Isidore Singer.

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his honor once lost could not be recovered. Harith
at once struck off the boy "s head before the unhappy
father's eyes and then withdrew, perceiving that he



Samuel ben Abbahu
Samuel, Baron Denis de

could accomplish nothing in the face of such stead-
fastness. There are a few verses handed down by
different Arabian writers in which Samuel ibn
'Adiya refers to this deed.

A description of the castle Al-Ablak is given by
the poet A'sha (Yakut, i. 96), who confuses it with
Solomon's Temple. It is related of this poet that,
being captured together with other Arabs, he was
taken as a prisoner to the castle at Taiina, at that
time belonging to Samuel's son Shuraih, without
his captor's knowing that he was in the company.
Waiting until Shuraih was within hearing, A'sha
began to recite a poem extolling the deed of his
father, and calling on the son to emulate his exam-
ple by rescuing him (A'sha). Shuraih procured the
poet's release, and allowed him to depart, first pre-
senting him with a swift camel. Shuraih himself,
his brother Jarid, and Samuel's grandson Sa'ba
were all poets.

Samuel ibn 'Adiya's reputation as a poet rests
upon one of the first poems in the collection called

the "Hamasa." It is full of warlike

His vigor and courage, and manifests a

Poems. high ideal of honor. There is nothing

in it to distinguish it from the work of
any other Arabian poet ; and it has been doubted
whether Samuel was really its author, as the verse
(6), upon which the compiler of the " Hamasa " bases
his ascription to Samuel, is not wholl}' convincing.
Since, however, old, reliable authorities attribute
parts of the poem, at any rate, to him, it is prob-
able that most of it was written by Samuel. Another
poem attributed to him has been published in Arabic
and Hebrew, with an English translation, by H.
Hirschfeld ("J. Q. R." xvii. 431-440).

Bibliography : Caussin de Perceval, Essai sw VHistoire des
Arabes Avant Vlsilamisme, ii. 319 ct seq., Paris, 1847 ; Franz
Delitzsch, Jiidisch^Arabische Poexien aus Vorniuhamme-
disclier Zeit, Leipsic, 1874 ; Gratz, Gesch.M ed., v. 83-86; Ha-
masa, ed. Freytag, pp. 49 et seq.; Kitab al-Ayhani, Index;
Noldeke, BeitrUge zur Kenntniss der Pnedie der Alien
Araber, pp. 57-72, Hanover, 1864; Rasmusen, AdditamentM
ad Hlstnriam Arabum (from Ibn Nubata),p. 14; R.E. J. yii.
176 ; Baron MacGuckin de Slane, Diwan des Amru'l KaU,

J. M. W. M.

BEBSTADT : German rabbi and scientist ; per-
haps a resident of Frankfort-on-the-Oder; died July
6, 1707. He was the author of "Peri Megadim," an
alphabetical index to Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mish-
pat (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1691).

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Gat. Bodl. col. 3403 ; Benjacob,
Oznr ha-Sefarim, p. 495 ; Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl. ii.

E. c. S. O.

SAMUEL BEN AMMI : Palestinian amora of
the beginning of the fourth century. He is known
through his controversies with other scholars. He
contended, for instance, that II Chron. xiii. 17
should be interpreted as meaning that King Abijah
of Judea allowed the bodies of the fallen Israel-
ites to remain exposed until the faces had become
unrecognizable, in order that their widows might
be prevented from remarrying (Yer. Yeb. 15c; Gen.
R. Ixv., Ixxiii. ; Ruth R. vii.).

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. il. 162, 501.

w. B. S. O.

SAMUEL BAB, ASHER : Martyr; lived at

Neuss, Rhenish Prussia, in the eleventh century.

According to Salomon ben Simeon, he, with his two

sons, was murdered on St. John's Day (June 24),

1096. Samuel and one of his sons were buried on

the river-bank, while the body of the other son was

hanged to the door of his father's house, exposed to

general derision. According to another report, by

Eliezer ben Nathan, the body of neither son was

buried, but both were smeared with dirt and hanged.

IJiBLiOGRAPHv: Neubauep and Stern, QueUenzur Gesch. der
Juden in Deutschland, ii. 18, 41.
s. S. O.


