Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

. (page 3 of 160)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 3 of 160)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


son, Jacob, was buried at the foot of Mount Tabor;
a grandson, Solomon, who lived at Acre about
1260, was known as a great .scholar. The statement
of Gratz (" Gesch." vii. 61) that Moses of Coucy was
a brother-in-law of Samson is refuted by Gross (in
"R. E. J." vi. 181, and "Gallia Judaica," p. 555);
he was a brother-in-law of Samson of Coucy.

Bibliography : Aziilai, Sihem Tia-Gednlim, i. 136b, No. 178,
Warsaw, 1876; Fiirst, Biltl. Jud. ill. 273; Gratz, Genclt. 1st
ed., vi. 2,')3, 396 ; vii. 17, 41, 324 ; (iross, GaUict Judaica. pp.
165, 168, 169, 477, 622 ; idem, in R. E. J. vi. 168-186, vii. 40-77 ;
Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, i. 293, Warsaw, 1883; Michael, Or
ha-Hafiilim. No. 1226; Mielziner, Introduction to the Tal-
mvit, p. 69, Cincinnati, 1894 ; Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. cols.
2639-2642; Weiss, Dor. v. 10, 25, 63; Zacuto, Sefer Yuhasin.
ed. Filipowski, p. 218b.

». S. Man.

SAMSON BEN ELIEZER : German " sofer "
(scribe) of tiie fourteenth century; generally called
Baruk she-Amar, from the initial words of the
blessing which he delighted to repeat, even in boy-
hood, at the early morning service. He was born in
Saxony, but later went with his parents to Prague.
Orphaned when eight years old, he was adopted by
R. Issachar, a learned scribe, who taught him to
write tetillin, mezuzot, and scrolls of the Law. Sam-
son apparently traveled through Austria, Poland,
Lusatia, Thuringia, and Bavaria, and finally went
to Piilestine to study the work of the soferim of the
Holy Land, where lie found that the majority of the
scribes were ignorant of the correct tradition in re-
gard to the form of the letters. He endeavored to
correct this evil in his work "Baruk she-Amar"
(Shklov, 1804), which contains a treatise by R. Abra-
ham of Sinzheim, a pupil of Meir of Rothenburg,
on the making and writing of tefillin, together with
Samson's own notes from the "Halakot Gedolot,"
"SeMaG." "Terumah," " Rokeah," and other works.



This same edition, which is poorly edited, likewise
contains the "Otiyyot de-Rabbi 'x\kiba" and vari-
ous cabalistic notes on the form of the letters.

According to Azulai ("Shem ha-Gedolim," ii.
10), the name "Baruk she-Amar" became hereditary
in the family; and Joseph Caro in his "Bet Yosef "
(Orah Hayyim, p. 37) mentions a certain R. Isaac
Baruk she-Amar, probablj' a descendant of Samson.

Bibliography: Zunz, Z. G. p. 209; Steinschneider, Caf. Bortl.
col. 2634.
W. 15. ]\I. F.

SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON : French
Talmudist; lived at Chinon between 1260 and 1330.
In Talmudic literature he is generally called after
his native place, Chinon (Ilebr. \^yp), and sometimes
by the abbreviation MaHaRShaK. He was a con-
temporary of Perez Kohen Gerondi, who, as reported
by Isaac ben Sheshet, declared Samson to be the
greatest rabbinical authority of his time (Responsa,
No. 157).

Samson was the author of the following works:
(1) " Sefer Keritut " (Constantinople, 1515), a meth-
odology of the Talmud divided into five parts:
{a) "Bet Middot," treating of the thirteen rules of
R. Ishmael; {h) "Bet ha Mikdash," on the rules for
deductions by analogy and conclusions a fortiori;
{c) "Netibot 'Olam," containing explanations of the
thirty-two rules of R. Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili;
{d) "Yemot 'Olam," giving the names of the Tau-
naim and Amoraim, and setting forth a method for
deciding toetween the contrary opinions of two doc-
tors; (e) "Leshon Limmudim," explanations of cer-
tain halakic decisions. The "Sefer Keritut," owinjr
to its easy style and its author's great authority,
became a clas.sic. (2) " Kontres," a commentary on
the Talmudic treatises 'Erubin and 'Abodah Zarah ;
mentioned in the "Sefer Keritut." (3) "Bi'ur lia-
Get" (Vienna MS. No. 48), on the laws concerning
divorce.

