Isidore Singer.

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tions on tlie seals usually give the name of tlic
owner, witli the occasional addition of the name of
the father or husband, although other phrases some-
times occur, such as "May Yiiwii have mercy,"

Ancient Hebrew Seals.

(From Ltvy, " Sifgel und GemmeD.")

or " The work of Yhwh," the latter inscription being
found on a seal in the Paris coin-cabinet. "When sev-
eral names are engraved on a seal which has no de-
sign, they are separated by a double line. It is note-
worthy that a number of the seals which have been
preserved belonged to women, although in later times
it was not customary for females to wear seal-
rings in Palestine (Shab. vi. 3; ib. Gem.), while in
Europe, on the contrary, women have
Use by worn them since the Middle Ages (.see
"Women. Ring). Iu both the tannaitic and
amoraic periods the hoop of the ring
was occasionally made of sandalwood and the seal
of metal, or vice versa (Shab. vi. 1 ; ib. Gem. 591)).
Seals dipped in a sort of India ink were used for sign-
ing documents, or the impression was made in clay if
the document was inscribed on a tablet (see also the
factory-marks, Jew. En'CYC. i. 440). In Talmudic
times ('Ab. Zarah 31 et seq.), furthermore, seals were
u.sed as they are still employed, to attest the prep-
aration of food according to ritual regulation (Plate
i., Fig. 7; Plate ii.. Fig. 39). Tlie signets of the pe-
riod bore various emblems, that of AbbaArika rep-
resenting a fish, Hanina's a branch of a date-palm,
Kabbah b. Huna's a mast of a ship, and Judali b.
Ezekiel's a human head. Tlie meaning of these
emblems is unknown; and the attempted explana-
tions of the medieval Tal-
mudists are entirel}' inade-
quate. The seals (origi-
nally at Bonn) now in the
Albertinum at Dresden
probably date from the time
of Rab, 175-247. One of
these, an ametliyst, shows
the seven-branclied candle-
stick on a pedestal, wliile
the other, a carnelian, rep-
resents the same candlestick between two pillars
covered by a canopy (Boaz and Jachin[?] ; see illus-
tration above, and Plate 3 in Belandin, " De Spoliis

Seal-rings were worn generally in Babylon, ac-
cording to Herodotus andStrabo; but since the\-
were regarded asamarkof distinction, Mohammed's
second successor, the calif Omar (581-644), forbade
Jews and Christians to wear them, although he
made an exception in favor of theexilarcli Bostanai,
who was thus enabled to give an official character

Seals with Seven- Branched
Candlestick, Third Cen-

(In the AlbertinuMi at Dresden.)

to his documents and decrees (for his emblem see
Jew. Encvo. iii. 331a, s.r. Bostanai). This privi-
lege probably remained with the exilarchate and the
gaonate; for the last gaon, Hai b. Sherira (969-
1038), is known to have had a seal with the emblem
of a lion, probably in allusion to his descent from
King David, since, according to tradition, the device
on the escutcheons and banners of the Jewish kings
was a lion. When the exilarchate was revived,
about the middle of the twelfth century, the resh
galuta Samuel was permitted, according to the ac-
count of Pethahiah, to have an official seal for his
diplomas, "which were recognized in all countries,
including Palestine." Shortly afterward Jewish
.seals came into use in Europe; for, Avhile the an-
cient custom of employing signets had
Spread of been retained in France, whence it was
Custom. carried to Germany, the cities did not
begin to use seals generally until about
the middle of the twelfth century. Nor did the
secular corporations, the lesser nobility, or the
burghers follow their example until a hundred j^ears
later". Jewish seals must, therefore, date from after
this period. The statement made that the Jews were
not allowed to use seals is erroneous; for in the
thirteenth century the Jewish communities were
corporations of equal standing with the communi-
ties of Christian burghers, and were recognized by
the state. They were therefore, like Christian or-
ganizations, entitled to use seals (Nubeling, " Die Ju-
dengemeinden des Mittelalteis, " p. 200). From that
period date the seals of
the Jewisii communi-
ties of Augsburg (a
double eagle, with a
Jew's hat in chief, and
the legend " Sigillum
Juda'orum Augustte,"

[ D ' ] 11 n " D n 1 n

[Kt3Dl]:iX; see illustra-
tion in Jesv. Excyc.
ii. 306), of Ulm (an ox-
head ; Jiiger, "Gesch.
Ulms,"p. 400), of Metz
("Revue Orientale," ii.
328), and of Ratisbon
(crescent, with a large
star in chief, and the
inscription ^np Qmn
"pTintJ'::-!"!). Both the
figures on the Ratisbon
seal appear also on the

seal of Masip Crechent (".Jahrb. Ge.sch. der Jud."
ii. 290), and on a Swiss seal of about the same pe-
riod with an inscription no longer legible (Plate ii..
Fig. 29).