OF MESERITZ : Polish Talmudist; born about
1625; died April 24, 1681, at Kleinsteinbach, Bavaria.
As a wandering scholar he is found for a time at
Meseritz and then at Halberstadt. In 1660 he was
rabbi of Bamberg, with his residence at Zeckendorf.
His stay here was of short duration, for he made
many enemies through his violent temper and the
self-assertion which he displayed in his new office;
and it was in vain that his relative and subsequent
successor warned him that he would endanger his
position if he did not heed the views of the German
scholars; for he had even dared to set up his own
scholarship against the infalhbllity of MaHaRIL
by saying : " Knowledge is free ; I will speak openly
even before kings; for the philosophers have not
idly used the simile of the dwarf who bestrides the
shoulders of the giant." In view of these circum-
stances it is not surprising to learn that Samuel re-
signed the rabbinate about 1665 — whether volun-
tarily or not is not known.

During the period of enforced idleness that fol-
lowed he prepared for the press the manuscript of
his"Nahalat Shib'ah" (see below). At length he
found a position in the unimportant rabbinate of
Kleinsteinbach, where he remained until his death.
In spite of his great scholarship and wide reading
Samuel still showed himself the child of his time in
believing in magic and the black arts as well as in
the Messiahship of Shabbethai Zebi.

Samuel's chief work, to which he owes his gen-
eral popularity, appeared in Amsterdam (1667-68)
under the title " Nahalat Shib'ah," being a collection
of formulas for all documents and records, inter-
spersed with thorough discussions of questions of
civil and matrimonial laws in connection therewith.
A second edition of this work, with much supple-
mentary matter, appeared (Frankfort-on-the-Main,
1681) shortly before his death, under the title " Maha-
dura Batra le-Sefer Nahalat Shib'ah." After his de-
cease the responsa written by him or addressed to
him by others were published by his son Abraham
under the title "Nahalat Shib'ah" (Fiirth, 1692).
The "Seder Tikkun Shetarot" (Fiirth, 1698) is a
compilation from the "Nahalat Shib'ah."

Bibliography : A. Eckstein, Oesrh. der Juden im Efiemalv-
gen FUrstbistum Bamberg, p. 160, Bamberg, 1898.

E. c. A. Pe.

financier; born 1782; died in London 1860. He
came of a Polish family, and counted among his an-
cestors several eminent rabbis. Samuel was a nati ve

Samuel ben Enoch
Samuel ben IJofni



of England; but early in life lie established himself
ia business at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. There he
soon acquired hii^li standing as a merchant, and
attained considerable influence at court, enjoying
the confidence of some of the highest personages.
Througii his instrumentality the English were per-
mitted in 18iil to erect a cliurch at Rio, and to en-
gage publicly therein the Protestant worship, which
had previously been forbidden. The letter of thanks
written to him by the leading Protestants at Rio
was read in Parliament in 1848.

After a stay of seventeen years in Brazil, Samuel
returned to London, where he married and spent the
remainder of l>is life. He continued to be held in
favor at the Brazilian court, as is evidenced by his
decoration with the Order of the Rose. He received
the title of baron at a later period from the Portu-
guese government, in recognition of eminent serv-
ices rendered by him.

Bibliography : Jew. Chi-on. Aug. 34 and Oct. 12, 1860.
.1. G- L.


rabhi; flourished in the seventeenth century; born
at Lublin. He officiated as dayyan'at Jassy and
later at Mayence. He was the author of "Dibre
Shemu'el," derashot on the Pentateuch; but only
that part of it on Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus
(Amsterdam, 1678; Venice, 1702) is now extant.

Bn5Li0GR.\PHY: t?en.iacob, Oztr ha-Scfarin), p. 107, No. 141;
Fiirst, Bibl. Jiul. lii. 244 ; Steinsctinelder, Cat. BodL col. 2413.

D. S. Man.

called also Samuel Sulami) : French Talmudist,
poet, and philanthropist of the fourteenth century.
Jacob of Provence considers him one of the first
poets of Provence. His piety, learning, and gener-
osity also were praised by his contemporaries. At
first he lived in Narbonne, and then in Perpignan.
He took an active interest in the religious contro-
versies of 1303-6, and announced his adherence to
the principles of the liberal party by harboring the
unfortunate Levi of Villefranche in his house at
Perpignan (Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 200). De-
spite many warnings on the part of Ben Adret, he
did not abandon the persecuted Levi. However, he
was not the man to remain true to his inner convic-
tions at all costs, and when fate pursued him relent-
lessly and his daughter died, he believed that these
events were consequences of his sins; hence he
withdrew his favor and hospitality from Levi. This
course of action, which was, in a certain sense, un-
maidy, seems to have evoked the pity rather than
the displeasure of his contemporaries. In any case
it did not diminish the esteem in which he was held
by all.

