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preciative rich in consideration of whatever sums
they may be Avilling to contribute, is ciiaracterized
as a literary schnorrer.

The schnorrer period began with the ('iimiklnicki
massacres in Poland (1648-57), Avlien thousands of
Jews tied to Germany In the eighteenth centurv
schnorrers flourished princii-ially in Germanv. Hoi-



land, and Italy, and came from Poland (mainly from
Lithuania), and also from Palestine, one from the
latter country being known as a " Yerushalmi." In
later times impudence and presumption were char-
acteristics of the schnorrer. This was more espe-
cially the case with those who laid claim to a rab-
binical education and who regarded themselves as
privileged persons, giving the impression, with an
assumption of condescension, that they were doing
a favor in rendering an opportunity to their rich
neighbors to perform a worthy deed b}^ making a
contribution. This trait has been graphically delin-
eated in Zangwill's "The King of Schnorrers." The
equivalent Hebrew term of the Mahzor, "melek
ebyon," has been adopted in the Yiddish vernacular
to denote a person of extreme poverty and shabby
gentility. See Begging and Beggars.

Bibliography: Jacobs, Jeivish Year Bnolt, CG;'.) (1899), p.
294; A. A. Green, in Jew. Chron. 19(M).
J. J. D. E.

SCHNURMANN, NESTOR IVAN : English
educationist; born 1854 in Russia. He wentto Eng-
land about 1880, and began his career as a teacher
of Russian and kindred languages to army officers,
becoming examiner in Bulgarian to the civil serv-
ice commissioners. He was for some time lecturer
in Russian and other Slavonic languages at the Uni-
versity of Cambridge. In 1894 he was appointed
assistant masterat Cheltenham College, and head of
a house for Jewish boys at tliat institution.

Schnurmann is the author of several text-books
of instruction in Russian: "The Russian Manual,"
London, 1888; "Aid to Russian Composition," i6.
1888; "Russian Reader," ib. 1891.

Bibliography: Jewish Year Bank, 5f)65 (1904-5).
J. I. Co.

SCHOMBERG, SIR ALEXANDER : British
naval officer; born 1716; died in Dublin 3Iarch 19,
1804; younger son of Meyer Low Schomberg. He
entered the navy in Nov., 1743. In 1747 he was
promoted lieutenant of the "Hornet"; in 1755 he
was appointed to the "^ledway," one of the fleet in
the Bay of Biscay; and in 1757 he became captain
of the "Richmond"; from this vessel he was trans-
ferred to the "Diana" frigate, which in 1760 was
one of the squadron that repulsed an attempt by the
Frencli to regain Quebec. Schomberg was then ap-
pointed to the "Essex," a ship of 64 guns, and in
1761 he took part under the command of Commodore
Kepjiel in the reduction of Belle-Isle. In 1770 he
was ajipointed to the "Prudent," and in 1771 to the
command of the "Dorset." He was knighted by
the lord lieutenant in 1777, and for many years
headed the list of captains.

Sir Alexander was the author of a work entitled
" A Sea ^lanual Recommended to the Young Officers
of the Royal Navy as a Companion to the Signal-
r>ook." 1789.

BiHi.iofJRAPiiv: Boase, Modern Birjoraphj/ ; Charnock, Bio-

(ir(ii>)ii(i Xavalis, vi.

.1. G. L.

SCHOMBERG, ISAAC: English physician;
liorn at Cologne Aug. 14, 1714; died in London May
4. 1780; son of Meyer Low Sciiomberg. He re-
ceived a lil)eral education, and pursued his med-



107



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Schneiersohn
Schonerer



ical studies at Lcdyen, where he took the degree of
M.D. Retiirnintr to Englaud, he commenced prac-
tise in London.

His career was remarkable for his dispute with
the Royal College of Piiysicians. In Feb., 1745(6),
he was summoned by the l)oaid of censors to submit
himself to examination as a licentiate. In reply he
sent a letter of excuse which was termed "improb-
able and indecent." In 1747 he was entered at
Trinity College, Cambridge, and on appearing be-
fore the censors to give notice of the fact, he was
formally interdicted by the Royal College of Physi-
cians from practising his profession. Receiving bap-
tism, he was created M.D. at Cambridge by royal
mandate July 21, 1749; and thereupon he demanded
examination for admission to the Royal College of
Physicians as a right derived through his Cambridge
degree. The examinations were allowed, and he
was found fully competent to practise; but admis-
sion to the college was again denied him, and his
repeated applications thereafter were sedulously dis-
missed. Moses Mendez assisted Schomberg in wri-
ting on the subject a satire entitled "The Battiad."
It was not until after the lapse of many years and
after many subsequent appeals that the feeling en-
gendered by these occurrences was removed. In
tlie meantime Schomberg 's conduct had been correct
and conciliatory, and with the view doubtless of
marking their approval the college admitted him as
a licentiate on Dec. 23, 1765. He obtained a fellow-
ship Sept. 30, 1771, and was appointed censor at the
college in 1773 and again in 1778. Schomberg at-
tended Garrick in his last illness.

