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20; I Sam. iv. 4; II Sam. vi. 2; I Kings viii. 12,
13; xiv. 21 ; Ps. Ixxiv. 2), or tliat God has been seen
(Isa. vi. 6 et seq. ; Ex. iii. 6 ; Ezek. i. 1 ; Lev. ix. 4),
the Yerushalmi has "Shekinah " ; and even where it
describes God as abiding in heaven, the same word
is used (Isa. xxxiii. 5; Deut. iii. 24, iv. 39). This
statement holds true also of allusions to His remote-
ness or to the hiding of His face (Hos. v. 0; Isa.
viii. 17, xiv. 15; Hastings, "Diet. Bible," iv. 488b).
The Temple is called the "house of the Shekinah "
(Targ. Onk. to Deut. xii. 5; Ps. xlix. 15, cviii. 8);
and the term likewise occurs in connection with
"glory" ("yekara"; Ruth ii. 12; Cant. iii. 6, iv. 6,
v. 6; Ps. xliv. 25, Ixviii. 19, ex v. 16; Jer. xix. 18)
and with "holiness" (Cant. i. 10, ii. 2. iii. 2. vi. 1;
Ps. Ixxiv. 12, Ixxxvi. 3).

Since the Shekinah is light, those passages of
the Apocrypha and New Testament which mention

radiance, and in which the Greek

In the text reads 66^a, refer to the Shekinali,

Apocrypha there being no other Greek equivalent

and New for the word. Thus, according to Luke

Testament, ii. 9, "the glory of the Lord [(5dff/

Kvpiov] shone round about them "
(comp. II Peter i. 17; Eph. i. 6; II Cor. iv. 6); and
it is supposed that in John i. 14 and Rev. xxi. 3 the
vf OY As cKTjvovv a,i\(\. a Krjvri were expressly selected as
implying the Shekinah. The idea that God dwells
in man and that man is His temple {e.g.. Col. ii. 9:
II Cor. vi. 16; John xiv. 23) is merely a more real-
istic conception of the resting of the Shekinah on
man.

Maimonides ("Moreh," i. 28 [Munk's translation,
"Guide des Egares," i. 58, 73, 88, 286, 288; iii. 43,
93]; Maybaum, i.e. pp. 5, 34) regarded the Siieki-
nah, like the Memra, the Yekara, and the Logos, as
a distinct entity, and as a light created to be an in



termediary between God and the world; while Nah-
manides (Maybaum, I.e.), on the other hand, con-
sidered it the essence of God as manifested in a
distinct form. So in more modern times Gfrbrer
saw in "Shekinah," "Memra," and " Yekara" inde-
pendent entities which, in that they were mediators,
were the origin of the Logos idea; while Maybaum,
who was followed by Hamburger, regarded tiie
Shekinah merely as an expres.sion for the various
relations of God to the world, and as
Nature of intended to represent: (1) the dwell-
the ing of God in the midst of Israel ; (2)

Shekinah. His omnipresence; (3) His personal
presence, etc. (Maybaum, I.e. pp. 51-
54). That the Shekinah was not an intermediary is
shown by the Targum to Ex. xxxiii. 15, xxxiv. 9
(Maybaum, I.e. pp. 5, 34), where the term "She-
kinah" is used in.stead of "God." The word often
occurs, however, in connections where it can not be
identical with "God," e.g., in passages which de-
clare that "the Shekinah rests," or, more explicitl}-,
that "God allows His Shekinah to rest," on such
a one. In short: in the great majority of cases
"Shekinah" designates "God"; but the frequent
use of the word has caused other ideas to be associ-
ated with it, which can best be understood from
citations. In this connection the statements of the
Talmud and Midrash are more characteristic than
those of the Targumim, because they were sponta-
neous and were not made with reference to the text
of the Bible. The Shekinah is frequently mentioned,
even in the very oldest portions; and it is wholly
unjustifiable to differentiate the Talmudic concep-
tion thereof from the Targuniic, as has been at-
tempted by Weber, although absolute consistency
is observed neither in Targum, nor in Talmud and
Midrash, since difEerent persons have expressed their
views therein.