The misfortunes that befell Samuel seem to have
wrought a great change in his religious attitude.
Whereas formerh", despite the piety which his op-
ponents conceded to him, he had not wished to hear
of limitations to the study of the liberal sciences,
now. broken by his misfortune and lunice irresolute
in his views, he joined with Ben Adret in forbidding
the young to study the s(>iences and the allegoric
interpretation of the Biblical narratives.

BiBi.iOGRAPnv : Ilenan-Neul)auer, Les Rahbius Frn)i<;ai.-<, pp.
tioS, 701; (iriitz, Gesch. vii. 220, 224; Gross, Gnllia JuiliiU-a,
pp. ;!2^ 482.
K. ( . A. Pk.

SAMUEL OF EVBEUX : French to.safist of
the thirteenth century. He is identifled by Gross
with Samuel ben Shneor (not ben Yom-Tob, as given
by Zunz in "Z. G." p. 38), explanations of
Nazir are cited by Solomon ben Adret (Rcsponsa, iii..
No. 345), and whose authority is invoked by Jonah
Gerondi. Samuel directed a rabbinical school at
Chateau-Thierry, and had tor disciples R. Hayyim
(brother of Asher ben Jehicl of Toledo), R. Perez, and
R. Isaac of Corbeil. He carried on a correspondence
on scientific subjects with Jehiel of P:iris (" Orhot
Hayyim," i. 110c) and with Nathaniel the Elder
('■' Mordekai " on Hul. vii.. No. 681). Samuel's Tal-
mudic interpretations are often quoted in the Tosa-
fot(Bezah 14b, 20b, 24b; Kid. 27b, 39a; Ned. 90b;
'Ab. Zarah 08a; Teni. 19b). From the fact that the
author of the tosafot to Sotah mentions there the
name of Moses of Evreux as being his brother, it
is inferred that these tosafot were written by Samuel.

Bibliography : Micbael, Or ha-Hauilini, p. 593, No. 1203;
(iross, (Jallia Judaica, p. 358.
E. c. I. Br.

SAMUEL, HAEEM : Indian communal work-
er; born at Alibag, near Bombay, in 1830; educated
at the Robert Money School in Bombay. Samuel
entered the service of the government in 1851, and
was promoted to be second assistant to the inspector-
general of ordnance at Puna. He was pensioned in
1878. During his period of service he succeeded in
inducing the government to issue European rates of
batta to the Beui-Israel soldiers.

Samuel founded in 1853 the Bombay Beni-Israel
Benevolent Society, and in 1881 the Israelite High
School of the Anglo-
Jewish Association
of London. Of this
school he has be; n
the honorary presi-
dent, secretary, and
treasurer for twen-
ty-four years. To
supplement the
school Samuel
opened a prayer-
hall in 1888, an' act
for which he was
excommunicated by
the three Beni-Israel
sj'nagoguesof Bom-
bay. He introduced
the system of seat-
holders and the de-
livery of sermons in

the prayer-hall. Owing to his efforts a building,
with a spacious playground, was erected (Nov.,
1898) for the school. Samuel published a sketch
of the history of the Beni-Israel.

Samuel's eldest son, Samuel, who died in 1884,
was editor of tlie periodical "Israel." In 1882 he,
with his eldest uncle, saved the community from the
consequences of a blood accusation by explaining to
the cazi of the Juma Masjid the restrictions placed
by the Mosaic law on the eating of blood. He pub-

Haeem Samuel.



Samuel ben Enoch
Samuel ben Hofni

lished a citechism of the Hebrew faith. Samuel's
secoud son. A. Hyams, a well-known doctor in
Boinhav, died of the idagiie in 1»97 at the age of
... J. Hy.

SAMUEL, HARRY SIMON : English politi-
cian; born Aug. 31, 1853; son oi Horatio S. Samuel
b}- his marriage with Henrietta Montefiore. He
was educated at Eastbourne College and St. John's
College, Cambridge (B. A. 1875). Samuel is a free-
man of the city of London and a member of the
Coopers' Company, and has been a captain in the
First ^Middlesex Volunteer lioyal Engineers. In
1892 he contested the Limeliouse division of the
Tower Hamlets, but was defeated. In 1895 he was
elected member of Parliament for Limehouse in the
Conservative interest.