Bibliography : Oentleman's Magazine, 1751 ; Nichols, Lit-
erati Anecdote!^, iii. 2ti-2", Iv. 60H ; Munk, Roll of Royal Col-
legcof Physiclnns of London, ii. 72; European Magazine.
March, 1803; Chahners, Diotjraphical Diet.; Diet. Natitnml
Biographii.
J. G. L.

SCHOMBERG, MEYER LOW : English phy-
sician ; born at Fetzburg, Germany, 1690; died in
London March 4, 1761. He was the eldest son of a
Jewish practitioner of medicine whose original name
was Low, which he changed to Schomberg. Schom-
berg obtained thedegreeof M.D. from the University
of Giessen on Dec. 21, 1710, having entered tiie uni-
versity on Dec. 13, 1706. Obtaining a license, he
began to practise at Schwcinburg and later removed
to Blankenstein. After 1710 he practised at Metz,
and went to England about 1720.

Schomberg was admitted as a licentiate of the
Royal College of Physicians ]\Iarch 19, 1721(2).
At that time he was in very reduced circumstances,
and the college considerately accepted his Ijond for
the future payment of his admission fees. Cultiva-
ting an intimacy with the Jews of Duke's ]dace, lie
obtained introductions to some of the leading mer-
chants, and soon became the foremost idiysician of
the city, being in receipt of a professional income
of 4,000 guineas (S21, 000) a year. He was elected
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1726, and was a
strong supporter of the action of his son, Isaac
Schomberg, against the Royal C(^llege of Piiysi-
cians.

Bibliography: Muni. Roll of Roiial College of P/ii/.'i'riajis
of London, ii. 72-7.3; Carmolv, Les Mt'decins jitif^'. p. 2(K).

.1. G. L.



SCHOMBERG, RALPH (RAPHAEL) : Eng-
lish physician and author; born at Cologne, Ger-
many, Aug. 14, 1714; died at Reading, England,
June 29, 1792; twin brother of Isaac Schomberg.
He was educated at Merchant Taylor's School, and
studied medicine at Rotterdam, obtaining the de-
gree of M.D. from another university. He first set-
tled at Yarmouth and practised there as a physician,
also publishing some works on professional subjects.
He was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries
in 1752, and soon afterward removed to Bath, in
which city he practised for some years with success.
During his residence there circumstances arose which
compelled his retirement from Bath and from public
practise. He removed to Pangborne in Berkshire,
and afterward to Reading. He corresponded with
E. M. da Costa.

A voluminous and mi.scellaneous writer, Schom-
berg has been desciibed as "a scribbler destitute of
either genius or veracity." He wrote: "An Ode on
the Present Rebellion," 1746; "An Account of the
Present Rebellion," 1746; "Aphorismi Practici,
sive Observationes Medicie," 1750; " Prosperi Mar-
tiani Annotationes in Ca?cas Pnenotationes Synop-
sis," 1751; "Physical Rhapsody," 1751; "Van Swie-
ten's Commentaries," 1762 ; " A Treatise on the Colica
Pictonum or Dry Belly-Ache," 1764; "Duport de
Signis Morborum Libri Quatuor," 1766; " Death of
Bucephalus" (1765), burlesque acted at Edinburgh;
" The Life of Maecenas, " 1767 ; " Judgment of Paris "
(1768), burlesque performed at the Haymarket;
"A Critical Dissertation on the Characters and Wri-
tings of Pindar and Horace"; "Medico Ma.stix,"
1771; "The Theorists" (1774), a satire; "Fashion"
(1775), a poem. His productions met generally with
an unfavorable reception.

Bibliography : Nichols, Literaru Ancedotcs. iii. 28-30; Munk,
Roll of Royal College of Physieians of London, ii. 73;
Chalmers, Biographical Diet.; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Diet. Na-
tional Biography.