Jose {c. 150) says: "The Shekinah never came
down to earth, nor did Moses and Elijah ever ascend
to heaven, since it is said, Ps. cxv. 16: ' The heaven,
even the heavens, are the Lord's: but the earth hath
he given to the children of men ' " (Suk. 5a, above).
The Shekinah is here identical with Ynwii. This
view was, however, challenged even in the Talmud.
Ab. R. N. XXX viii. says: "The Shekinah descended
to earth, or will have descended, ten times (as to
tlie tenth see Schechtcr's note. Recension A, ad loc.) :
to the garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 8); when the Tower
of Babel was built {ib. xi. 5); to Sodom {ib. xxi.);
to Egypt (Ex, iii. 8): to the Red Sea (II Sam. xxii.
10); upon Sinai (Ex. xix. 10); in the pillar of cloud
(Num. xi. 25); to the Sanctuary (Ezek. xliv. 2); and
it will again descend at the time of Gog and Magog
(Zech. xiv. 4). The Shekinah ap-
Appear- peared also in the burning bush (Ex.
ances of R. ii.), and it was everywjiere (B. B.
the 25a). Two arks came up out of Egypt

Shekinah. with Israel: one containing the Sheki-
nah, and the other the body of Joseph
(Sotah 13a). Canaan was the only land worthy of
the Shekinah, which rested in the territory of Ben-
jamin (Mek.,e<l. Friedmann, p. 31a; Zeb. 54b); the
country beyond the Jordan was not worthy thereof
(Num. R. vii.). Altiiough the Shekinah was en-
throned in heaven, it observed and scrutinized man-



Shekinah
Shem



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



260



kind (Ex. R. ii.). The Tabernacle was erected in
order that tlie Shekinali migiit dwell on eartli (Num.
R. xii.); and it actually entered the Holy of Holies
(Sanli. 103b). Wheresoever the Israelites went in
exile the Shekinah accompanied them; and when
they were redeemed it likewise was released (Mes;.
29a; see also R. 11. 3a; B. K. 25a; Zeb. 118b; Sofali
5a; Shab. 67a).

The Shekinah was one of tlie five things lacking
in the Second Temple (Targ. to Hag. i. 8; Yer.
Ta'an. 65a, and parallel passages). Shunning the

Gentiles, it rested solely among the

Those on Israelites (Shab. 22b), and even there

Whom the only Avhen they numbered at least

Shekinah 2,002 myriads (Ber. 7a; Yeb. 64a; B.

Rested. B. 15b; comp. Sanh. 105b), confining

itself solely to those of this multitude
who were of pure and therefore aristocratic lineage
(Kid. 70b) and who were wise, brave, wealthy, and
tall (Shab. 92a; comp. Ned. 38a); but even for
such it would not <lescend into an atmosphere of
sadness (Shab. 301) and parallel passages), since
there can be no sorrow in the presence of God (Hag.
5b); nor should one pray in a sorrowful frame of
mind (Ber. 31a).

The polemic attitude which the conception of
the Shekinah betrays toward the founder and the
ideal of Christianity is unmistakable. The Shekinah
rested upon the priests even if they were unclean
(Yoma 56b); and if it was lacking, none approached
them for an oracle {ib. 75b). Prominent doctors of
the Law were consiilered worthy of the SheUinah,
but both their generation (i.e., their contemporaries)
and their place of residence {i.e., in a foreign laud)
deprived them of its presence (Suk. 28a; B. B.
60a; Sotah481); M. K. 25a). In all these statements
the Shekinah is identical with the Holy Spirit. It
was received by thirty -six pious persons (Suk. 45b),
a number which recalls the thirty-six nomes of
Egypt and their gods. The Shekinah was also be-
lieved to be a protection, as is still the case in the
night prayer: "on my four sides four angels, and
above my head the Shekinah of God " (comp. Kid.
31a). The Shekinah is found at the head of the
sick (Shab. 12b) and at the right hand of man
(Targ. to Ps. xvi. 8). Piiaraoh's daughter saw it at
the side of Moses (Sotah lla; comj). Targ. to Judges
vi. 13), audit spoke witii the prophet Jonah twice
(Zeb. 98a), with Adam, with the serpent (Bek. 8a;
Shab. 87a; Pes. HTb ct pus.'^iiii), and with otiiers.

