Isidore Singer.

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lie devoteii about fifteen years. Tlie results of his in-
vestigations and researches into the history, geog-
raphy, geoloi^y, fauna, and flora of that country have
placed him in the front rank of Palestinian explor-
ers and geographers. He is the greatest Jewish au-
thority on Palestinian matters since Estori Farhi
(1282-1357), the author of '• Kaftor wa-Ferah." One
of the first of his undertakings was to record from
personal observations, made on Mount Olivet in
Jerusalem, the exact time of sunrise and sunset for
ever}' day in the year, for the purpose of determining
for the pious Watikin, of whose sect lie was a devout
member, the proper time for the morning "Shema'."

Schwarz adopted the ritual, niinhagim, and cus-
toms of the Sephardim. In 1849 he accepted the
mission of meshullah, visiting especially England
and the United States, and staying for a time in
New York. An incident of his visit to America was
the translation of his "Tebu'ot ha-Arcz " into Eng-
lish by Isaac Leeser; it was probably the most im-
portant Jewish work published in America up to
that time. The expense of publication was met
by A. Hart. Later Schwarz revisited
In his native country, where, in 1852,

America, was published a German translation of
his work, for which he was decorated
l)y the Emperor of Austria. Schwarz tiien returned
to Jerusalem, and continued his study of rabbinical
literature and Cabala, joining the Beth-El cabalistic
congregation in Jerusalem.

Another important event in his career was his at-
tempt to discover the Ten Tribes, wiiich he thought
might be found in Africa (Al)yssinia, Central and
South Africa) and in Yemen, Tibet, and China. He
ridiculed the idea of identifying them with the
American Indians or the East-Indians. An inter-
esting correspondence on this subject is added to
Leeser's edition of the "Tebu'ot ha-Arez " (pp. 493-

Schwarz published the following works: "Luah,"
a calendar for the year 5604 (Jerusalem, 1843);
"Tebu'ot ha-Shemesh," in four parts, on the phys-
ical history of the Holy Land, the cycle of the sun,
and the calculation of sunrise and sunset (ih. 1843);
"Tebu'ot ha-Arez," geography, geolog}', and chro-
nology of Palestine {ib. 1845); "Peri Tebu'ah," Bib-
lical and Talmudic notes on Palestine, the second
part, entitled " Pardes," treating of the four methods
of commentating (ih. 1861); "Teshu-

Works. hot," responsa and, under the title
"Shoshannat ha-'Emek," additions to
and corrections of his former works (ib. 1862) ;
"Luah." tables of sunrise and sunset in the latitude
of Jerusalem, published by his son-in-law^ Azriel
Aaron Jaffe (il>. 1862). The English translation of
the "Tebu'ot ha-Arez" made by Isaac Leeser bore
the title "A Descriptive and Historical Sketch of
Palestine," and was published with maps, engra-
vings, and a portrait of the author (Philadelphia,
1850). A German tianslation was published by
Israel Schwarz under the title "Das Heilige Land"
(Frankfort-on-the-Main. 1852). Extracts from the
"Tebu'ot" were published by Kalman Schulmann
in his "Shulmit" (Wilna, 1855), and a complete

edition of the work was printed by Joseph Kohen-
Zedek at I^emberg in 1865; Luncz's edition, Jeru
salem, 1890, contains a complete biography of
Schwarz, an index of the geographical names, and

Bibliographv : Fiirst, liihl. Jiid. iii. 300; Israel Srliwarz's
preface to Das HriUiir Laiul : ZeiUuu BUil. Poxt-Mendels.
|ip. :J.5T-a58; tbe preface to Luncz's edition, Jerusalem, 1S90.

s. J. D. E.

