Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

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in Wilna. From this time forward his literary activ-
ity was redoubled. His first publication was a
funeral oration delivered on the occasion of the
death of Rabbi Ginsberg, and printed underthe title
•• Kol Bokim." Tliis was followed in lS48by "Safah
Berurah " a collection of proverbs and epigrams.

In 1849 Schulman was appointed instructor in the
Hebrew language and literature in the lyceum at
Wilna. In 1858 " Harisut Beter," a description of the
heroic deeds of Bar Kokl)a, was published ; and this
was followed in 1859by"ToledotYosef," a biography
of the high priest Joseph b. jMattathias. To this
class of works on Jewish history belong "Mil-
liamot ha-Yehudim," on the Jewish wars, and
" Dibre Yeme ha-Yehudim " (Vienna, 1876), a trans-




lation of the first part of Gratz's "Gescliichte der
Judeu." On the history of antiquities he wrote
tlie following works: " Halikot Kedeni " (1854), an
ethnographic description of Palestine and other
Asiatic countries; "Shuhimniit," a continuation of
"Halikot Kodem"; "Ariel " (l8o6), on the antiqui-
ties of Babylonia, Assyria, Nineveh, etc. ; and " Kad-
moniyyot ha-Yehudini." In order to appeal to the
imagination and to illustrate the higher emotions of
the human heart, Schulman wrote a beautiful transla-
tion of Eugene Sue's novel "Lcs Mysteresde Paris,"
and published it under the title "Mistere Paris"
(1854). Ilis most important work, however, was a
universal history in nine parts, based on the well-
known works of Weber and Becker; it appeared
under the title " Dibre Yeme '01am " in 1867. Other
works by him were: "Kiryot Melek Rab," a histor-
ical descrijjtion of St. Petersburg, Russia; "Mosede
Erez," a general geography; " Toledot Hakme
Yisraol." biographical sketches; and "'Osher u-
Zedakah," a biography of the founder of the house
of Kothschild.

Schulman was active also as a journalist, contrib-
uting to "Ha-Maggid," "'HaLebanon," "Ha-Kar-
mel," and "Ha-Meliz." In 1895, at the celebration
of the jubilee of his literary activity, there was a
great gathering of Jewish scholars in Wilna.

Bibliography: Ha-Karmel, 1S99; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrad,
1S88, p. 18(5; Vnskhod, 1899, pp. 1-2.
n. K. J. Go.

SCHULMAN, SAMUEL : American rabbi :
born in Russia Feb. 14, 1865. He was taken to New
Yoik when hardly one year old, and was educated
in the public schools there and in the College of the
City of New York. Schulman took his rabbinical
diploma from the Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft
des Judenthums in Berlin. He has occupied rab-
binates in Helena, Mont., and Kansas City, Mo.,
and in 1901 was elected associate rabbi at Temple
Beth-El, New York city, becoming rabbi on the elec-
tion of Dr. Kohlerto the presidency of the faculty of
Hebrew Union College. He was awarded the degree
of D.D. by the Jewish Theological Seminary of
America, 1904.
Bibliography: American Jewish Year Booh, 5662-3 (190").

A. F. T. H.

SCHULMANN, LUDWIG : German philolo-
gist and writer; born at Hildesheim 1814; died at
Hanover July 24, 1870. He studied philology at
the University of Gottingen, and then taught for a
time in his native city. In 1842 he began to advo-
cate the systematic training of Jewish public-school
teacliers in the kingdom of Hanover; and in conse-
quence of his efforts a seminary for Jewish teachers
was opened in the city of Hanover on Nov. 7, 1848.
This institution is still in existence. Schulmann
was for a time editor of the " Allgemeine Zeitung
und Anzeigen " (Hildesheim), and in 1863 he became
editor of the "Neue Hannoversche Anzeigen"
(Hanover). When the latter paper was combined
with the "Hannoverscher Courier," he retained the
editorship, which he continued to hold until his

Schulmann was the author of the following
works: "Talmudische Kliinge " (Hildesheim. 1856),
poems dedicated to District Rabbi M. Landsberg of

Hildesheim; "Norddutsche Stippstorken un Le-
gendchen" {ib. 1856; 2d ed. 1900); "Das Bodeker-
Lied" (ib. 1864); "Das Waterloo-Lied" (Hanover,
1865); and "Michael," a ballad cycle (in L. Stein's
" Israelitischer Volkslehrer," 18.56, pp. 315-322). He
was a contributor to the "Allgemeine Zeitung des
Judenthums "and, under the pen-name "Justus," to
other periodicals.