Even individual Jews, like the nobility, as being

freemen and servants of the Imperial Chamber, were

entitled to have seals; this privilege.

Privilege however, like many others, was some-
Sometimes times recognized and sometimes de-
With- nied, as is shown, to cite but one of
drawn. many examples, by a passage in a re-
ceipt of the ]\Iagdeburg community
dated 1493, "because none of them have seals"
("Monatsschrift," 1865, p. 366), although the Jews

Seal of the Jewish Community of

(From Carmoly. " Revue OrientaJe.")




of that city had affixed a seal to a document in 1364
("Cod. Dip]. Anhaltin." iv. 320). The conditions
were similar in otlier European countries; thus in
1396 Dul<e William of Austria decreed tliat all
promissory notes should be sealed both by tlie city
judge and l)y the Jews judge (Niibeling, I.e. p.
205). Further, in a manuscript of the municipal
archives of Presburg of the year 1376 is found the
enactment with regard to the " Jiidenpuch," that
"a Christian and a Jew shall seal tlie book with
their seals " (Winter, " Jahrb. " 5620, p. 16). In 1402
the cliief rabbi ("rabbi mor ") of Portugal, who was
appointed hy the king, and who had jurisdiction
over all the Jews of the country, was ordered by
John I. to have a signet, with the coat of arms of
Portugal and the legend "Scello do Arraby [Arra-
biado] Moor de Portugal," with which his secretary
sealed all the responsa, decisions, and other docu-
ments which he issued ; and the seven provincial
chief justices appointed by him used a similar seal
having the same coat of arms with the inscription
" Seal of the ouvidor [the ouvidores] of the commu-
nities . . ." (Kayserling, "Gesch. der Juden in Por-
tugal," pp. 10, 13). When Alfonso V. reorganized
the legal affairs of the Jews in 1480, he decreed that
the chief rabbi should act as judge in the name of
the king, and should seal his verdicts with tlie royal
seal (Depping, "Die Juden im Mittelalter," pp. 322
et seq.). On the other hand, the fact that Gedaliah
ibn Yahya refers in his "Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah "

to the coat of arms of liis ancestor

Use Yahya ibn Ya'ish, the favorite of Al-

in Spain, fonso Henriquez, seems to indicate

that the Jews of Portugal used seals
at a very early time. The Spanish Jews also had
signets ; and there are two in the British Museum
which probably date from the fourteenth century:
the signet of the community of Seville (Plate ii.,
Fig. 27) and one belonging to Todros ha-Levi, son
of Samuel ha-Levi (Plate iii.. Fig. 9).

The Jews of Navarre, on the contrary, were
obliged to have their documents sealed with the
royal seal in the notary's office (which was farmed
out), although they had their own courts in the
thirteenth century (Kayscrling, "Gesch. der Juden
in Navarra," p. 73). The French king Philip II. de-
creed in 1206 that the Jews should affix to promis-
sory notes a special seal, the signet to remain in the
custody of two notables of the city (Depping, I.e.
p. 148). His son, Louis VIII., however, deprived
the Jews of this seal, perhaps because, as Depping
assumes {I.e. p. 155), it contained merely a Hebrew
inscription without figures, in obedience to Jewish
law, so that documents sealed with it escaped su-
pervision, which led to many abuses. The plausi-
bility of this hypothesis is increased by the fact
that ultra-orthodox rabbis occasionally objected to
seals with figures in intaglio (Low, " Beitrage," i. 37,
57), even though such scruples Avere comparatively
rare, and P. Israel Isserlein (loth cent.) unhesita-
tingly used a seal bearing a lion's head. Most Jewish
seals of the Middle Ages had devices, together with
an inscription in Latin or in the vernacular in addition
to the Hebrew legend. Some Jews had a double
seal, with a Hebrew inscription on one side and a
legend in the vernacular on the other, the latter being

used to sign legal papers in transactions with

Christians; e.g., the seal of Kalonymus (Plate ii..