J. G. L.

SAMUEL IBN HAYYIM : .Medieval liturgical
poet; the time and place of his birth are unknown.
He composed eighty-two liturgical poems, of whicli
the four mentioned last by Zunz in his addenda arc
intended for the Simhat Torah festival. Twice the
author signs his name in acrostic as Samuel ha-
Katan ha-Kohen Berabbi Memeli Sofer.

Bibliography: Zuoz, S. P. pp. ^>9i-'M'<. ir):J-ii.'):i.

E. C. S. ().


ternal grandson of Samuel of Modena; lived in
Salonica during the sixteenth century. He wrote
"Bene Shemu'el," a collection of novelhc on Tur
Hoshcn Mishpat, as well as on Hilkot Yom-Tob
and Ta'arubot. Sixty-three responsa by him were
published at Salonica in 1613 (3 vols.).

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bod/, col. 34i;5; .\zulai,
Shem ha-(iednlim, \. 174, ii. 18; \ie\\\>Tin, Seder ha- Dornt,
iii. 20a; Conforte, Kore ha-Dnmt, p. 44a.
E. C. S. O.

SAMUEL, HERBERT : English politician ;
born in London 1870; youngest son of Edwin L.
Samuel, and nephew of Sir Samuel Montagu. He
was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he
took first class honors in history and the degree of
M.A. in 1897. At Oxford he was president of the
Russell Club, and in 1895 he stood unsuccessfully as
a candidate for South Oxfordshire in tlie Liberal in-
terest. In Oct., 1900, he again contested this seat
unsuccessfully. In 1902 he was elected as a Liberal
for the Cleveland division of the North Riding of

Samuel is honorary secretary of the Home Coun-
ties' Liberal Union, a member of the committee of
the Eighty Club, of the governing body of the Lon-
don School of Economics and Political Science, of the
Central Chamber of Agriculture, and of the com-
mittee of tlie Thames Preservation League, and a
fellow of the Royal Agricultural Society.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Sept. 28, 1900; Jewish Year
Bonk, 1903.

J. G. L.

SAMUEL B. HIYYA: Palestinian amora of
the second half of the third century of the common
era. None of his halakic or haggadic maxims has
been preserved ; and he is known only through his
quotations of the statements of others. He is twice
XL— 2

mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud: in IIul. 561),
wliere he transmits an apothegm of R. Mani, and in
B. M. 72b, where he cites an opinion by R. Elea/ar.
He is apparently identical with Samuel b. Hiyya b.
Judah, who is frequently mentioned in the Pales-
tinian Talmud as quoting the maxims of R. Haiiina
b. llama. Furthermore, in Gen. R. xlviii. 6 Samuel
b. Hiyya is named as the authority for the same
statement of R. Hanina b. Hama as is quoted in
tiie name of Samuel 1>. Hiyya b. Judah in Pesik. R,
15 (ed. Friedmanu, p. 72a).

Bibliography: Heilprin, Seder hn-Dorot, ii. 179a; lYankel,
Mebo ha-Yenui)ialmi, p. 12.5b.
w. B. J. Z. L.

SAMUEL BEN HOFNI: Last gaon of Sura;
died in 1034. His father was a Talmudic scliolar
and chief judge ("ab bet din," probablj' of Fez),
one of whose responsa is extant (see Zunz, "Ritus,"
p. 191; Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." xx. 132),
and on whose death Samuel wrote an eleg}'. Sam-
uel was the fatlier-in-law of Hai ben Sherira Gaon,
who is authority for the statement that Samuel, like
many of his contemporaries, zealously pursued the
study of non-Jewish literature ("Teshubot ha-Ge'c
nim," ed. Lyck, 1864, No. 99). Beyond these few
data, nothing is known of the events of Samuel's