BiuLiOGRAPHY : Lewinsky, Znr Jubelfeier <ler Bildiiiigsan-
stalt filr JlMiscJte Lch'rer zu Hannover, in AU(j. ZeU. den
Ji(d. 1898, 519cf .Sf'^.; ib. 1842, 685; Monats-ichrift. 18.')»i. pp.
'.i62 et ^cq.; NorddUt»(he StippstOrkcn un Legendchen, 20.
ed.. Preface, pi). iii. et seq.
s. A. Lew.

SCHULTENS, ALBERT: Dutch Orientalist;
born at Groningen Aug. 23, 1686; died Jan. 26, 1756.
He studied Arabic at Leyden under Van Til, and at
Utrecht under lieland. He took his degree (Doctor
of Theology) at Gioniugen in 1709; became teacher
of Hebrew at Franeker in 1713; and idtimately set-
tled at Leyden as curator of the manuscripts of the
Warner Oriental collection. He was the first in
modern times to make scientific use of Arabic for
the elucidation of Hebrew, and lie has been called
■• the father of modern Hebrew grammar." His most
important treatises on this subject are: "Institu-
tiones " (Levden, 1737) ; " Vetus et Regia Via Hebra-
izandi" (//a" 1738).

His chief works of interest to Hebrew students are
an elaborate edition of Job in two quarto volumes
(ib. 1737), which was translated into German (1748),
and by Richard Gray into English, and an edition
of Proverbs (ib. 1748). In reply to criticisms of
his Job and Proverbs he wrote two letters to
^lencken in defense of his exegetical method {ib.

Bibliography: Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenhoek ;
Herzog-Hauck, ReaVEncyc.
E. C. J.

SCHUR, "WILLIAM: American author; born
at Outian, near Vilkomir, Russia, Oct. 27, 1844.
He studied Talmud at his native town and at the
Yeshihah, Kovno, and theology at the Lehran-
stalt fiir die Wissenschaft des Judenthums at Ber-
lin (1868-70). During the following two years he
taught Hebrew in Constantinople, and in 1873 in
Port Said and Cairo. He then spent five years (1874-
1879) in travel, visiting Africa, India, China, the
Philippine Islands, and the islands of the China Sea.
Returning to Europe, he settled in Vienna, and bt;-
came a contributor to Smolenskin's" Ha-Shahar," as
well as to "Ha-Meliz" and "Ha-Yom." In 1887
he went to America, and lived successively in the
cities of New Yoi-k, Baltimore, Boston, St. Louis,
and Chicago, in which last-named city he has re-
sided since 1897.

Schur is the author of "Mahazot ha-Hayyim"
(Vienna, 1884) and "Mas'ot Shelomoh " {ib. 1885),
both containing descriptions of his journeys; of the
following novels: "Masse'at Nafshah"; " Afiko-
men ha-Ganub " ; " Ha-Nebi'ah Nilel Hilton " ; " Ila-
Halikah el ha-Heder"; "Kapparat 'Awon " ; " Wa-
Yippol ba-Shahat " ; " Ahar ha-Meridah ha-Gedolah " ;
and of a historico-religious work, "Nezah Yisrael."

Bibliography: American Jewish Year Bonk, 5665 (1903),
p. 183.
A. F. T. H.




SCHTJSTEK., ARTHUR: English physicist;
bora at Fnuikfort-on-lhe-Maiu Sept. 12, 18")1. He
■was educated at Fraukfort, at Owens College, Man-
chester, and at the University of Heidelberg (Ph.D.
1873). He early took an interest in physics, espe-
cially in spectrum analysis; he was appointed chief
of the expedition that Avent to Siam in 1875 to ob-
serve the eclipse of the sun, and he took part in a
similar expedition to Egypt in 1882. In recognition
of his researches lie obtained the medal of the Royal
Society, of which he is a fellow (1893). He has been
professor of physics in Owens College since 1885,
and a large number of papers by him are preserved
in the "Transactions of the Royal Society." He is
a large contributor to various scientific journals.

BiBi,ioGR.\PiiY : Poprgendorfl. ninora2)hisch - Literariaches
H(indwi">rtf>i>uch; Wlio's ir?io, 1905.

J .