Figs. 24, 25). Such double seals were used also at a

later time, as by Saul Wahl(Edelmann,

Double " Gedullat Sha'ul, " p. 22) ; and their em-
Seals. plo3'ment continued even in the nine-
teenth century (Plate ii., Figs. 35, 36)
While most medieval Jewish seals, as already noted,
contain a figure in the center of the signet (Plate ii..
Fig. 30), some seals occur in which the device is
set in a scutcheon (Plate ii.. Figs. 23, 24, 25, 26, 28,
29), an arrangement all the more remarkable since
at that time it was the privilege of those " born to
the shield and helmet." The shield in all these
signets is French ("ecu francais"); but no occur-
rence of the helmet is known. Most of the seals
were round (Plate ii.. Fig. 30), though square seals
also are found (Plate iii.. Fig. 9), as well as seals in
the form of a parabola (Plate ii.. Fig. 34), the lat-
ter being used chiefly by the clergy.

Some of these seals are "armes parlantes," in
which a device represents the owner's name, accord-
ing to an etymology which may be either true or
false, as in Vislin's seal (Plate ii., Fig. 26), which
bears three fi.shes embowed in pairle, or in the seal
of Masip Crechent, mentioned above, in which the
crescent is a play upon the owner's

"Armes name. Family seals ("armes de fa-
Parlantes." mille ") were used by the medieval
Jews, as is shown by the seal of Moses
b. Menahem and his brothers Gumprecht and Visli
("Illustrirte Zeitung," July 2, 1881), which bears
three Jew's hats with points meeting, in pairle
(Plate ii.. Fig. 23). The knightly family of Judden
in Cologne, which was of Jewish descent, had a simi-
lar coat of arms: three Jew's hats argent in a field
gules; crest, a bearded man (Jew) in a coat gules,
wearing a Jew's hat argent (Fahne, "Gesch. der
KOlner Geschlechter," p. 192).

In later times new emblems appeared on the
Jewish seals. Thus, the Magen Dawid ("David's
shield ") is found with increasing frequency on com-
munal seals even to the present time, occurring, for
instance, on that granted to the ghetto of Prague
by Emperor Ferdinand II. in 1627 (Plate i.. Fig.
18), where it surrounds the Swedish hat and bears
the legend "Sigillum Antiquaj Communitatis Pra-
gensis Juda-orum," with the letters nmtJO in the
corners, which are to be read "magistrat." The
shield of David is found also on the seal of the com-
munity of Vienna of the year 1655, with the inscrip-
tion NJ-'ll nS XtJ'np xf5np (Kaufmann, "Letzte
Vertreibung," p. 151); on that of the community of
Furth, with the legend Q'p'p (Wiirfel, "Judenge-
meinde Furth," p. 71); on that of Kremsir, about
1690 (Plate ii., Fig. 38); on that of the community
of Kriegshabcr, which bears the inscription ^T\\>
"lanonp (Plate i., Fig. 18); on the seals of the
Dresden and Beuthen communities (Plate ii., Figs.
33, 41), both of which date from the nineteenth cen-
tury' ; and on many others.

Different devices are found, moreover, on the seals
of other communities. Thus, the seal used by the
community of Halberstadt after its return to the
city in 1661 bears a dove with an olive-branch hover-
ing over the Ark, and the motto "Gute Hoffnung"




in chief, with the words t^n y>p'^ 1DN below, and
the legend "Vorsteher der Jiidcnsciiaft in Halber-

stadt " (Plate i., Fig. 11). The seal of

Communal the community of Ofcn has an Ark of

Seals, tlie Law with the inscription "i^y^ p"p

Ejnn pIX and the words "Ofner
Judengemeinde " (Plate i.. Fig. 9). In 1817 seals
W'cre granted both to the principal community and
to the Portuguese community of Amsterdam, the
former bearing a lion holding in one paw a bundle
of arrows and in the other a shield with a mauen

pKli:^ nirno (Plate i.. Fig. 2). Among Jewish
corporations the butchers' gild of Prague is said
by tradition to have received fiom King Ladislaus
(12th cent.), in reward of bravery, a seal with tlie
Boheniiau lion, and it is known that in the seven-
teenth centmy this gild had a seal
Gild (Plate ii.. Fig. 32) bearing on a shield

Seals. engrailed a key with the inagen Da-
wid, and in chief the Bohemian lion
"queue fourchee," holding a butcher's ax in one
paw, with the legend "Prager Jiidisch. Fleischer


Jewish Seals.
1, 3-8, and 10. Seals with names of owners, family symbols, and zodiacal signs. (In the Musf^e de Cluuy, Paris.) 2. Seal with He-
brew motto. (In the Musde de Cluny, Paris.) 9. Seal of Todros ha-Levi of Toledo, 14th century. (In the British Museum.)

