periodical lit-
erature, Schmiedl has written: "Sansinim," homi-
lies on the Pentateuch (Prague, 1859 and 1885);
"Studien zur Jlidisch-Arabischen Religionsphiloso-
phie" (Vienna, 1869); "Saadia Alfajumi und die
Negativen Vorzuge Seiner Religionsphilosophie"
{ib. 1870); "Die Lehre vom Kampf urns Recht im
Verhaltniss zum Judeuthume und dem Aeltesten
Christenthum " (ib. 1875).

Bibliography: QcKterreichUche Wochenschrift, 1901, Nos.
4 and 5 ; Ha-Magyid, 1901, No. 5, p. 52.
S. S. O.

SCHNABEL, ISIDOR : Austrian physician;
born at Neubidschow, Bohemia, Nov. 14, 1842.
Educated at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1865),
he became there assistant in the ophthalniological
clinic and estalilished himself as privat-docent. He
was elected professor of ophthalmology successively
at the universities of Innsbruck (1877), Graz (1887),
Prague (1892), and Vienna (1896), in which last-
named citj' he still lives (1905).

Schnabel has written many works, of which may
be mentioned: "Zur Lehre von den Ursachen der
Kurzsichtigkeit," in "Archiv fur Ophthalmologic,"
XX.; " Die Begleit-und Folgekrankheit von Iritis,"
in "Archiv fiir Augenheilkunde," v.; "Zur Lehre
vom Glaucom," ib. vii., xvi. ; "Zur Lehre von
der Ophthalmoskopischen VergrSsserung," ib. ix. ;
"Ueber Syphilitische Augenerkrankungen," in
"Wiener Medizinische Blatter," 1882; " Ueber Myo-
pieheilung," ^вЦ†6. 1898; " Kleine Beitrage zur Lehre
von der Augenmuskellahmung und zur Lehre vom
Schielen," in "Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift,"
1899.



Bibliography : Pagel, liing. Lex.

s.



F. T. H.



SCHNABEL, LOUIS: Austrian teacher and
journalist; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, June 29,
1829; died at New York May 3, 1897. He was
educated at various yeshibot, and, after completing
his studies at the University of Vienna, he taught
in the Talmud Torali of his native city, and at
Boskowitz and Vienna. In 1854 he went to Paris,
where he remained until 1863, teaching in Dereu-
bourg's school for boys and in Madame Calm 's school
for girls. During this period lie contributed ex-
tensively to the Jewish papers.

Schnabel emigrated to America in 1839 and be-
came superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum
of New York, establishing at the same time a mag-



Schneiersohn
Schonerer



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



106



azine. "Young Israel," wliich existed for eiglit
years. In 1875 he became principal of the prepara-
tory school for the Hebrew Union College; and in
1890 he took charge of the English classes for Kus-
sian immigrants established by tlie Baron de Hirsch
Fund. He was the Hebrew instructor of Emma
Lazarus.

Schnabel published a collection of ghetto stories
under the title " Vogele's Marriage and Other Tales."

Bibliography : Puf)l. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. No. 8, pp. 150-151.

A.

SCHNEIERSOHN, DOB BAR. See Ladieu,
Don Uau h. Sh.nkou Zai.man.

SCHNITZER, EDUARD. See Emin Pasiia.

SCHNITZLER, JOHANN : Austrian laryn-
gologist; born at Nagy-Kanizsa, Hungary, April
10, 1835; died at Vienna :\Iay 2, 1893. Educated at
the University of Vienna (M.D. 1860), lie became as-
sistant at the general hospital (Allgemeines Kranken-
haus) under Oppolzer and received the " venia
legendi" in 1866. In 1878 he was made titular
professor, and in 1880 was appointed assistant pro-
fessor of laryngoscopy. From 1888 he had charge
of the general dispensary. Schnitzler founded, with
P. ]\larkbreiter, in 1860, the " Wiener Medizinischc
Presse," of which paper he was editor until 1886.

Of Schnitzler's many works, treating esjiccially of
diseases of the throat and larynx, may be mentioned ;
"Die Pneumatische Behandlung der Lungen- und
Herzkrankheiten," 2d ed., Vienna, 1877; "Uebcr
Laryngoskopie und Rliinoskopie und Hire Anwen-
dung in der Aerztlichen Praxis," z'i. 1879; " Ueber
Lungensyphilis und Ihr Verhaltniss zur Lungen-
schwindsucht," ib. 1880.

BinLio(;RAiMiv : Pagel, Biog. Lex.

s. F. T. H.

SCHNORRER: Judfpo-German term of reproach
for a Jewish beggar having some pretensions to re-
spectability. In contrast to the ordinary house-to-
house beggar, whose business is known and easily
recognized, the schnorrer assumes a gentlemanly ap-
IH'arance, disguises his purpose, gives evasive rea-
sons for asking assistance, and is not satistied with
small favors, being indeed quite indignant when
such are offered. He usually travels from city to
city and even into foreign countries; but he must not
be confounded with the tramp, whose counterpart
is not to be found in Jewish lieggary. The schnorrer
class includes the Jew who collects a fund to ]iro-
vide a (l)wry for his daughter or for an orphan rela-
tive about to be married, which fund is called "hak-
uasat kallah"; also tiic one who asks for means
to rehabilitate himself after his house or chattels
have been burned in a general conflagration, in
which case he is known as a "nisraf." The autlior
who considers that the world owes him a living for
his "great work" for "enlightening mankind " and
who jiresscs the acceptance of his ])ookon tlie unap-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 27 of 160)