NIGRI) : German Dominican preacher and anti-
Jewish wiiter of the fifteenth century. According
to John Eck (" Verlegung eines Juden-Biichleins,"
signature H, i.b), Schwarz was a Jewish convert to
Christianit}-; but for this assertion there are no
proofs. Having obtained the degree of bachelor in
llieolog}-, Schwarz turned his attention to the He-
brew language and literature. He studied at differ-
ent universities, among them that of Salamanca,
Sl)ain, in which city he secretly associated with
Jewish children and listened to the lectures of the
rabbis in order to perfect himself in Hebrew. He
then entered the Order of St. Dominic and set him-
self the task of spreading Christianity among the
Jews. To this end he obtained an imperial edict
compelling them to attend his sermons. In 1474
he preached in Hebrew, Latin, and German at
Frankfort-on-tlie-Main, Ratisbon, and "Worms, chal-
lenging the rabbis of each place to a disputation,
which they, however, declined. Enraged by this
failure, he composed two works vehemently attack-
ing the Jews and the Talmud: one in Latin, which
has no special title, being designated as " Tractatus
Contra Perfidos Juda?os" (Esslingen, 1475); the other
in German, bearing the title "Stern Maschiach " (ib.
1477). Later he was invited to direct the Dominican
College of Alt-Ofen, Hungary; and he wrote there
the "ClypeusThomistarum " (Venice, 1482).

In the first two of tlie above-mentioned works
Schwarz brought to bear all his scholarsliip, and at
the same time all his spite, against the Jews. He char-
acterized the Talmud as an infamous and deceptive
work which no Christian should tolerate and which
ought to be burned when found in any coun-
try of Christendom. Reuchlin, naturally, declared
Schwarz's works absurd (" Augenspiegel," p. 3).
Both books are supplied with appendixes containing
the Hebrew alphabet, rules for reading Hebrew,
some grammatical rules, the Decalogue in Hebrew,
etc., and they are among the earliest specimens of
printing from Hebrew type in Germany.

Bibliography : AUgcmeine Dcutxchc Bioqi-apMcs.w; Wolf.
Bihl. Hebr. il. 17, 1037, 1110 ct scq.: iv. 525 ct seq.
J. M. Sel.

SCHWARZFELD: Rumanian family which
became prominent in the nineteenth century.

Benjamin Schwarzfeld : Rumanian educator
and writer; father of Elias, Moses, and Wilhelm
Schwarzfeld; born April, 1822; died at Jassy Nov.
27, 1896. After completing his Hebrew education
he turned his attention to modern secular studies.
From 1845 he contributed to the "Kokebe Yizhak,"
edited by E. Stern. His wedding, in 1848, deserves
to be mentioned. because of the fact that he was the
first Rumanian Jew to appear under the bridal can-
opy in a frock coat and high silk hat instead of in the




customary caftan and fur cap. The event aroused so
great an excitement among the Orthodox, especially
among the Hasidini, that the police were compelled
to interfere to prevent public disturbances. Schwarz-
feld started his career as a banker, and was the tirst
to introduce fire insurance into Moldavia.

In spite of the opposition of the conservative ele-
ment among the Rumanian Jews he o])eneil in 1852,
at his own expense, the first modern Jewish school.
On account of this he was exconununicated, but,
owing to his relations with various foreign consuls,
the ban remained without any practi(,'al effect. He
remained at the head of the school, which was con-
ducted until 1857. In 1858 he prevailed u])on the
minister, Cantacuzino, to close the old-fashioned
Jewish schools (hadarim) and compel the communi-
ties to appoint rabbis with a modern education. In
1860 he accepted the honorary position of inspector-
general of the Jewish schools of ^Moldavia. Schwarz-
feld was a continuous contributor to the Hebrew pa-
pers published in Rumania, and acted as correspond-
ent for a number of foreign Jewish periodicals.

Bibliography: E. Schwarzfeld, In Anuarul pentru Israel-
itzi, X. 1U8.

Elias Schwarzfeld : Rumanian historian and
novelist; born March 7, 1855, at He re-
ceived his early education in the public schools of
Jassy, and w-hile still a student, between 1871 and
1878, contributed to the Jassy papers " Curierul de Ja-
sl " and " Noul Curier Roman. " In 1872 he was inter-
ested in the foundation of the " Vocea Aparatorului, "
which was started in behalf of the Jews. In May,
1874, Schwarzfeld founded in Jassy the "Revista
Israelitica." in which he published his first Jewish
novel, " Darascha." From 1874 to 1876 he studied
medicine at the University of Bucharest, abandoning
it later, however, to take up the study of law
(LL.D. 1881). From 1877 to 1878 he edited the
"Jildischer Telegraf," a Yiddish daily; and after
this had ceased publication he edited the
biweekly "Ha-Yoez." In 1878 he published his
first pamphlet, "('hestia Scoalelor Israelite si a Pro-
gresului Israelit in Romania," which was occasioned
by a circular which the Alliance Israelite Universelle
had i-ssued calling for information regarding the state
of education among the Rumanian Jews.