Dawid, and the latter having a shield with a pelican
(see Jew. Encyc. i. 545b, s.v. A.msteuuam). The seal
of the Portuguese community of Hamburg (Plate i.,
Fig. 1) has a rose-bush (probably originally the
emblem of the Rosalis family) with the legend " Por-
tugiesisch Ji'idische Gemcinde Hamburg." Other
communal seals have only inscriptions, as that of
Kamionka in Poland, which bears merely the legend
Xpj"'DNp PP'f pit?'"' mv hr^p and "Kamionker Ge-
mein. Vorschtehr " (sic!) (Plate ii.. Fig. 40), and tiie
seal of the chief rabbinate of Swabia (seat of the
rabbi of Pfersee), dating from the middle of the
eighteenth century, which has simply the iascription

Zunfts Insigl." (sic!). The members of this gild
bore also on their seals the same lion with the ax
(Plate i.. Fig. 5), while the members of the Jewish
barbers' gild of the cit\' likewise had the lion, with a
bistoury. Tlie Paris Sanhedrin had a seal Avith the
imperial eagle holding the tables of the Law ; and
the Westphalian consistory was allowed to use a
signet with tiie arms of the state and the legend
"Konigl. Westphael. Konsistorium der Israeliten."
An official seal closely resembling that of the com-
munity was given in 1817 to the Hoofdcommissie
tot de Zaken der Israelieten of Amsterdam. Four
years previously the school board of the Philan-


'•',-•■1 ' Mr. ,
1 .Hmi^vi^j^tj^

Seals of Various Jewish Communities at Jerusalem.

(In the pnssession of J. D. Eisenstein, New York.)


Second Day of Festivals



thropin of Frankfort had received an official seal
with the coat of arms of the grand diichy and the
inscription " Schulrath der Israel. Gemeinde Frank-
furt," while a beehive api^ears on the later seals of
the institution.

Emblems indicating the name of the owner ap-
pear frequently on the seals of the Jews of the later
period. These devices are either symbolic, as a bear
for Issachar, or a bull's head for Joseph — e.g., in the
case of JosEL of Roshei.m — or are " armes parlantcs, "
like the stag on tlie seal of Ilerz (Hirz = Hir.sch) Wert-
lieimer of Padua, the contemporary and adversary
of Judah Minz (d. 1508), the rose-bush of the Ho-
salis family, the triple thorny branch of blo.ssoms of
Spin()Z.\, and the crow with the severed shield and
two hands of priests in chief in the seal of Abraham
Menahem b. Jacob ha-Kohen Rabe of Porto (Rapo-
port). The two liands of priests as an emblem of the
descendants of Aaron appear with great frequency
on their seals after the end of the sixteenth century
(Plate i., Fig. 4), and in like manner the water-jar
is very common on the signets of Levites, as on that
of Hirz Coma, described by Kaufmann ("Die Letzte
Vertreibung der Juden aus Wien," Vienna, 1889).
The lion, which appears chiefly on the seals of Por-
tuguese Jews, perhaps represents on their signets
the "lion of Judah," although elsewhere it fre-
quently denotes merely tlie name " Judah," " Aryeh,"
or " Low " ; and a stone lion was carved on the house
of the "hoher" R. Low at Prague. The devices
sometimes admitted of a mystic or cabalistic inter-
pretation. Thus the two mountains on the seal of
Solomon Molko (c. 1501-31) alluded to

Animal the hills which he saw in his vision,

Designs, and the two "lameds" below them,
which were taken from his name, like-
wise had a mystic meaning (see letter in " 'Emek
ha-Baka," p. 92a). Similarly tlie serpent in a circle
on the seal of Shabbethai Zebi was .said to refer to his
Messianic mission, since the Hebrew word for "ser-
pent " ({^HJ) has the same numerical value as the
word "Messiah " (TV^lf'Cs).