Samson wrote also responsa, several of which are
quoted by Joseph Colon (Responsa, No. 187) and
Solomon ben Adret (Responsa, iii., No. 1; iv.. No.
152). According to Grcss, Samson was the author of
the supercommentary on Ibu Ezra's commentary on
the Pentateuch found by Judah Mosconi at Perpi-
gnan between 1363 and 1375 (Halberstam MS.).
As regards the word nNf'^CJ'"lOO (= "of Marseilles "),
which appears in the manuscript after the name
Samson of Chinon, Gross believes that Samson set-
tled at Marseilles after the banishment of the Jews
from France.

Bibliography: Azulai, S/iem ?ia-Gc(f'.i?(n),i. 182; Zunz, Z. G.
p. 44 ; Lnzzatto, Halikot Kedem. p. 46 ; Halberstam, in Jeshu-
ruti. 1866, pp. 167-168; Magaziii, in. i7 ; Renan-Neubauer,
Les Rabbins Frangais, p. 461 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp.
581 et seq.

W. B. I. Bk.

SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE :

Tosafist of the twelfth century; grandfather of llie
tosafists Isaac ben Abraham of Dampierre and Sam-
son of Sens. Jacob Tarn, with whom he carried on
a scientific correspondence, held him in high esteem.
Samson was the author of tosafot to the Talmud-
ical treatises Shabbat, 'Erubin, Yebamot, and Hul-
lin. He wrote also ritual decisions, cited by Joel
ha-Levi under the title "Pesakim." One of his
decisions, permitting a woman still nursing her



Samson ben Samson
Samuel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Seal of Samson ben
Samson.

(In the British Museum.)



child to marry again witliiii tliree montlis of lur
divorce, was severelj' criticized by Jacob Tain
("Sefer lia-Yasliar," p. o9d; Tus. Ket". 60b).

Bibliography: Conforte, Karc ha-Dorot, ed. Berlin, p. 18a;
Gross. Gallia Jiuiaira, p. 477.
K. I. Bh.

SAMSON BEN SAMSON (called HaRaSH,
and by anagram Ha-Sar [= "the prince" of
Coucy]) : Frencii tosafi.st ; tioiirished at tlie end of the
twelfth and in the first half of the thirteenth century.
]Many of his e.\|)lanations are found in the tosafot to
the Talmud. He is mentioned also as a Biblical
commentator. Samson was a descendant of Joseph
b. Samuel Bonlils, a nephew of
the tosatist Judahof Corbeil, and
a brother-in-law of Moses of
Coucy, who in'"Se3IaG" often
quotes him. In the glosses of
Perez on "SeMaG " (Prohibitory
Laws, 111) he is erroneously
called pc^D TtJTI: hence Geda-
liah ibn Yahya (" Shalshelet ha-
Kabbalah," ed. Venice, p. 5oa)
and after him Griitz ("'Gesch."
vii. 61) falsely state that Samson
ben Abraham of Sens was a brother-in-law of .Moses
of Couc}'.

Samson was a disciple of Isaac ben Samuel the
Elder of Dampierre and one of the prominent rabbis
to whom Mjir ben Todros Abulatia addressed his
letter of protest against Maimonides. Isaac ben
Moses of Vienna, with whom Samson corresponded,
was one of his pupils. Many of Samson's ritual
decisions are mentioned in the rabbinical works "Or
Zarua'," "SeMaG," "Orhot Hayyim," and "Piske
Rekanati."

Bibliography : Conforte, Knrc ha-Doiot, p. 18a; Gross, Gal-
lia J^lda^ca. pp. 554->5.i6; Michael, Or ha-Hanyini, N». 1230;
Neubauer, in Geiger's JUd. Ze.it. ix. 217 ; Zunz, Z. G. p. 204.

u. S. Man.

SAMUDA : Old Spanish and Portuguese family,
identitied for some generations with the communal
affairs of the London Jewry. The first member to
settle in England was the physician and scientist
Isaac de Sequeyra Samuda. In 1728 he pro-
nounced a funeral oration over the grave of Haham
David Nicto. In the records of Bevis Marks he is
described as "Medico do Real C!olleges de Londres "
and "E. Socia da Real Sociedade."