SCHTJTZJUDE : Jew under the special protec-
tion of ilieheudof the state. In the early days of

travel and commerce the

Jews, like other aliens, used
to apply to the ruling mon-
archs for letters of protec-
tion, and they obtained
"commendation" when
their stay was for any lengt h
of time. Such letters of
protection were granted to
Jews in the Carlovingian
period (Stobbe, "Juden in
Deutschland," p. 5). When
the idea arose that all Jews
of the empire were practi-
call}- serfs of the emperor,
he granted similar letters of
protection, for which annual ,
payment was made by the
Jews; when he transferred
his rights to local feudal
authorities, the same or in-
creased payments were ex-
acted, in return for whicli
these authorities gave the
Jews "Schutzbriefer" ; and
when, later, wholesale ex-
pulsions took place in

Germany during the six- Low Schwab

teenth century, those Jews

who returned to places from which they had
been expelled were admitted only if they obtained
such " Schutzbriefe " for which they paid "Schutz-
geld " (protection money). It was under these con-
ditions that Jews were allowed to reenter Hesse in
1524; and similar regulations prevailed in Bavaria,
where, according to the " Judenordnung " of Sept.
1, 1599, all Jews had to have either a " Schutzbrief,"
if they remained in the kingdom, or a "Geleit," if
they passed through it(Kohut, "Gesch. der Juden,"
p. 554).

When the Jews of Frankfort were allowed to re-
main there under the conditions of the " Neue Stiittig-
keit " of Jan. 3, 1617, their numbers, as well as their
marriages, were limited. They could not be bur-
gesses, but only proteges of the town council (" Rath-
schutzangehOrige " ; Schudt, "Jiidische Merckwiir-

digkeiten," pp. 59-90). Similarlj-, when Frederick
William, the "Great Elector," allowed fifty families
which had been expelled from Austria to settle in
Brandenburg, each of them was required to pay
eight thaler yearly, as well as other special taxes;
these had increased very much by the time Freder-
ick the Great issued his "General-Privilegium " or
"Juden Reglement" (April 17, 1750), which re-
stricted the numbers of the Jews and classified them
as "ordinary" and "extraordinary Schutzjuden,"
the privileges of the former passing on to one child,
those of the latter being valid only during the life
of the original grantee.

The Prussian Jews were collectively liable for a
certain amount of "Schutzgeld." This amount was
fixed at 3,000 ducats in 1700, at 15,000 thaler in 1728,
and at 25,000 thaler in 1768. In 1715 every Jewish
family of Metz was ordered to pay 40 livres annu-
ally for permission to stay there, and the number
was limited in 1718 to 480 families. The tax was

granted to Coimt de Bran-
ces and Countess de Fon-
taine (reference to this tax
was made by Louis XVI. i;i
1784; see Jost, "Gesch."
viii. 30). As time went on
a further division was made
among the protected Jews.
In Silesia an upper class of
"Schutzjuden," called the
"Geduldeten," was consti-
tuted, its numbers being
limited, as, for example, to
160 at Breslau, all the rest
being required to pay
"Schutzgeld." These limi-
tations were removed at the
same time as the Leibzoll.
InMecklenburg-Strelitz, for
example, the " Schutzjude "
regulation was suspended in
1812; but with the reaction
following Napoleon's fall it
was reinstituted (1817).

SCHWAB, LOW (called
originally Ba]p.ur Lob
Krumau) : Mol-avian rab-
bi; born at Krumau, Mo-
ravia, March 11, 1794; died April 3, 1857; pupil of
R. Mordecai Benet in Nikolsburg, R. Moses Sofer in
Presburg, R. Joshua Horwitz in Trebitsch, and R.
Joachim Deutschmann in Gewitsch. He held suc-
cessively the rabbinates of Gewitsch (1824), Pross-
nitz (1831), and Budapest (1836). Unaided, he ob-
tained a knowledge of French and German and
acquired also a good mathematical and philosophical
education ; he was well versed, moreover, in Jewish
and Kantian philosophy as well as in Christian
theological literature, especially Protestant homi-

Schwab was a conservative theologian and sanc-
tioned only those reforms in the religious services
which, in view of the changes in esthetic standards,
were absolutely necessary to prevent the better-
educated classes of the community from being alien-




ated from the Synagogue. He was the first rabbi in
Moravia to preach in German and to perform the
wechliiig ceremony in the synagogue (1832). He
was averse to radical reforms, and in 1852 lie brought
about the dissolution of the Reform association in
Budapest, which hail been modeled on that of Berlin.
Schwab's work in Budapest left lasting traces in
tlie Jcwisli community, and the establishment of the
first important hospital and the large synagogue in
that cit}'' was due to his efforts.