Unsullied thoughts and jiious deeds render one
worthy of the Shekinah, which is present when two

are engaged with the Torah (Ab. iii.

To Whom 3), when ten pray (Ber. Ga ; Ab. 3, 9),

Does the and when the; mysticism of the JMeii-

Shekinah k.4I5.\ii is explained (Hag. 141)); and

Appear ? it is likewise attracted by tlie stud}' of

the Law at night (Tamid 32b); the
reading of the "Shema' " (Shab. 57a) ; prayer (B. B.
22a); hospitality (Shab. 127a; Sanh. 1031)); benev-
olence (B. B. 10a); chastity (Derek Erez i.); peace
and faithfulness in married life (Sotah 17a); and
similar deeds and qualities (Ket. Ilia; Ber. 67a;
Men. 43b; Sanh. 42b; Yer. Ras;. \. et passim). Sins,
on the other hand, cause the Shekinah to depart (Targ.
tolsa. Ivii. 7; Jer. xxxiii. 5 et passim). It inspires cor-



rect judgment in upright judges (Sanh. 7a), while
unrighteous magistrates cause it to depart (Shab.
139a). It appeared on the day on which the Taber-
nacle was first erected (Num. P. xiii.). Before the
Israelites sinned the Shekinah rested on every one;
but when they did evil it disappeared (Sotah 3b).
In like manner it departed from David when he be-
came leprous (Sanh. 107a). Among the transgres-
sions which have this result ai'e the shedding of
blood (Yoma 84b) and idolatry (Meg. 15b; others
are cited in Sotah 42a; Kallah, end; Ber. 5b, 27b;
Shab. 33a; and Sanh. 106a). Who.soever sins in se-
cret or walks with a i)roud and liaughty bearing
"crowds out the feet of the Shekinah" (Hag. IGa;
Ber. 43b; comp. ih. 59a).

The Hellenists, both Jews and Gentiles, charac-
terized the god of the Jews as unseen, and trans-
lated the TETi{AGn.\M.\rA.TON l)y " invisible " (aufjarug).
In like manner Hag. 5b declares that " God sees, but
is not seen," although 1132 Wiis rendered by (Sofa
(" glory "), even in the Septuagint(Deissmann, " llel-
lenisirung des Semitischen Monotheismus," p. 5).
According to this view, the Shekinah apjieared as
physical light; so that Targ. to Num. vi. 2 says,
'• Yhwii shall cause His Shekinah to shine for thee."
A Gentile asked the patriarch Gamaliel {c. 100):
"Thou sayest that Avhcrever ten are gathered to-
gether the Shekinah appears ; how many are there? "
Gamaliel answered: "As the sun, which is but one
of the countless servants of God, giveth light to all
the world, so in a much greater degree doth the
Shekinah "(Sanh. 39a). The emjieror (Hadrian) said
to Rabbi Joshua b. Hananiah, " I desire greatly to
see thy God." Joshua requested him to stand facing