J. G. L.

SCHONERER, GEORG VON : Austrian poli-
tician and anti-Semitic agitator; born at Vienna
July 17, 1842. He devoted himself to agriculture,
and in 1873 entered the Austrian Diet, where he rep-
resented the German-National party and gave his
support to the anti-Semitic movement. Having en-
tered by force the office of the "Neues Wiener
Tageblatt " (called "Judenblatt" because it pleaded
the cause of the Jews), he was condemned (May 5,
1888) to four months' imprisonment and lo.ss of liis
title of nobility and his immunity as a member of
the Diet. Later he regained his status. He propa-
gated his ideas in liis semimonthly " Unverfalschte
Deutsche Worte." In 1895 lie retired from public
life, but continued to be a bitter opponent of the
Christian-Social party and its leaders Laeger and
Vergaui. He embraced Protestantism Sept. 2,
1899.

Schonerer published "ZwOlf Reden " (Vienna,
1886) and "Flinf Reden" {ib. 1891). His father,
Mathias, a railroad contractor in the employ of the
Rothschilds, left him a large fortune. His wife is a
great-granddaughter of R. Samuel Lob Kohen, who
died at Pohrlitz in 1832. See Jew. Encyc. i. 646,
.s.v. Anti-Skmitis.m.



SchOnfeld
ScLossber&er



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



108



Bibliography : Mittheilun(ien ziir Ahivchr dcs A uti-Scmiti^-
tmis, 1891-19(X); Brochhaus KonverfiatUms-LexUiDn: Mcu-
ers Koiiveraatiotut-Lezikoii ; Wurzbach, Uingraphisches
Lexikon. ,, ,,

J. S. Man.

SCHONFELD, BARTJCH: Hungarian Hebra
ist; born at Szcnicz 1778; died at Budapest Dec. 29,
1852. He Avas a teaclier in several towns of Hun-
gary and Moravia, and was the author of the follow-
ing works: "Zeror Perahim " (Vienna, 1814), essays
in prose and poetry; "Mussar Haske! " (Prague,
1831), a manual of etliirs for Jewish youth, adapted
from Campe's " Theophron " ; "Shalme Todah "
(Hamburg, 1840), an ode dedicated to Gabriel Ries-
ser; "'Anaf 'Ez Abot" (Ofen, 1841), a metrical
versification of some midrashic legends; and "Min-
hah Belulah " (Vienna, 1850), a collection of prose
and verse.

Bibliography: Fuenn, K'cdescf FiVsrrtf J, p. 198 ; Steinschnei-
der. Cat. Bodl. col. :Jo71 : Zeitlin, Blbl. Poat-Mendeh. p. 348.
8. M. Sel.

SCHONHAK, JOSEPH : Russian author ; born
at Tiktin 1812; died at Suwalki Dec. 10, 1870.
Schonhak led a retired life, devoting his time to
writing and study. He was the author of "Toledot
lia-Arez" (Warsaw, 1841) and " Ha Ma.shbir," or
"'Aruk he-Hadash" (ib. 1858). The "Toledot ha-
Arez " is a natural history in three parts. The
subjects are arranged and classified, and a full de-
scription of each is given as to color, form, and
habitat. Those that are mentioned in the Bible are
given book, chapter, and verse; and so with those
mentioned in the Talmud. The "Ha-Mashbir" is
an Aramaic-German raljbinical dictionary, based on
Nathan ben Jehiel's '"Aruk." His "Sefer ha-Mil-
luim" was published at Warsaw in 1869.

Bibliography: Ha-Mngfiid, 1870, No. 49; Fuenn, Kciicsct
Yisraeh 1866.
s. J. Go.

SCHOOL; SCHOOL-TEACHER. See Edu-
cation.

SCHOR, ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN
NAPHTALI HIRSCH: Galician rabbi; died at
Belz, a small town near Lemberg, Jan. 3 (or 23),
1632; buried in Lemberg. He was rabbi in Satanow
and later in Belz, and, according to Levvinstein (in
"TrTehillah "), in Lemberg also. He wrote: " Torat
Hayyim" (part i., Lublin, 1624; part ii., Cracow,
1636), novellas on nine treatises of tl.'e Talmud ; " Zon
Kodashim " (Wandsbeck, 1729), notes on the Tal-
mudic treatises of the order Kodashim, in collabora-
tion with Mordecai Asher, rabbi o!.' Bizezany ; and
" Kontres Bedek ha-Bayit." notes on the part of the
Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer that deals with di-
vorces (" hilkot gittin"). luintcd with Judah Aryeli
b. David's "Gur Arych " (.Vmsterdam, 1733). Schor
is quoted by Benjamin Aaron Saliiik in his re-
sponsa "Mas'at Binyamin " (No. 88), and by Del-
medigo in his "Elim."