In the early part of the nineteenth centurj- David
Samuda founded the firm of David Samuda & Sons,
of Lcman street, Got^dman's Fields, London. In
1789 he was a member of the Board of Deputies.
One of his sons, Jacob Samuda, was an opulent
London broker, and for some years was president of
the Mahamad of Bevis Marks.

Jacob Samuda: English civil engineer; born at
London Aug. 24, 1811; died Nov. 12, 1844; de-
scribed on his tombstone, in the Sephardic ceme-
tery. Mile End, London, as "the first Jewish en-
gineer " ; elder son of Abraham. Samuda, an East
and West India merchant of London, by liis mar-
riage with Joy, daughter of H. d'Aguilar of Enfield
Chase, Middlesex. Ou completing his apprentice-
ship with John Hague, an engineer, Jacob started
business on his own account in partnership with his



brother Joseph d'Aguilar; and the firm of Samuda
Brothers thereafter advanced steadily in wealth and
influence.

Samuda displayed considerable inventive genius,
which led to important di-scoveries. One of these,
the atmospheric railway, received at tirst with con-
siderable opposition, was subsequently adopted as a
means of transit by several important companies.
The Dublin and Kingstown Railway was the tirst to
recognize its advantages and to utilize them (Aug.,
1842). Sir Robert Peel later reconunended its adop-
tion to the House of Commons and the Board of
Trade. The first English line formed was from Ep-
som to London; and later the South Devon Railway
adopted the principle of the new invention.

Another invention of Samuda's was his improve-
ment in marine engines, a type of which he con-
structed on a novel pattern possessing many advan-
tages. In 1843 he contracted to build the "Gypsy
Queen," an iron boat to be fitted with his improved
engine. On the trial trip, which took place on Nov.
12, 1844, Samuda, with si.x persons who had accom-
panied him, met his death through an explosion.

Bibliography : Voice of Jacob, Nov. 29, 1844.

J. ■ G. L.

Joseph d'Aguilar Samuda : English civil en-
gineer and politician; born at London May 31, 1813;
died there April 27, 1885; younger son of Abraham
Samuda. He gained his first experience of business
in his father's counting-house; but in 1832 he left
it to join his elder brother, Jacob Samuda.

Joseph and his brother Jacob established them-
selves as marine and general engineers and ship-
b liiders, and their operations were of the most ex-
tensive and important character. For the first ten
years of the existence of the firm they confined
themselves principally to the building of marine en-
gines. Then they engaged in the construction of
railway lines on the atmospheric principle. In 1843
they entered the ship-building bu.siness, and from
that time onward, notwithstanding the tragic death
of Jacob in the following year, the firm was uninter-
ruptedl}' engaged in constructing iron steamships
for the navy, merchant marine, and passenger and
mail services of England as well as of other countries,
besides royal yachts and river-boats. Many of these
vessels were built under Samuda's personal superin-
tendence.

In 1860 Samuda helped to establish the Institute
of Naval Architects, of which he was the first treas-
urer and subsequently a vice-president, contributing
frequently toils "Transactions." Acouple of years
later he became a member of the Institution of Civil
Engineers, to wdiose "Proceedings" he likewise con-
tributed. He was the author of "A Treatise on the
Adaptation of Atmospheric Pressure to the Purposes
of Locomotion on Railways."

Samuda created for himself also an important
parliamentary career. He had been a member of
the Metropolitan Board of Works from 1860 to 1865,
and in the latter year he entered Parliament in the
Liberal interest for Tavistock. He sat for that
constituency until 1868, when he was returned for
the Tower Hamlets, which he continued to repre-
sent until 1880. He then lost his seat owing to the
support which he gave to Lord Beacousfield's for-



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Samson ben Sazason
Samuel



cigii policy. While in the House he spoke with
imich authority on all iniittcrs connected with his
I)i'ofession. bonie of his sju'cches ai'c described us
"treasure-houses of technicjil and political knowl-
edge." Having, with his family, secedwl from the
Jewish commuuit}^ he was interred in Kcnsal Green
Cemetery. He married, in 1837, Louisa, daughter
of Samuel Ballin of Holloway.

Bibliography: Jew. Wnrhl, May 1, l.sft"); Celebrities nf the
Dan, J"lv, 18hl ; Diet, nf National Biograplni, s.v.; Tlie
Times (London), April 29, 1885.