the brilliant summer sun, and said,

The She- "Gaze upon it." The emperor said,

kinah "I can not." "Then," said Joshua,

as Light, "if tiiou art not able to look upon a

servant of God, how much less may-
est thou gaze upon the Shekinah ?" (Hul. 60a). Rab
Sheshet {<'. 300) was blind, and could not perceive
when the Shekinah appeared in the Shaf weYatib
synagogue of Nehardea, where it rested when it
was not in the synagogue at Huzal. In the former
synagogue Samuel and Levi heard the sound of its
approach and fled (^leg. 29a). The Shekinah tin-
kled like a bell (Sotah 9b), while the Holy Spirit also
manifested itself to human senses in light and sound.
The Holy Spirit had the form of a dove, and the
Shekinah had wings. Thus he who acknowledged
God took refuge under the wings of the Shekinah
(Shab. 31a; Sanh. 96a); and Moses when dead lay in
its pinions (Sifre, Dent. 355; Sotah 13b; Targumic
passages in Maybaum, I.e. \). 65). The saints enjoy
the light of th(( Shekinah in heaven (Ber. 17a, 64a;
Shab."30a; B. B. 10a).

RiBr.iOGRAPHY : Lexicons of Buxtorf, Levy, and Kohiit ; Her-
Zdg-Plitt, Real-Kiiciics.w. Sriii cliiiia ; Hastings, Diet. BihU\
iv. 487-489; Hanilmrgcr, Ii. li. T. u.rM;. 1(1K0-IIKH2; Liizzatto,
<))iil) Grr, Vienna, is:5(l: Biilir, Sjiiiilinlil; <U-s Mosaisclieil
Culfitfi, 2(1 ed., i. 471 <i .vfi/.; (_ifi()rer, (Ifscli. ih's I'rcluisttn-
tliuinx. i. '21:l-'X>2 ; Mayliaurii, Anthnit>tin\iiri>hin} . . . wit
Jii'sonih'rcrliiiiicl.siclitiuuiKjiIrr . . . Srlirchiiitiia, Bres-
lau, 1S70; Taylor, Soi/iin/x of tlir Jeirish Fatlic}-:^, :?d ed., p.
4;!; Wetier, JUilisclic Tlinihmir, M ed., Leipsio, 1897. Index;
Dalman, Die lI'orN' ,7('.<i(, i.,Lelpsic, 1898; Bou.sset, ReUaian
(hx Jiuli iitlmiiis ini Xtii-Trstaiiioitliclii'ii Zi'italte>\ pp. 309
(7 .s»v/.,:!40, Berlin. 1'.)0:i; Davidson, (W(f TestaineiU Prophecy,
pp. 148, 2l'(), Kdinbiirgli, 19U:i.

K. L. B.



261



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Shekinah
Shera



SHELA : Babylonian teacher of the latter part
of the taiiuaitic and the beginning of the amoraic
period; head of the school ("sidni") at Nehardea
(Yonia 20a; Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer,
"M. J. C." i. 28). When Abba AriUa (Rab) visited
Babylon, he ouce officiated as an expounder (aniora)
for K. Shela at his public lectures (Yoina I.e.). The
school at Nehardea was named in honor of Shela;
and its scholars were accordingly known as " Debe
R. Shela."

With the exception of a nnshnaic interpretation
(Yoma 20a), none of Shela's teachings is known,
although some of the sayings of his pu[)i]s, the Debe
R. Shela, are mentioned in the Talmud (Pes. 39b;
R. H. 23b; Git. 52b; Kid. 43a).

Bibliography: Weiss, Dor., iii. 746-747; Halevy, Darut ha-
RMwniiiu ii- ~'~i-~~o; Bacher, Afi. Bah. Amur. p. :i5.
w. 15. J. Z. L.

SHELAH : Youngest .son of Judah by the daugh-
ter of the Canaauite Sliuah ; born in Chezib in the
shcphelah of Judah. His extreme youth at the time
of the death of his brother Onan was the ostensible
excuse alleged by his father for the refusal to permit
him to marry his sister-in-law Tamar (Gen. xxxviii.
5-12). Shelah became the ancestor of many families
(I Chron. iv. 21-23), as had been betokened, accord-
ing to rabbinical interpretation, by his name (Gen.
It. Ixxxv. 5).

w. B. J. Z. L.