Bibliography: But)er, Aiifilic S/if/ii, p. 3; Fuenn, Kiucsit
Yisrneh p. 368 ; Fiirst, Bilil. Jiid. iii. 384.

E. c. M. Sel.

SCHOR, (MOSES) EPHRAIM SOLOMON

(the Elder): I'olisli rabl)i : died in Lublin in 1633.
He was the son of Naphtaii Hiisch of .Moravia and
a descendant of the tosafist Joseph Bekor Schor.



Ephraim Solomon married Hannele, the daughter of
Saul Wahl of Brest-Litovsk, of which city he later
became rabbi. He succeeded R. Samuel Edels
(MaHaRSHA) as rabbi of Lublin, where he remained
until his death.

Schor was the author of a work entitled "Tebu'ot
Shor,"an abridgment of Joseph Caro's "Bet Yosef."
He is sometimes called the elder "Tebu'ot Shor," to
distinguish him from his brother's great-grandson
Alexander Sender Shor of Zolkiev, who was the
autlior of a work bearing the same name. Ephraim
Solomon's son Jacob, author of "Bet Ya'akob," on
Sanhedrin, was rabbi of Brest-Litovsk from 1652 to
1655.

Bibliography : Walden, Shem hn-GedoUm he-Hadash, p. 4.5;
Feinstein, '7r TehiUah, pp. 24, 26, 1,53, Warsaw, 1886; Nissen-
baum, Lc-Korol ha-Yehudim he-Luhlin, pp. 3.5-36, Lublin,
1899.
H. R. P. Wl.

SCHOR, NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN ZAL-

MAN (known also as Hirsch. Elsasser) : Mora-
vian Talmudist of the si.xteenth century. He was
a pupil of Moses Isserles, who addressed to him
many of his responsa, most of which are explana-
tions of the "Sefer ha-Mordekai." It seems from
No. 121 of these responsa that Schor's residence
was at Posen, and from No. 112 that he was for a
long time absent from his home, seeking a position
in one of the German towns. The most prominent
among his pupils was Joel Sirkes, author of "Bayit
Hadash (Ball)."

According to Fuenn ("Kiryah Ne'emanah," pp.
54-55), Schor is to be identified with Naphtaii Herz,
rabbi of Brest-Litovsk, one of the signatories to a
decision in the affair of the 'Agunah of Brest (Is-
serles, Responsa, No. 14). It has, liowever, been
proved that this identification is not warranted, as
the rabbi of Brest-Litovsk in question speaks in the
responsum not as a pupil of Isserles, but as an older
authority.

Bibliography: Feinstein, '7r Tehillah, pp. 23, 145,151,188;
Fuenn, Kiiieset YisracU P. 292.

E. c. jVI. Sel.

SCHORR, JOSHUA HESCHEL (commonly
known as Osias Schorr) : Galician Hebrew schol-
ar, critic, and communal worker; born at Brodj' May
22, 1814 ; died there Sept. 2, 1895. His parents were
rich, but, owing to the obscurantism which pre-
vailed in Galicia, Schorr received a rather scanty
education in the heder. Prompted, however, by an
invincible desire for more knowledge, the boy
sought the acquaintance of the Galician Hebrew
scholars of tlie time, and finally became acquainted
with Isaac Erter, under whose guidance he studied
Hebrew, Talmud, foreign languages, and the secu-
lar sciences. Ic was ciiiefly Erter that infiuenced
young Schorr, who learned from Itim
Early his elevated style, his critical spirit.

Career. and also his sarcasm. Schorr was
greatly infiuenced by Samuel David
Luzzatto also with regard to criticism and the study
of science; butwitli respect to Talmudical Judaism,
as will be shown later, he was directly opposed to
Luzzattcn

Schorr was married young to a woman of good
family; and, having become independent, he de-



109



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Schdnfeld
Schossbergrer



voted the remainder of his life to literary pursuits.
About 1865, however, his wife and onl}' son died,
and he besides lost the larger part of his fortune, so
that after that time he lived almost in seclusion.
These reverses seem to have preyed on Schorr's
mind, as may be seen by the difference iu tone be-
tween the tirst six and the latter parts of his "He-
Haluz." Schorr began his literary activity in He-
brew with articles on the history of Jewish litera-
ture for the periodical "Ziyyon," edited by Jost and
Creiznach. As this periodical could not publish the
large number of contributions from Hebrew wri-
ters, Erter resolved upon founding one of his own.
He had already drawn up the plan of the new peri-
odical and written part of the preface, when his
labors were interrupted by death, and Schorr was
left to carry out his master's plan. The new jour-
nal was entitled He-Haluz.