In 1881, on his return to Bucharest, lie took charge
of the paper "Fraternitatea." He was at this time
one of the principal collaborators on the " Anuarul
Pentru Israelitzi," founded by his brother in
1877. In this he published, "from 1884 to 1898, his
numerous studies on the history of the Jews in Ru-
mania. As vice-president of the " Fraternitatea "
lodge, and later as secretary-general of the supreme
council of the Jewish lodges of Rumania, Schwarz-
feld prepared the ground for the B'nai B'rith. In
1885 he published, in 1)ehalf of coreligionists in the
small towns and villages, the two pamphlets " Radu
Porumbaru si Ispravile lui la Fabrica de Hartie din
Bacau" (translated into German) and "Adeverul
Asupra lievoltei de la Brusturoasa."

Schwarzfeld's activities having rendered him ob-
jectionable to the government, he was expelled Oct.
17, 1885, only forty-eight hours being given him to
arrange his personal affairs. He went immediately
to Paris. In 1886 lie was appointed by Baron ]\Iau-

rice de Hirsch secretary of his private bureau of
charity. When the Jewish Colonization Associa-
tion was founded Schwarzfeld became its secre-
tary-general ; up to the death of Baroness Hirsch lie
acted as her secretary in the distribution of her
charities. Schwarzfeld continued at Paris his liter-
ary activity in behalf of his Rumanian brethren, and
he was the co-editor of the "Egalitatea," founded
in 1890 in Bucharest by his brother. To the " Amer-
ican Jewish Year Book " for 5662 (1901-2) he con-
tributed two essays: "The Jews of Rumania from
the Earliest Time to the Present Day " and " The
Situation of the Jews in Rumania Since the Berlin
Treaty (1878) " ; an essay on "The Jews of Moldavia
at the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century "ap-
peared in the "Jewish Quarterly Review," vol. xvi.,
and another entitled " Deux Episodes de I'Histoire
des Juifs Roumains"in the "Revue des Etudes
Juives," vol. xili.

Schwarzfeld is the onl}' Rumanian writer of note
who has cultivated the specifically Jewish novel.
To this class of literature belong his " Rabinul
Facator de Minuni, Conte Populaire " (1883) ; " Bercu
Batlen"(1890); "Gangavul," "Betzivul," "Prigonit
de Soarta" (1895); "O Fata Batrana," "Unchiul
Berisch," " Uu Vagabond," "Schiinschele Ghibor,"
"Judecata Poporana" (1896); and "Polcovniceasa"
(1897). Most of these novels have been translated
into Hebrew and published by Mebaschan. His " Les
Juifs en Roumaine Depuis le Traite de Berlin"
appeared under the pseudonym " Ed mond Sincerus"
(London, 1901).

Schwarzfeld also translated into Rumanian several
novels of Leopold Kompert, Ludwig Philippson, ^I.
Lehman, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, S. Kohn,
and others; Isidore Loeb's article "Juifs" ; Arsene
Darmesteter's pamphlet on the Talmud; and the
two lectures by Ernest Renan on Judaism.

Bibliography: Anuarul pentru Inraelitzi, Ix. 156-158; Al-
manachul Israelit llustrat, 5661,,p.250; Cnlendarul Ziarii-
luU 1S86, Vocea Dreptatzci, pp. 24-26.

Moses Schwarzfeld: Rumanian writer; third
son of Benjamin Schwarzfeld ; born at Jass}^ Dec.
8, 1857. After studying medicine for a short time
at Bucharest he turned his attention exclusively to
literature, his first article appearing in 1877, in the
"Revista Israelita," pul)lished by his brother Elias.
In the.saine year he founded the " Calendarul Pen-
tru Israelitzi," a JewLsh literaiy j-ear-book, the title
of which was changed in the following year to
"Anuarul Pentru Israelitzi." This publication, the
last volume of which appeared in 1898, became the
organ of the most eminent Jewish writers in Ru-
mania; it contains a vast number of original essays
on the history, folk-lore, and literature of the Ru-
manian Jews. In 1881 Schwarzfeld became the
princi]-)al contributor, under the pseudonym "Ploes-
teanu," to the periodical "Fraternitatea," published
by his brother Elias.