Scinvab frequently used Ins pen in the struggle
for the emancipation of the Hungarian Jews, al-
thongli he was averse to publication. He drafted
petitions from tlie Jews of the country to the Land-
tag, and wrote a refutation of malicious attacks
made upon tliem. A short treatise by him on faitli
and morals (1846) is still widely used as a text-book
in Hungarian intermediate schools. A volume of
his sermons was published in 1840.

After the suppression of tlie Revolution in 1849,
Schwab was tried before a court martial and impris-
oned for twelve weeks; but, notwitlistanding this,
he frequently served as councilor to the government
in Jewish affairs.

His sou, tlie mathematician David Schwab, also
preached for a time, and was for four years on the
staff of the "Pester Lloyd."

Bibliography : L. Low, Gesammelte Schriften, i.-iv.; idem,
JUdisdier Koiigrest;, Index ; Boi Chamuija, i. 2", 194 ; Bar-
mann, in Allgemeuic Illn^triote JudenzeAtumu Budapest,
1860; Mamiar Zftido Szemle, xvi. 128; Biichler, Azskluk
TOrtencte Budapesten, p. 416.

s. I. Lo.

SCHWAB, MOiSE : French librarian and au-
thor; born at Paris Sept. 18, 1839; educated at the
Jewish sciiool and the Talmud Torah at Strasburg.
From 1857 to 1866 he was secretarj^ to Salomon
Munk ; then for a year he was official interpreter at
the Paris court of appeals; and since 1868 he has
been librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale in the
French capital. In 1880 lie was sent by the minister
of public instruction to Bavaria and Wtirttemberg
to make investigations with regard to early Hebrew

Scliwab has been a prolific contributor to Uie
Jewish press; and he is the author of the following
works, all of which were published in Paris:

1866. Histoire des Israelites (2d ed. 1896).

1866. Ethnographie de la Tunisie (crowned by the Soci^t^

d'Ethnographie) .
1871-1889. Le Talmud de Jerusalem, Traduit pour la Premiere

Fois en Fran(;ais (11 vols.).
1876. Bibliographie de la Perse (awarded Brunei prize by the

Institut de France).

1878. Litt^rature Rabbinique. Elie del Medigo et Pico de la


1879. Des Points- Voyelles dans les Langues Semitiques.

1879. Elie de Pesaro. Voyage Ethnographique de Venise a

1881. Al-Harisi et Ses Peregrinations en Orient.
1883. Les Incunables Hebraiques et les Premieres Impressions

Orientales du XVIe Siecle.
1883. Bibliotheca Aristotelica (crowned by the Academie des

Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres) .

1888. Monuments Litteraires de I'Espagne.

1889. Maqre Dardeqe, Dictionnaiie Hebreu-Italien du XVe


1890. Deuxieme Edition du Traits des Berakhoth, Traduit en

1896-99. Voeabulaire de I'Angelologie.
1899-1902. Repertoire des Articles d'Histoire et de Lltterature

Juive (3 vols.).

1900. Salomon Munk, Sa Vie et Ses CEuvres.

1904. Rapport sur les Inscriptions Hebraiques en France.

His most important work is "Le Talmud de Jeru-
salem," which was commenced in 1867 or 1868,
before tlie appearance of Zecharias Frankel's "In-
troduction " or of the special dictionaries of the Tal
mud. The first part appeared in 1871 and was well
received, although the critics did not spare Schwab.
The latter then sought the cooperation of tlie lead-
ing Talmudists; but he was unsuccessful and had to
complete the work alone.

s. F. T. H.

ish (tonsul-geueral in Berlin ; born in Breslau 1831 ;
died there Feb. 23, 1898. At the age of .sixteen
he entered the banking-house of Bleichroder, and
twenty years later became a partner; from 1893,
when Baron Gerson von Bleichroder died, he was
the senior partner of the house. He was also
president of the directors of the Berlin Bourse, and
subsequently presided over a standing committee
of that institution.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Feb. 25, 1898; The Time.t (Lon-
don), Feb. 24, 1898.