Schorr distinguished himself by his pungent
style and the satirical humor with which he at-
tacked his opponents. He was un-
Founds daunted in his criticism of anything
"He- or any one that opposed the spread of
Haluz." modern civilization. Together with
Erter and other champions of the
Haskalah, he fought against Hasidism and ob-
scurantism, but he went much farther than his con-
temporaries in that he even attacked the Talmud
itself. He declared that the rabbis of the Gemara
did not fully understand the meaning of the Mish-
nah, and that therefore their decisions were very
often absurd and contrary to reason as well as
to the spirit of the Mishnah. In his attacks upon
the Talmud he cited particularly those passages
which were not in accord with the modern spirit
or which appeared to be obscene. Hence, while
in the early volumes of "He-Haluz" he had as
collaborators men like Abraham Geiger, Abraham
Krochmal, Steiuschneider, Samuel David Luzzatto,
and others, he remained almost alone in the later
volumes. It is true that som.e of his former collab-
orators had died ; but there were many others who
turned against him and became the objects of his
satirical shafts.

Indeed, Schorr spared no one who was not of his
own opinion, and with the exception of Nachman
Krochmal's " Moreh Nebuke ha-Zenian " and Geiger's
"Urschrift" no work which came under his criti-
cism was left unscathed. He was an
As a able critic and had published as early
Critic, as 1841, in "Ziyyon" (i. 147 et seq.).
a critical essay on the "Shibbole ha-
Leket" and the"Sefer Tanya." In Biblical criti-
cism he was influenced by Kennicott, and wrote in
"He-Haluz" many notes on the Bible, as well as
numerous comments on Talmudic and midrashic
passages.

Schorr, iu the later numbers of his "He-Haluz,"
became even more bitter in his attacks. This may
have been due to the moroseuess into which he was
thrown by his reverse of fortune. There is even a
difference of ideas evident in the later and the earlier
issues of the periodical ; for wliereas in the early
volumes Schorr declared that many of the sayings
of the Rabbis are taken from Zoroastrianism and
that most of the words are Persian (Pahlavi), in the



later numbers he declared them to be of Greek ori-
gin. As was natural, many polemical works were
written against Schorr, in which the authors did not
retrain even from violent personal abuse; for ex-
ample, Me'ir Kohn Bistritz in his "Bi'ur Tit ha-
Yaweu."

As a communal worker Schorr was indefatigable,
interesting himself in all questions regarding the
Galician communities. He fought together with
Abraham Cohen of Lemberg for the abolishment

of the meat- and candle-tax in Gali-

As a cia, and strove to improve the educa-

Communal tion of the Jewish youth, insisting, in

Worker. spite of his liberal ideas with regard

to religion, upon the need of Jewish
denominational schools, in which the Jewish spirit
might be preserved in its purity. His articles in
the " 'Ibri Anoki," which he wrote on the occasion
of the foundation of the Mahazike ha-Dat society
in Lemberg, show clearly that he was a fervent
Jewish nationalist. He bequeathed his property
and his library, which was a considerable one, to
the rabbinical seminary of Vienna.

Bibliography: G. Bader, in Pardes, lii. 181 et seq.: A. Briill,
in Monatgbliltter, xv. 244 et seq.; Ha-Maqgid, xxxix.. No.
36; Fiirst, BiU. Jud. Hi. 384-285; Zeitlin, Bihl. Poat-
Mendeh. pp. 349-3.50. For He-Haluz: Epstein, in Weiss-
man's Monatsschrift, 1889, pp. 5^et seq.: Geiger, Zeit. Jild.
Thenl. Iv. 67 et seq., vlii. 168; Wlstinetzki, in Ha-Melif,
xxxiv.. No. 12.

w. B. M. Sel.

SCHORR, NAPHTALI MENDEL : Galician
Hebrew writer; died at Lemberg Dec. 14, 1883. He
was the founder (1861) of the Hebrew weekly " Ha-
'Et," of which only twenty-two numbers appeared.
In 1855 he edited in Lemberg Jedaiah Bedersi's "Be-
hinat ha-'Olam " and " Bakkashat ha-Memim," to
which latter work he added a German translation
and a Hebrew commentary entitled " Patshegen ha-
Ketab."