A special merit of Schwarzfeld's is the revival of
one of the most original and popular figures of Ru-
manian Judaism, namely, Moses Cilibi, whose biog-
raphy and literary remains he published under the
title "Pracliea si Apropourile lui Cilibi Moise Ve.s-
titul din Tzara Romaneasca " (Crajova, 1883 ; 2d ed. .
Bucharest, 1901). After the expulsion of hisbrother




Elias, aud on account of the suspension bj' the gov-
ernment of the periodical "Fraternitatea," Scliwarz-
feld witlulrew from political journalism and founded
the Julius Barascli Historical Society, whose main
purpose Avas to collect historical material concerning
the JcAvsof Rumania.

Of the studies which were published by Schwarz-
feld in tlie annuls of the society the following deserve
special mention: " Ochire Asupra Istoriei Evreilor
in Romania dela Inceput Pana la Mijlocul Acestei
Veac " (Bucharest, 1887); "Excursiuni Critice Asu-
pra Istoriei Evreilor in Romania" (I'i. 1888); "Mo-
nente din Istoria Evreilor in Romania" {ib. 1889).
His "Poesile Popiilare, Colectia Alexandri " (Jass}',
1889) aud "Vasile Alecsandri sau IMesterul Drege-
strica si Aparatorii Sai " (('rajova, 1889) are contri-
butions to general Rumanian literature. In 1890
Schwarzfeld founded the " Egalitatea," in Bucharest.
He is au advocate of political Zionism and has been
a delegate to several Zionist congresses.

Wilhelm Schwarzfeld : Rumanian author; sec-
ond son of Benjamin Schwarzfeld ; born at Jassy
May 22, 18r)G ; died at Bucharest Feb. 22, 1894. After
receiving an education at Jassy lie went to Bucha-
rest to study for a short time at the Faculte des
Leltres. He contributed frequently to the "Frater-
nitatea," "Propasirea," "Egalitatea," and "Anuarul
Pentru Israelitzi," and took an active part in the
foundation and development of the Julius Barasch
Historical Society, for which he compiled a collec-
tion of inscriptions from the moie important Jewish
cemeteries of Rumania. He ])ublislied a number
of important historical and literary essays in the
"Anuarul Pentru Israelitzi" (vols, xii., xiii., xv.,
xvii., and xviii.). His "Amintiri din Viatza Sco-
lara " (1894) constitute a valuable contribution to the
contemporaneous history of the Jews of Rumania.

Bibliography : Aimarnl Pentru Israelitzi, xvi. 224-228 ;
Egalitatea, 1894, pp. 73-76.



SCHWEINFXJRT (Hebrew, DTn^'lK') : Town
in Lower Franconia. The first mention of its Jews
dates from the year 1243, when Henry of Bamberg
ordered 50 marks in silver to be paid them. In 1263
the murder of aseven-j'ear-old Christiau girl was at-
tributed to the Jews, and it was only by the mayor's
active interference that a persecution of them by the
rabble was prevented. It developed later that the
child had been murdered in one of the factional quar-
rels of the town. In common with those of other
Franconian towns, the Jews of Schweiufurt suffered
much from the persecutions in 1298 and 1349. They
were severely affected in 1390 also, when Wences-
laus IV. annulled all debts owing to them, and in
1544, when the schools were closed and the Jewish
advocate Jud Hesel in vain endeavored to bring
about their reopening.

Schweinfurt is now (1905) the seat of the " Landes-
rabbiner " (present chief rabbi. Dr. S. Stein), its Jews
numbering 415 in a total population of about 12,500;
and it has four benevolent societies. The total num-
ber of Jews in the district is 1,500, of which the
town of Gerolzhofen lias 148, that of Wiederwerrn
140, and that of Theilheim 116.

Bibliography : Aronius, Regesteu, pp.232, 286 ; Wiener, 'Emek
ha-Bahn, p. 44; Reacsten, pp. 176, 177: Salfeld, Marti/rnld-
giuin, pp. 23.3. 271, 275, 281 ; HelTner, Jiidcn in Fratiken, p.
37; StotistifcliesJahrhnch, liK)3, s.r.

J. s. o.

SCHWERIN. See Mecklenburg.