J. G. L.

SCHWALBE, GUSTAV: German anatomist
and antliropologist; born at Quedlinburg Aug. 1,
1844. Educated at the universities of Berlin, Zuricli,
and Bonn (M.D. 1866), he became in 1870 privat-
docent at the University of Halle, in 1871 privat-
docent and prosector at the University of Freiburg
in Baden, in 1872 assistant professor at the Univer-
sity of Leipsic, and then professor of anatomy suc-
cessively at the universities of Jena (1873), Konigs-
berg (1881), and Strasburg (1883).

Schwalbe is editor of the " Jahresberichte flir
Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte " and of the
"Zeitschrift fl'ir Morphologic und Anthropologic."
He edited also the second edition of Hoffmann's
"Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menscheu " (Erlangen,
1877-81), and is tlie author of: "Lehrbuch der Neu-
rologic," ib. 1881; " Ueber die Kaliberverhiiltnisse
der Nervenfasern," Leipsic, 1882; "Lehrbuch der
Anatomie der Sinnesorgane," Erlangen, 1886; "Stu-
(lien fiber Pithccantropus Erectus," Leipsic, 1899;
"Der Neander Schadel," H). 1901; " Vorgeschichte
der Menschen," ib. 1903.

Bibliography: Pagel, Bion. Lex.

s. F. T. H.

SCHWARZ, ADOLF: Austrian theologian:
liorn July, 1846, at Adasz-Tevel, near Papa, Hun
gary. He received his early instruction in the Tal-
mud from his father, who was a rabbi. He then
went to the gymnasium in Papa, and subsequently
entered the University of Vienna, where he studied
philosophy, at the same time attending the lectures
of A. Jellinek and I. H. Weiss at the bet ha-midrash
of that city. In 1867 he entered the Jewish theo-
logical seminary at Breslau, and continued his philo-
sophical studies at the university there. In 1870
and 1872 respectively lie published two of his prize
essays: "L^eber Jacobi's Oppositionelle Stellung zu
Kant, Ficlite und Schelling " and "Ueber das Jii-
dische Kalenderwesen."

Soon after leaving the Breslau seminary he re-
ceived an invitation to become instructor at the




Laudesrabbincrscliulc, tlicn being established in
Budapest; but, as the ()])ening of tliat institution
was delayed, he accepted a call to C'arlsrulie, Baden,
as"Stadt-uud Konfereuziabbiner." He occupied
this position for eighteen j^ears, aud Avas then (1893)
called to Vienna to become rector of the new Jewisii
theological seminary there, which position he still
(190o) holds.

Schwarz is a jirolitic writer on theological, honii-
letic, aud pliilosopincal subjects. He has published :
"Sabbath])redigteu zu den Wocheuabschnitten der
Flmf Bucher Moses," 5 parts, Carlsruhe, 1879-83;
"Festpredigten fiir Alle Haui)tfeiertagedes.Tahres,"
ib. 1884; "Prediglen. Neue Folge," ib. 1892; "Die
Tosifta der Ordnung MoGd " (part i., " Der Tractat
Sabbath," ib. 1879; partii., "Der Tractat Erubin,"
ib. 1882); "Tosifta Juxta Mischuarum Ordinum
Eecomposita et Commentario Instructa" (part i.,
"Seraim," Wilna, 1890 [Ilebr.]: part ii., "Chulin."
Frankfort, 1902); "Die Controver.sen der Scham-
maiten und Hilleliteu. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicke-
lungsgesch. der Hilelschule," in " Jahresbericht tier
Israelitisch - Theologischcn Lehranstalt," Vienna,
1893 ; " Die Hermeneutische Analogic in der Talmud-
ischen Literatur," ib. 1897; "Der Hermeneutische
Syllogismus in der Talmudischcn Literatur. Ein
Beitrag zur Geschichte der Logikim Morgenlande,"
ib. 1901 ; " Die Frauen der Bibel. Drei Vortrage, " ib.
1903; " Die Erzahlungskunst der Bibel. Zwei Vor-
trage," ib. 1904; "DerMischnehTorah,"/6. 1905.

s. M. K.