.;. I. H.

SAMUEL. — Biblical Data : Samuel was the son
of Elkanah and Hannah, of liamathaim-zophim, in
the hill-country of Ephraiin (I Sam. i. 1). He was
born while Eli was judge. Devoted to Yiiwii in
fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had



times in succession Samuel heard the summons and
reported to Eli, by whom he was .sent back to sleep.
This repetition finally amused Eli's comprehension;
he knew that Yhwh was calling the lad. Therefore
he advised him to lie down again, and, if called once
more, to say, "Speak, for Thy servant heareth."
Samuel did as he had been bidden. Yhwh then re-
vealed to him His purpose to exterminate the house
of Eli.

Samuel hesitated to inform Eli concerning tiie-
vision, but next morning, at Eli's solicitation, Samuel
related what he had heard (iii. 1-18). Yhwh was
with Samuel, and let none of His words "fall to the
ground." All Israel from Dan to Bcer-shel)a recog-
nized him as appointed to be a prophet of Yhwh;
and Samuel continued to receive at Shiloh revela-
tions which he imparted to all Israel (iii. 19-21).




ALLEGED TOMB OF SAMLEL AT MiZPAU.
(From a photograph by the American colony at Jerusalem.)



long been childless, lie was taken to Shiloh by Han-
nah as soon as he was weaned, to serve Yhwh dur-
ing his lifetime (i. 11, 22-23, 28).

The sons of Eli being sons of Belial, wicked and
avaricious, Samuel ministered before Yhwh in their
stead, being even as a lad girded with a linen ephod
(ii. ^2 et seg., 22 et seq.). His mother, on lier 3'early
visits, brought him a robe. As he grew up Samuel
won ever-increasing favor with. Yhwh and with
men (ii. 26). How he was called b}'
The Call of Yhwh is related as follows: Eli, old

Samuel. and dim of vision, had lain down to
sleep, as had Samuel, in the Temple
of Yhwh, wherein was the Ark. Then Yhwh called
"Samuel!" Answering, "Here am I," Samuel,
thinking Eli had summoned him, ran to him ex-
plaining that he liad come in obedience to his call.
Eli, however, sent him back to his couch. Three



During the war with the Philistines the Ark was
taken by the enemy. After its mere presence among
the Philistines had brought suffering upon them, it
was returned and taken to Kirjath-iearini. While
it was there Samuel spoke to the children of Israel,
calling upon them to return to Yhwh and put away
strange gods, that they might be delivered out of
the hands of the Pliilistines (vii. 2 et seq.). The test
came at Mizpah, where, at Samuel's call, all Israel
had gathered, under the promise tliat hv. would
pray to Yhwh for them, and where they fasted, con-
fessed, and were judged bj"^ him (vii. 5-G). Before

the Philistines attacked, Samuel took a

Samuel as sucking lambaud ofleied it fora whole

Judge. burnt offering, calling unto Yhwh for

help; and as the Philistines drew
up in battle array Yiiwn "thundered with a great
thunder" upon them, "and they were smitten before



Samuel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



6



Israel." As a memorial of the victory Samuel set up
a stone between Mizpahaud Shen, calling it "Eben-
ezer " (= " hitlierto hath the Lord helped us "). This
crushing defeat kept the Philistines in check all the
days of Samuel (vii. 7-14).

In his capacity as judge Samuel went each year
in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and Mizpah, but he
dwelt at Ramah, where he built an altar (vii. 15 et
seq.). AVlien he had grown old, and was ready to
surrender his duties to his sons, neither Joel, the
first-born, nor Abijah, the second, proved worthy;
they " turned aside after lucre, and took bribes " (viii.
1-iJ). This induced the elders to go to Raniah and
request Samuel to give them a king, as all the other
nations had kings. Samuel was much vexed, but
upon praying to Yhwh and receiving the divine
direction to yield, he acquiesced, after delivering
a po.w.erful address describing the despotism they
were calling upon themselves and their descendants;
this adilress, however, did not turn the people
from their purpose (viii. 3 et seq.). In this crisis
Samuel met Saul, who had come to consult him, the
seer, concerning some lostasses. Yhwh had already
apprised him of Saul's coming, and had ordered
him to anoint his visitor king. When Saul inquired
of him the way to the seer's house, Samuel revealed
his identity to the Benjamite, and bade him go
with him to the sacrificial meal at the "high place,"
to which about thirty persons had been invited. He
showed great honor to Saul, who was surprised and
unable to reconcile these marks of deference with
his own humble origin and station. The next morn-
ing Samuel anointed him, giving him "signs"
which, having come to pass, would show that God
was with him, and directing him to proceed to Gil-
gal and await his (Samuel's) appearance there (ix.,
X. 1-9).