SCHWERIN, GOTZ : Hungarian rabbi and
Talmudist ; born in 1760 at Schwerin-on-the-Warthe
(Posen); died Jan. 15, 1845; educated at the yeshi-
bot of Presburg and Prague. In 179(5 he settled
in Hungary, at first living the life of a private
scholar in Baja; but in 1812 he was appointed
rabbi of Szabadka and in 1815 of Baja. His
house became the intellectual center of the dis-
trict. In 1827he was elected chief rabbi of Hungary
by the heads of all the communities, with the right
to officiate as the highest judge, to summon the con-
tending parties, and even to compel their appear-
ance. He attended the meetings of the "asifah,"
or county communal gatherings, to supervise the
apportioning of the toleration tax, to settle dis-
putes, to record the minutes on important occasions,
and to formulate decisions. No rabbi or ritual oflfi-
cial could be appointed in the county without his
consent, his decision in this regard being final. Re-
ligious questions and marital difficulties and law-
suits, matters relating to elections and taxation, and
differences between congregations and rabbis were
brought before him, involving thousands of deci-
sions during his term of office.

Schwerin used his power with inflexible justice,
even appealing to the authorities when necessary.
He was not entirely untouched by the spirit of Re-
form. He gave to the sermon, for instance, its due
place in the service ; nor was he therein satisfied with
the far-fetched interpretations of Biblical and Tal-
mudic passages current at that time, but sought to
edify and elevate his hearers. In 1844 he was an im-
portant member of the rabbinical conference of Paks
(Hungary). A detailed account of Schwerin 's life
was written in Hungarian by his grandson Samuel
Kohn, rabbi in Budapest ("Mag3'ar Zsido Szemle"
[1898-99], XV., xvi.).

D. E. X.


French journalist; born at Chaville (Seine-et-Oise)
Aug. 28, 1867 ; died at Paris Feb. 27, 1905. He re-
ceived his early instruction at Nantes, where his
father was editor of the "Phare de la Loire." Set-
tling in Paris, he became connected with the " Echo
de Paris," in which paper appeared his first stories,
and with the "Evenement Journal," the "Revue
des Deux Mondes," etc. Through the influence of
his uncle Leon Cahun, curator of the Mazarin
Library, he received a thorough education (A.B.
1888) and was appointed professor at the Ecole des
Hautes Etudes.

Schwob, W'ho was one of the most brilliant of mod-
ern French writers, Avas the author of: "Etude sur
I'Argot Francais," 1889, with M. Guiyesse; "Jargon
des Coquillards en 1455," 1890, a work on the adven-
tures and life of the French poet Villon ; " Canir
Double," 1891; "Le Roi au Masque d'Or," 1892;
"Le Livre de Monelle" and "Mimes," 1894; "La
Cr()i.sade des Enfauts," 1895; "Specilege" and
"Vies Imaginaires," 1896; "LaLampe de Psyche,"
1903; etc. He also translated Shakespeare's "Ham-




let " witli Eugene Moian. Sarah Bernhardt appearing
in the tide rule of the production of liis version, and
"Broad Arrows" by Slevensou, witli whom lie i)e-
canie quite intimate.

CiULior.RAPHV : iVoui't'ciK Laroust^i: [Uustri-. Jcir. Chmu.
March i. liKJS, p. 11 ; Athcnccum. March 4, liXlj.
s. F. T. II.

SCOPUS : An elevation seven stadia north of
Jeru.salem, where, according to tradition, tlie high
priest and the inhabitants of the city welcomed
Alexander the Great (Josephus, "Ant." .\i. 8, 55 5).
Josephus slates that the place was called ^a<pe'iv
(Aramaic, ps^f; Hebrew, psiX), which name was
translated into Greek as -«<Tof = " prospect," since
from this height one might see Jerusalem and the
Temple. It is evident from this statement that Ikc-uc
was not originally a i)roper name, and that it be-
came one only by degrees. The account of Jose-
phus was based on Eiipolemus; and Schlatter ("Zur
Topographic und Geschichte Paltistina's," 1893, ]).
56) therefore infers that the Hellenistic Eupolemus
understood Hebrew oral least Arainaic. According
to the Talmud, however, the meeting with Alexan-
der took place at Antipatris; and since this city
was formerly called Kefar Saba, Griitz ("Gesch."
'2d ed., ii. 221), like Reland, inferred that there was
a confusion between the names la6n and £«/3d. Of
the two accounts that of Josephus is the more
plau.sible. See Alex.\ndek the Gkeat.