SCHWARZ, ANTON: Austrian chemist ; born
at Polua, Bohemia, Feb. 2, 1839; died at New York
city Sept. 24, 1895. He was educated at the Uni-
versity of Vienna, where he studied law for two
years, and at the Polytechnicum, Prague, where he
studied chemistry. Graduating in 1861, he went to
Budapest, and was there employed at several brew-
eries. In 1868 he emigrated to the United States
and settled in New York city. The following year
he was employed on "Der Amerikanische Bier-
brauer" ("The American Brewer") and soon aft-
erward became its editor. A few years later he
bought the publication, remaining its editor until
his death. He did much to improve the processes
of brewing in the United States, and in 1880 founded
in New York city the Brewers' Academy of the Uni-
ted States.

Schwarz's eldest son, Max Schwarz (1). in Buda-
pest July 29, 1863; d. in New York city Fel). 7,
1901), succeeded him as editor of " The American
Brewer" and principal of the Brewers' Academy.
He studied at the universities of Erlangen and Bres-
lau and at the Polytechnic High School at Dresden.
In 1880 he followed his father to the United States
and became associated with him in many of his un-

Both as editor and as principal of the academy he

was very successful. Many of the essays in " The

American Brewer," especially those on chemistry,

were written by him. He was a great advocate of

the "pure beer" question in America.

BiBLiooRAPHY : Tlie American Brewer, New York, Nov., 1895,
and March, 1901.
A. F. T. H.

SCHWARZ, GTJSTAV: Hungarian lawyer;

born at Budapest 18o8; educated in his native city
and at German universities. In 1884 he became
privat-docent in Roman law at Budapest, being ap-
pointed assistant professor nine years later, and pro-
fessor in the following year. In 1895 he was made
a member of the editorial committee in charge of
tiie drafting of the Hungarian civil law ; aud in
1902 he becam(> a privy councilor.

Schwarz's works include: "A Vegrendelkezesi
Szabadsag a Romai Jogban " (Budapest, 1881), on the
unrestricted right of tlisposal in Roman law; " Uj
Iranyok a Maganjogban " (ib. 1884), new tendencies
in civil law; "A Tulajdoufentartas" (iVv. 1885), on
the right of ownership; " Az Animus Domini" (ib.
1885) ; " ^Maganjogi Esetek " {ib. 1886). cases relating
to civil law; "^lagaujogi Fejtegetesek " (//;. 1890),
studies in civil law ; " A Hazassagi Jogrol " (i'j. 1894),
on marital law.

Schwarz was converted to Christianity in 1902.

BiBLiOGR.^Pin : PaJhif Lc.r.

s. L. V.

SCHWARZ, ISRAEL: German rabbi; born at
Hlirben, Bavaria, March 15, 1830; died at Cologne
Jan. 4, 1875 ; educated by his father, R. Joachim
Schwarz of Iliirben. At the age of eighteen he
passed the state examination for Bavarian rabbis,
and was then elected district rabbi of Bayreuth,
where he remained until 1856, when he was called to
the rabbinate of Cologne. Schwarz was an ardent
supporter of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, and
founded several local branches of that society.

Schwarz's worksinclude : " Tikwat Enosh " (1868),
containing his own translation of Job as well as
the haggadic saj'ings to this book, and the com-
mentaries of Isaiah di Traui, Moses and Joseph
Kimhi, aud Zerahiah b. Lsrael of Barcelona; and a
translation of a geography of Palestine, written in
Hebrew by Joseph Schw.\kz.

bibliography: Fiirst, Bihl. Jnd. ii. aXJ ; Wolf. Heln: Bilil.
xii. 43-47: JtUUtiChes Literaturhlatt. iii. Ki, 19; Zeitlin, Bihl.
PoHt-Moidds. p. 358.
s. M. L. B.

SCHWARZ, JOSEPH: Palestinian geogra-
pher; born at Flosz, Bavaria, Oct. 22, 1804; died at
Jerusalem Feb. 5, 1865. When he was seventeen years
old he graduated as
teacher from the Koiiig-
liches Schullelirersemi-
nar of Colberg, after
which he joined his
brother Israel at the Uni-
versity of Wiirzburg,
where for five years he
devoted himself to the
history and geography
of the Holy Land, and
published a mait of Pal-
estine ( 1829 ; republished
at Vienna, 1831, and Tri-
est, 1832). It was his ar-
dent desire, however, to
study in Palestine itself
the physical history and geography of the Hoi j' Land,
where his knowledge of Talmudic sources and early
Jewish writers would be of more service. According-
ly he decided to settle in Jerusalem, whither he went

Joseph Schwarz.




ill 1833. Siinvarz then began a series of journey's and
C'xploraiinns in various parts of Palestine, to wliich

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 30 of 160)