Many of the devices that are represented on Jewish
seals and whose meaning is no longer known may
correspond to the emblems which the Jews in some
places, as at Frankfort-on-the-Main and Worms (after
1641), were compelled to attach to their houses, such
as a ship, a castle, a green hat, and which gave rise
to such family names as "Rothschild " and "Grlin-
hut." Among the emblems alluding to the occupa-
tion of tiie owner may be mentioned the anchor,
referring to the merchant gild (Plate ii.. Fig. 35),
which occurs frequently on Jewish seals after the
eighteenth century. Many Sephardic Jews of Je-
rusalem in official positions use seals representing
the wailing-place (^aiUDn ^ms): note, e.g., the seal
of the ab bet din Joseph Nissim (Bourla [?]; see
Jew. Enxyc. vi. 183), and that of the English in-
terpreter Jacob Hai b. Moses Jacob Mizrahi (Plate
ii.. Fig. 31). In the second half of the seventeenth
century it became customary in some parts of Ger-
many for a Jew to have on his seal the sign of the
zodiac which presided over the month of his nativ-
ity, with his name as the legend (Plate i., Figs. 3, 12.
14, 15, 16, 21, 22), this being occasionally abbreviated,
as on the seal (described by Schudt, "Judische

Merckwiirdigkeiten," iv. 2, p. 175) used by Kalony-
mus b. Mordecai, which has the inscription p3p.

The seals of other Jews had merely their owners'
names (Plate i.. Fig. 20), with occasionally the
modest |Dpn(Platei., Fig. 10; abbreviated p n. Plate
i., Fig. 12) or I'^yvn (Plate i.. Fig. 17). Tlie father's
name was generally affixed to that of the owner, and
if liis parent was still alive, the son added one of the
pious formulas: W = "li?N1J"l IIIV "imCL""' (Plate i.,
Fig. 16), N"t3''^'C'= ps* D^niD D'D"'^ n"'n"':r (Plate
ii., Fig. 31), or iij - mn "I'N"' IIJ (Plate i.. Fig. 8).
If the father was no longer living, the phrase "iJIIDr
^"T = n^ini? was substituted (Plate i., Fig. 6). The
owner of a .seal sometimes stj'les himself 'jnxi5 \1
X N^n = ''2X (Plate i., Fig. 8). Other seals bear the
initials of their owners, Moses Mendelssohn using a
signet with onlj' the letters T>3 (= Moses Dessau),
and below the letters "M. 31." At the present time
the Jews of the leading nations generally use seals
which differ in no respect from those of their fellow
citizens of other creeds. See Coat of Arms.

Bibliography: Seyler, Gf.och. der Sicgef, Leipsic, 1894 ; Levy,
Sicfid und Gcmmen, Breslau, 18(59; idem, Epioiapliische
licitrauc in Jahrh. Ge-nli. der Jiul. ii.; Low, Graphinche
Requii^iten und Erzeuuiiisse hei dcii Judoi, Leipsic, 1870.
On ancient Hebrew seals: Clennont-Ganneau, in Journal
AMatiiine, 1883, i. 123, .506; ii. 304; 1885, i. dil ; Conder, Seal
from Hebron, in Pal. Explor. Fund, Quorterln Statement,
xxvii. 224. On medieval and modern seals: Amciijcr fUr
Kiinde der Dcutschen V<n-zeit, 1875, col. 106 (seals from
Augsburg and southern France); Carmoly, in Revue Orien-
tate. 1842, ii. 329 (Jewish seals of Metz); Gastaigne. Seeaux
sur tes Ohliiiations iHies aux Juifs, in R^dletiii de la Soci-
ete Areheologique de la Charente. 18(i3, 53 pi.; Geiger's JVid.
Zeit.x.2Si et seq. (bilingual seals); (iross, in Monatsschrift,
1878, pp. 382, 472 et seq. (Histnriseher Jahresberieht, lf<78.
p. 46); Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. x. 86 et seq., xii. 92 (seal
of Ueberlingen); Holtze, Dcus Strafverfahren Gc^en die
Mcirkiiichoi Juden im Jahre 1510 (seals of Brunswick);
King, Jeu-i,-<h Seal Found at fVoodbrUlae. in Archeoloijical
Journal. 1884, xli. 108 ; idem, Xorman Jewish Seed. ib. p. 242 ;
Longperier. SeeaurJiiifs Bilinfjuesdu Moyen-Ayc. in Arch.
Isr. xxxiii. 787; idem, Quelques Seeaux Juifs BiUngucs,
in Aeademie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1^72. p. 2;J4;
idem. Deux Seeaux Hehrdiques au Mouen-Aue, ib. 1}<73, p.
230; P. J[asse], Eiu Sieqel der Juden zu Augslnay vom
Jahr 1298, in Orient. Lit. 1842, No. 5, col. 73; R. E. J. ill.
148, iv. 278 et seq. (Swiss Jewish seals), v. 93 (Josel of Ros-
heim), vii. 125 (Jewish seals of Coblenz), xi. 82 (seal of Bor-
deaux), xi. 280 (Jewish seals of Pisck), xiv. 26S (Loeb, Un
Seeaux Juif), xv. 122 et seq. (seals of Abraham b. Saadia and
of s'njn^N'); Steinschneider, Cat. der Hebriiischcn Haiid-
schriften. No. 58, p. 38 (seal of Abraham Alfandari b. Eli.iah ?),
Berlin, 1878; Stern, in L. Geiger, Zcitschrift fVir die GescJi.
der Juden in Deutschland, i. 221 et seq., and bibliography;
Stobbe, Die Juden in Deutschland, pp. 81, 87, 95 (note 106),
122; Sulzbach. in L. Geiger, I.e. (zodiacal seals); rilrich,
Sammlung JUdi.'<cher Gescliichten in der Scliweiz, pp. 376,
433 (Swiss Jewish seals); Zcitschrift fllr die Gesch. des
Oberrheins, xxxii. 430 (Ueberlingen seal).
J. A. W.