Although, as a rule, geonic literature consists
mainly of responsa, Samuel ben Hofni composed
but few of these (see Rapoport in "Bikkure ha-'It-
tim," xi. 90; Fiirst in "Orient, Lit." x. 188; Weiss,
"Dor," iv. 192, note 2; Mliller, "Mafteah," pp. 168
et seq. ; Harkavy, "Zikron la-Rishonim," etc., iv.
146, 258; Winter and Wunsche, "Die Judische Lit-
teratur," pp. 50 et seq. ; Schechter, "Saadyana," p.
61). This was due to the fact that the Academy of
Sura had for a century occupied a less prominent
Ijosition than that of Pumbedita, and tliat, espe-
cially in the time of Hai ben Slierira, information
was preferably sought at the latter institution. A
genizah fragment of the Taylor-Schechter collection,
containing a letter to Shemariah ben Elhanan writ-
ten, according to Schechter's oijinion, by Samuel ben
Hofni, and another letter of Samuel's to Kairwan
("J. Q. R." xiv. 308), show the great efforts which
at tills time the last representative of the Babylonian
scliools had to make to maintain the ancient seats of
learning in Babylonia (Schechter, I.e. p. 121). Sam-
uel's responsa, written in Hebrew, Ara-
His male, and Arabic (those written in the

Responsa. last-named tongue were translated into
Hebrew), treat of " tefillin " and " zi/.it,"
the Sabbath and holy days, forbidden and permitted
food, women, priests, servants, property rights, and
other questions of civil law. They consist chiefly
of explanations of tlie Talmud and include some
very short halakic deci.sions, from which fact it is
surmised that they are taken from his Talmud trea-
tise "Sha'are Berakot" (Weiss, I.e. p. 193; Stein-
schneider, "Die Arabische Literatur der Juden," p.
109). With the intellectual independence peculiar
to him, he occasionally declares a Talmudic law to
be without Biblical foundation; and when an ex-
planation in the Talmud seems inadequate, he adds
one of his own which is satisfactory ("Sha'are Ze-
dek," i. 305).

Samuel ben ECofnl
Samuel ben Jacob



Samuel wrote " Madkhal ila 'al-Talmud " (Hebrew
title, "Mebo ha-Talmud "), an Arabic introduction
to the Talmud which is known only through cita-
tions from it made by Abu al-Walid (" Kitab al-
Usul," ed. Neubauer, p. 166), Joseph ibn 'Aknin,
and Abraham Zacuto. His treatise concerning the
hermeneutic rules in the Talmud is known only by

Samuel's systematic treatises on many portions of
the Talrnudic law surpassed in number those of his
predecessors. They were composed in Arabic, al-
though some bore corresponding familiar Hebrew
titles. They are: (1) "Ahkam Shar' al-Zizit," ten
chapters, on rules concerning fringes (Harkavy,
"Studien und Mittheilungen," iii. 31, note 77). (2)
"Lawazim al- Ahkam," known from a citation
(Harkavy, I.e. p. 35, note 93), from the cata-
logue of a book-dealer of the twelfth century (this
catalogue was found among the genizah fragments
of Fostat, and was published by E. N. Adler and 1.
Broyde in "J. Q. R." xiii. 52 et seq.), and from frag-
ments recently discovered and published by Schech-
ter (i:c. p. 114). (3) " Al-Bulugh wal-Idrak," in six
chapters, on the attainment of one's majority (Har-
kavy, I.e. p. 31, note 77). (4) "Fi al-Talak " (ap-
pears in the above-mentioned catalogue under the
title "Kitab al-Talak"), on divorce.
Treatises. (5) "Naskh al-Shar' wa-Usul al-Din
wa-Furu'ha " (i.e., " Abrogation of the
Law and Foundations of Religion and Its Branches "),
cited by Judah ibn Balaam and Moses ibn Ezra (Stein-
schneider, "Cat. Bodl." cols. 880, 2164; id^m, " Pole-
mische und Apologetische Litteratur," p. 102; Har-
kavy, I.e. p. 40, notes 112-114). (6) " Fi al-Nafakat,"
concerning taxes (Harkavy, I.e. p. 34, note 90). (7)
" Al-Shuf'a, " twenty chapters, concerning boundary
disputes (Harkavy, I.e. p. 80, note 60). (8) "Risalah
al-Shakiriyyah " (= Hebrew, m"1^3K'> mentioned by
Moses ibn Ezra; see Schreiner in " R. E. J." xxii. 69),
probably concerning the hiring of persons. (9) " Al-
Shara'i'," concerning commandments (see Schech-
ter. I.e. p. 43); divided into "gates" or chapters
("she'arim ") with separate titles, e.g., "Sha'are She-
hitut"; "Sha'ar shel Bedikut ha-Basar min lia-He-
leb"; "Sha'are Berakot." The last-mentioned part
has been edited in Hebrew by I. H. Weiss in " Bet
Talmud," ii. 377, and partially translated into Ger-
man in Winter and Wiinsche, "Die Jiidische Litte-
ratur," ii. 49. (10) "Shurut," concerning contracts
(see "(Euvres do Saadia," ix., p. xxxviii.). (11)
" Ha-Mattanaii." concerning gifts (Harkavy, I.e. p.
36, notes 97, 98). (12) " lla-Shuttaful," concerning
partnership (Harkavy, I.e. note 96; for further ref-
erences see Steinschneider, " Die Arabische Litera-
tur," pp. 108 et seq.).