Scopus is next mentioned in the account of the war
against Rome as being the site of a camp of Cestius
Gallus (Josephus, " B. J." ii. 19, ^ 4), and later of
Titus, who slowly approached the city from that
point, leveling the ground thence to Herod's monu-
ment {ib. V. 3, § 2).

Scopus frequently appears in the Talmud under
the name "Zotim." In certain halakic respects it is
regarded as a boundary of Jerusalem (Pes. iii. 8;
Tosef., Pes. ii. 13); and it is said to be a place
from which Jerusalem is visible (M. K. 26a; Yer.
M. K. 83b; Sem. ix.). It is, however, evidently a
mere play on words when a sort of honey is named
after the place (Sotah 48b).

In 1889 a canal, four meters in depth and roughly
hewn in the rock, was discovered at the foot of the
hill of Scopus; and this aqueduct is regarded by
Gordon as the water-conduit of the Temple (" 3Iit-
theiluugen und Naehrichten des Deutschen Paliis-
tina-Vereins." 1900, j). 48). A Jewish ossuary in-
scribed with Hebrew and Greek letters, recently
discovered on the Blount of Olives, is supposed to
have come from Scopus (Clermont-Ganneati, in
"Revue Biblique," 19U0, p. 307).

Opposite Scopus is an elevation, now called Al-
Kahkir, on which enormous stones have been found,
and which has been identified as the site of the camp
of Titus (Luncz, "Jerusalem," vi. 81). Scopus is lo-
cated by Buhl, however, in the southern portion of
the elevation, which is bounded on the north by the
Wadi al-Jauz.

Bibliography:,'«-Fera?i. vi.; Neubauer,
G. T. p. l.jl ; BSttKer. Lexicon zu Flavius j'osephui^, p. 223 ;
Bnhl. Gcoijraphie dex Alten PalUstina, p. 96: Schiirer,
Gexch. 3d ed., 1. &U. note U.

f^' S. Ku.

SCORPION (Hebrew, "'akrab"): An arachnid

resembling a miniature flat lobster, and having a

poisonous sting in its tail. It is common in the
Sinaitic Peninsula and the desert of El-Tili. In
Palestine, where it is represented by eight species, it
swarms in every part of the country, and is found in
houses, in chinks of walls, among ruins, and under
stones. In E/.ek. ii. 6 "scorpion " is employed as a
metaphor of bitter, stinging words; and in I Kings xii.
11, 14 it is applied to a scourge which was probably
provided with metal points. A place-name derived
from the scorpion may i)crhai^s be seen in Maaleli
Akrabbim ("ascent of the scorpions "), occurring
in Num. xxxiv. 4, Josh. xv. 3, and Judges i. 36.

In the Talmud the scorpion is said to live in emptj'
cisterns, in dung-heaps, in holes, among stones, and
in crevices of walls (Hag. 3a and parallels). It at-
tacks without provocation or Avarning; and its bite
is even more dangerous than that of the snake, be-
cause it repeats it (Yer. Ber. 9a). The scorpions of
Adiabene (Hadyab) were considered especiallj' dan-
gerous (Shab. 121b). The urine of a forty -day -old
infant and the gall of the stork were used as curatives
(ib. 109b ; Ket. 50a). The scorpion itself was em-
jiloyed as a medicament in curing cataract (Git.
60a). Among the permanent miracles of Jerusalem
was numbered the fact that no one was ever bitten
there by a scorpion or a serpent (Ab. v. 5). The
anger of the wise is likened to the sting of the scor-
pion (ib. ii. 10). Metaphorically, " 'akrab " is used
of the iron bit of the horse (Kelim xi. 5, xii. 3).

Bibliography : Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 301 ; Lewysohn, Z. T.
p. 29S.
J. I. M. C.

SCOTLAND : Countiy forming the northern
part of Great Britain. Jews have been settled there
only since the early part of the nineteenth century.
In 1816 there were twenty families in Edinbukgii,
which was the first Scottish city to attract Jewish
settlers. The establishment of a Jewish community
in Glasgow came later, in 1830. These are the two
principal communities, and contain nearly the whole
of the Jewish population of Scotland, wliich may

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 31 of 160)