SEBAG, SOLOMON : English teacher and He-
brew writer; born in 1828; died at London April 30,
1892; son of Rabbi Isaac Sebag. He was educated
in the orphan school of the Portuguese congrega-
tion, London, subsequently becoming master of the
Sha'are Tikwah School. On the death of Hazzan De
Sola, Sebag acted temporarily as reader in the Bevis
Marks Synagogue. In 1852 he wrote a Hebrew
primer which was for a long time the chief text-
book for Hebrew instruction among Jewish children
in England ; and several of his Hebrew poems and
odes written for special occasions were printed.

Bibliography : Jew. Chron. May 6, 1892.
.1. G. L.

SEBASTE. See Samaria.

SEBASTUS : The port of C^sarea on the Med-
iterranean Sea. Caesarea itself, which Herod had




Second Day of Festivals

made an important seaport, received its name in
honor of Julius Caesar, while tlie harbor proper
was called " Sebastus " as a tribute to the Emperor
Augustus (Greek, 2f/3ooTdc; Josephus, "Ant."xvii.
5, >^ 1 ; idem. "B. J." i. 31, t^ 3); the inscription
" Ctesarea at the Port of Sebastus " appears on the
coins of Nero. The cit}^ is called also simply VLql-
capeia leiSaar?/ ; but the name "Sebastus" is never
found as the designation of an independent city.
Consequently the phrase Kataapelg nal ^efiaaTr/voi
("Ant." xix. 9, § 1) does not denote "the inhabit-
ants of Csesarea and Sebastus," as Gratz ("Gesch."
4th ed., iii. 353) assumed, but the civil population
of Caesarea and the military troops, which latter
were called "Sebasteni."
G. S. Kr.

SECCHI, PABLO MARINI : Italian Christian
merchant ; lived at Rome in the sixteenth centur3'.
He made a wager with a Jew, Samson Ceneda, that
Santo Domingo would be conquered. The terms of
the wager were that in the event of Ceneda losing
he was to give Secchi a pound of his flesh. If
Secchi lost, he was to pay the Jew 1,000 scudi. The
Jew lost the wager; and Secchi insisted upon the
payment of the penalty. The affair came to the
ears of Pope Sixtus V., who inflicted a punishment
on both parties for having entered upon such a wager.
The incident has been treated by Shakespeare in
his drama "The Merchant of Venice," in which,
however, the characters are inverted. But see

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. x. 145; Vogelstein and Rieger,
GescTi. dcr Juden in Rom, ii. 177.
s. I. Br.

nri?J i't;' ••JEJ' ait: DV) : Day added by the Rabbis
to all holy days except Yom Kippur. Jews living
at a distance from Jerusalem were informed by mes-
sengers of the day on which the New Moon (" Rosh
Hodesli ") had been announced by the bet din.
These messengers would set out on the first day of
the mouths of Nisan, Ab, Elul, Kislew^ and Adar,
and on the second of Tishri (the first day being holy,
travel thereon was interdicted), and would rest on
the Sabbath and on Yom Kippur ; hence they did not
travel as far in Tishri as in the other months. The

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 34 of 160)