In preparation for the installation of Saul, Samuel
called the people together at Mizpah, where the pri-
vate anointment of Saul was confirmed by his selec-
tion by lot(x. 17-24). Samuel is re-
Samuel ported also to have taken active part
and Saul, in the coronation of Saul at Gilgal (xi.
12-15). He profited by ti)e opportu-
nity to rehearse before the people his own life and
secure their acknowledgment of his probity. After
a solemn admonition to the people to be loyal to
Yhwh, Samuel, as a sign that the demand for a king
was fundamentally wicked, called forth thunder and
rain, which so impressed the people that they im-
plored him to intercede with Yhwh for them, "that
we die not." Samuel turned the occasion into a
solemn lesson as to what the penalties for disobe-
dience would be (xii.).

At Gilgal a break with Saul came because, in
the absence of Samuel, the king had offered the
burnt offering. Samuel announced then and tlieie
that Saul's dynasty was not to be permitted to con-
tinue on the throne (xiii. 8-14). Nevertheless, Sam-
uel sent Saul to accomplish the extermination of
Amalek (xv.). Again Saul proved refractory, spar-
ing Agag, the Amalekite king, and the flocks, and
everything that was valuable. Thereupon the word
of Yhwh came unto Samuel, announcing Saul's
deposition from the throne. Meeting Saul, Samuel
declared his rejection and with his own hand slew



Agag (xv.). This led to the final separation of
Samuel and Saul (xv. 34-35). Mourning tor Saul,
Samuel Avas bidden by Yhwh to go to Jesse, the
Beth-leheniite, one of whose sons was chosen to be
king instead of Saul (xvi. 4). Fearing lest Saul
might detect the intention, Samuel resorted to strat-
eg}-, pretending to have gone to Beth-lehem in order
to sacrifice. At the sacrificial feast, after having
passed in review the sons of Jesse, and having found
that none of those present was chosen by Yhwh,
Samuel commanded that the youngest, David, who
was away watching the sheep, should be sent for.
As soon as David appeared Yhwh commanded Sam-
uel to anoint him, after which Samuel returned to
Ramah (xvi. 5-13).

Nothing further is told of Samuel until David's

flight to him at Ramah, when he accompanied his

fugitive friend to Naioth. There, through Samuel's

intervention, Saul's messengers, as did

Samuel later Saul himself, turned prophets
and David. " before Samuel" (xix. ISeise^.). The
end of Samuel is told in a very brief
note: "And Samuel died, and all Israel gathered
themselves together, and lamented him, and buried
him in his house at Ramah" (xxv. 1, llcbr.). But
after his death, Saul, through the witch of En-dor,
called Samuel from his grave, only to hear from
him a prediction of his impending doom (xxviii. 3
et seq.).

In I Chron. xxvi. 28 Samuel the seer is mentioned
as having dedicated gifts to the Sanctuary. He is
again represented in I Chron. xi. 3 as having, in
YnwH's name, announced the elevation of David to
the throne. He is furthermore credited with having
ordained the " porters in the gates " (I Chron. ix. 22).