Schorr was, besides, the author of " Har ha-Mor,"
a collection, in three parts, of narratives from Jew-
ish medieval history (Lemberg, 1855-75), and of
"Mas'at Nefesh," called also "Mishle Berakman "
{ib. 1867), d Hebrew translation of the "Brahma-
nische Weisheit," to which he wrote an introduction.
Schorr contributed articles to Hebrew periodicals
over the signature '^^\ formed of the last letter of
each of his names.

Bibliography: Zeitlin, Bihl. Post-Mendeh. p. 349.
s. M. Sel.

SCHOSSBERGER DE TORNA, SIMON
WOLF: Hungarian merchant and estate-owner;
born 1796 at Sasvar (Sassin, Schossberg, Comitat
Nyitra) ; died at Budapest :March 25, 1874. Through
his many commercial, industrial, and agricultural
enterprises he attained wealth and honor; and by
his promotion of the tobacco industry he solved
a Hungarian economic problem.

Previous to 1861 Schossberger was twice presi-
dent of the Jewish community of Pesth. He was the
first Hungarian Jew elevated to the nobility liy Em-
peror Francis Joseph I. (1863) ; he assumed the name
"De Torna."

One of Schossberger's sons, Sigmund von



Schott
Schreiner



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



110



Schossberger, was in 1885 created a baron, being
the first Jew thus houored iu Hunejar}-.

s. L. V.

SCHOTT (SCHOTTLANDER), BENEDICT
(BARUCH) : German educationist ; born in Danzig
iVIarcli 11, 1703 (or 1764); died at Seesen July 21,
1846. Left an orphan at an early age, he wandered
througli Germany as a scholar (" bal.iur "), and among
other places sojourned in Glogau, Breslau, and Ber-
lin. In the last-named city he was tutor iu the house
of the banker Herz Beer, father of tlie composer
Meyerbeer. In 1804 Schott was called as a teacher
to the newly establisiied Jacobsonscliule in Seeseu,
and two years later he was made its director.

At Jacobson's request the title "hofrat" was con-
ferred upon Schott by Landgrave Ludwlg X. of
Hesse -Darmstadt.

In 1806 Schott, commissioned by Jacobson, went
to Paris to submit to the Sanhedrin summoned by
Napoleon a memorial urging the necessity of better
education among the Jews. After a long term of
activity in the Jacobsonschule, Schott retired July
1, 1838, iu his seventy-fifth year.

Schott was the author of the following works:
"Der Levit von Ephraim," Breslau, 1798; "Toldoth
Noach, Oder die Geschichte der Siiudfluth," ib. 1799;
"Zaphnat Paneach," a collection of moral teacliings,
proverbs, stories, and poems from the Talmud and
other Jewish works; a reader for Jewish children,
designed especially for use in the Jacobsonschule,
vol. i., Konigslutter, 1804; vol. ii., Hildesheim, 1812;
"Sendschreiben an Meine Brllder, die Israeliten in
Westfalen, die Errichtung eiues Jlidischen Konsis-
toriums Betreflend," Brunswick, 1808.

Bibliography : Ha-Meaxsef, Ix. 9 ; Sulamith, hi., part v., ^1 ;
new series, vol. i., partil., p. 157, notes; P. Philippson, Bioyra-
phisc}ie Skizzen, ii. 168, and notes; Steinschneider, Cat. nodi.
col. 2573; Zeitschrift ties Hnrzvereins ftlr Geschichte uud
Altert7imshini(le, xxiii. 204, 200; Wohlwill, in Allg. Zcit. des
Jud. 1847, p. i:i; Lewinsky, Hofrat Benedict Schott, ib. 1901,
pp. 460 et .vcy.
s. A. Lew.

SCHOTTLANDER, JULIUS: German mer-
chant; born at Munsterberg, Silesia, March 22, 1835;
educated at the public schools of his native town and
at Breslau. He established liimself as a wonl- and
grain-merchant in Miinsterberg; but in 1859 removc-d
his business to Breslau, associating himself witli his
brother-in-law, Louis Pakully. From 18G4 to 1869
he leased from the city of Breslau the Mittel mill,
where he manufactured sweet - oil. During the
PrussoAustrian war of 1866 he was contractor for
the si.xth Prussian army corps, and in the Franco-
Prussian war of 1870-71 for the third German army.
During the following twenty years Schottliinder
engaged in milling, mining, the manufacture of
cement, bricks, and sugar, and in real-estate trans-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 28 of 160)