Tli(! above mentioned catalogue (see "J. Q. R."
xiii. 60, 62) contains in addition the following titles
of works by Samuel on the same subjects of Tal-
rnudic law: (13) "Kitab Ahkam al-Pikkadon," con-
cerning deposits; (14) "Kitab a1-Muja\vara," con-
cerning neighborhood ; (15) " Al-Kitab[sic!]al-Bai',"
concerning sales. The catalogue (I.e. p. 59, No. 56)
ascribes to Samuel ben Hofni likewise a commentar}'
on the treatise Yebamot. Moreover, Schechter's
genizah fragments contain the beginning of an
Arabic commentary by Samuel on a Hebrew "re-

shut" of Saadia's ("Saadyana," pp. 43, 54, where
further writings of his previously unknown are
mentioned; see also Poznanski in "Zeit. fur Hebr
Bibl." vii. 109).

The most important work of Samuel, however,
was in Bible exegesis. As early a writer as Abu al-
Walid (" Kitab al-Luma'," p. 15) called him a lead-
ing advocate of simple, temperate explanation
(" peshat "), and Ibn Ezra, although finding fault
with his verbosity, placed him in the front rank
of Bible commentators of the geonic period (see
Bacher, "Abraham ibn Ezra's Einleitung zu Seinem
Pentateuch-Commentar," etc., p. 18). In modern
times his significance asaBibleexe-
As Bible gete has been given proper apprecia-
Exegete. tion through Harkavy 's studies of the
manuscripts in the St. Petersburg Li-
brary (see Berliner's "Magazin," v. 14 etseq., ^1 et
seq.; Harkavy, I.e. i., iii.; Steinschneider, "Hebr.
Bibl." XX. 1^2 et seq.).

Samuel ben Hofni wrote, besides, an Arabic trans-
lation of the Pentateuch with a commentary, a com-
mentar}' on some of the Prophets, and perhaps a
commentary on Ecclesiastes (see Harkavy, I.e. iii.
24, note 59; Poznanski, I.e. ii. 55, note 5). M. I.
Israelsohn ("Samuelis b. Hofni Trium Sectionum
Posteriorum Libri Genesis Versio Arabica cum Com-
mentario," St. Petersburg, 1886) has published a
portion of Samuel's Pentateuch translation (Gen.
xli.-l.) with commentary. The deficiencies in these
edited fragments might be supplied by the citations
in Abraham Maimonides' commentary on Genesis
and Exodus (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS."
No. 276). The German translation of a specimen
of these fragments is given in Winter and Wiin-
sche {I.e. ii. 254). The fragments show
Transla- that Samuel's translation of the Pen-
tions of the tateuch was dependent ujjon, though
Bible. it was more literal than, that of Saadia,
which had been written almost one
hundred years earlier. In contrast to Saadia, Samuel
gives Hebrew proper names in their original form.
Grammatical notes occupy a remarkably small space
in his verbose commentarj'; and his grammatical
point of view was that taken by scholars before
the time of Hayyuj. On the other hand, he
gives careful consideration to the chronology of
Bible accounts; and in explaining a word he gives
all its various meanings besides references to its
occurrence elsewhere. His source is the midrashic
and Talmudic literature, though he specifically men-
tions only the Seder 'Olam and the Targum On-
kelos (see Bacher in "R. E. J." xv. 277, xvi. 106
et seq. ).

Samuel ben Hofni is mentioned in connection with
Saadia and Mukammas as a polemical writer (Stein-
schneider, "Jewish Literature," p. 319); andan anti-
Karaite work entitled "'Arayot,"on
Polemical the degrees of relationship, is ascribed

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