In the Biblical account Samuel appears as both
the last of the Judges and the first of the Prophets, as
the founder of the kingdom and as the legitimate
offerer of sacrifices at the altars (I Sam. vii. 9 et
seq., ix. 23 et seq., x. 8, xi. 15, xvi. 1 et seq.). In
fact. Chronicles (I Chron. vi. 28) makes him out to
be of Levitical descent. According to I Sam. ix. 9,
the prophets preceding Samuel were called seers,
while it would appear that he was the first to be
known as "nabi," or "prophet." He was the man
of God (ix. 7-8), and was believed by the people to
be able to reveal the whereabouts of lost animals.
In his days tiiere were "schools of prophets," or,
more properly, " bands of prophets. " From tlie fact
that these bands are mentioned in connection with
Gibeah (I Sam. x. 5, 10), Jericho (II Kings ii. 5),
Ramah (I Sam. xix. \%etseq.), Beth-el (II Kings ii.
3), and Gilgal (II Kings iv. 38) — places focal in the
career of Samuel — the conclusion seems well assured
that it was Samuel Avho called them into being. In
the Acts of the Apostles (xiii. 20) Samuel occurs as
the last of the Judges and the first true prophet in
Israel (Acts iii. 24, xiii. 20; Heb. xi. 32), while a
glos^ in Chronicles (II Chron. xxxv. 18) connects his
time with one of the most memorable celebrations
of Passover. Tlie Old Testament furnishes no
chronological data concerning his life. If Josephus
(■'Ant."vi. 18, § 5) is to be believed, Samuel had
officiated twelve years as judge before Saul's corona-
tion. The year 1095 u.c. is commonly accepted as
that of Saul's accession to the throne. E. G. H.



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Samuel



In Rabbinical Literature : Samuel was a

Levitt' (Lev. ]l. xxii. 6) of the fainil}^ of Korali
(Num. R. xviii. 17), and was also a Nazarite (Na/.
66a). As a cliild he was extremely delicate (Hag. 6a),
but highly developed intellectually. Thus, when he
was weaned and brought by liis mother to Shiloh,
he noticed that the priests were most careful that
the sacrificial victims should be slain by one of their
uumi)er. Samuel, however, declared to the priests
that even a layman might offer sacrifice, whereupon
he was taken before Eli, who asked him the grounds
of his statement. Samuel answered : " It isnot writ-
ten that the priest shall slay the victim, but only
that he shall bring tlie blood " (Lev. i. 5; comp. Zeb.
32a). Eli acknowledged the validity of his argu-
ment, but declared that Samuel merited the penalty
of death for giving legal decisions in the presence of
a master; and it was only the entreaty of Samuel's
mother which saved the child (Ber. 31b). When
God revealed Himself to Samuel lor the first time
and called his name, he cautiously answered only
"Speak " (I Sam. iii. 10) and not, as Eli commanded
him, "Speak, O God" (Shab. 113b).

Samuel was very rich. On his annual journeys
as judge to various cities (comp. I Sam. vii. 16-17)
he was accompanied by his entire household, and
would accept hospitality from no one (Ber. 10b ; Ned.
38a). While Moses commanded the people to come
to him that he might declare the Law to them (comp.
Ex. xviii. 14-16), Samuel visited all the cities of the
land to spare the people weary journeys to him ;
and while Samuel was considered equal to Moses
and to Aaron (Ber. 31b ; Ta'an. 5b), he was favored
above Moses in one respect; for the latter was
obliged to go to the Tabernacle to receive a revela-
tion from God, whereas God Himself came to Sam-
uel to reveal His will to him (Ex. R. xvi. 4). For
ten years Samuel judged Israel; but in the tenth
the people asked for a king. Samuel anointed
Saul; and when the latter was rejected by God,
Samuel grieved bitterly and aged prematurely
(Ta'an. 5b). Cruel though he was in hewing Agag
to pieces, yet this was a righteous punishment for
the Amalekite, who had been equally barbarous to
the children of Israel (Lam. R. iii. 43).

Samuel wrote the books of Judges and Ruth, as
well as those bearing his own name, although the
latter were completed by the seer Gad (B. B. 14b-
15a). He died at the age of fifty-two (I\I. K. 28a).
When he was raised from the dead by the witch of
Endor at the request of Saul (comp. I Sam. xxviii.
7-19), he was terrified, for he believed that he was
summoned to appear before the divine judgment-
seat; he therefore took Moses with him to bear wit-
ness that he had observed all the precepts of the
Torah (Hag. 4b).

w. 15.' J. Z. L.

Critical View : The outline of the life of Sam-
uel given in the First Book of Samuel is a com-
pilation from different documents and
Sources of sources of varying degrees of credibil-
Biography. ity and age, exhibiting many and not
always concordant points of view (see
S.\MUEL, Books of — Chiticai, View). The name
"Shemu'el" is interpreted "asked of Yiiwn," and,
as Kimhi suggests, represents a conti-action of pIXK*



7NO. an opinion which Ewald is inclined to accept



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 3 of 160)