SHELIAH ZIBBXJR: Congregational messen-
ger or deputy or agent. During the time of the
Second Temple it was the priest who represented
the congregation in offering the sacrifice, and who,
before the close of the service, pronounced the
])riestly benediction. Similarly the high priest on
the Day of Atonement, after having confessed his
own sins and those of his house, offered the confes-
sion of sins and the prayer of atonement for the
whole people. When the Synagogue substituted
prayers for the sacrifices, the function of the priest
was assumed by the sheliah zibbur. He offered the
prayers for all while the congregation listened in
silence; and its participation in the service con-
sisted in responding " Amen " after every benediction
(Rashi on Suk. 38b). For this reason he was called
" karoba," i.e. , " he who offers " ( Yer. Ber. i. 3c ; Lev.
R. XX.; Comp. Yer. Ber. iv. 8b). The function of
the sheliah zibbur was regarded as a most honorable
one, and it was delegated only to the worthiest men
of the congregation. In Talmudic times such dis-
tinguished men as R. Akiba, R. Eliezer, R. Alexan-
der, and R. Eleazar b. Simeon acted in this capacity.

The term Hazzan was not used for the sheliah
zibbur until the sixth century, when the reading
of praj'ers before the congregation became a profes-
sion to which a salary was attached. Since that time
more attention has been often paid to the sweetness
or pleasantness of the reader's voice tlian to his su-
perior character, dignity, and scholarship.

A. M. Lan.

SHEM.— Biblical Data: The eldest of Noah's
sons, according to the po.sition and sequence of the
names wherever all three are mentioned together;
e.ff., "and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth "
(Gen. V. 32). In the table of nations in Gen. x., how-



ever, Shem and his posterity are placed last, prob-
ably because the compiler of that record expected to
trace his descendants far down into history, while
those of the other two sons were confined to early
ages. Shem's prominence among the peoples of pre-
Christian times may be partially suggested by the
ethno-geographical table of Gen. x. For descend-
ants see Semites.

E. G. II. L M. p.

In Rabbinical Literature : Although Shem

is unanimously declared by the Rabbis to have been
the youngest son of Noah (comp. Japheth in Rab-
binical Literature), yet he is always named first,
being the most important of the three brothers. In-
deed, he was born circumcised; he was the ancestor
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; he was priest and
prophet ; and he was one of the eight righteous who
are mentioned twice in Gen. xi. 10 and who were
allotted a portion both in this world and in the
world to come (Sanh. 69b; Tan., Yelammedenu,
Noah; Midr. ha-Gadol on Gen. ix. 18, xi. 10, ed.
Schechter, cols. 142, 186). Shem is styled "the
great one" ("Shem rabba"; Sanh. 108b). Accord-
ing to Gen. R. xxx. 6, it was Shem who offered the
sacrifices on the altar after Noah came out of the
ark (comp. Gen. viii. 20), as the latter, having been
crippled by the lion (see Noah in Rabbinical Lit-
erature), was unfit for the priestly office. Noah

gave to Shem the priestly garments

The Most which he had inherited from Adam

Important (Num. R. iv. 6). Shem is extolled by

Son the Rabbis for his filial devotion in

of Noah, covering his father's nakedness (Gen.

ix. 23). Although his brother Japheth
assisted in this praiseworthy act, it was Shem who
suggested and began it, his brother not arriving on
the scene until Shem was already on his way with
the garment. Therefore Noah, in blessing these
two sons {lb. verse 27), declared, so the Rabbis
think, that the Shekinah was to dwell only in the
tents of Shem (Yoma lOa; Tan., Noah, 21; Gen. R.
xxxvii. 9; comp. Jubilees, vii. 9, where it is said
that the garment was Shem's). Shem's reward for
this deed is seen in the fact that the Jews, his de-
scendants, cover themselves with the tallit and phy-
lacteries, and remained untouched when the As-
syrians, who also were descendants of Shem, were
destroyed by an angel in the time of Hezckiah
(Tan., Yelammedenu, I.e.; Ex. R. xviii. 5).

The Rabbis identify Shem with Melcluzedek,
King of Salem, who is termed "a priest of tlie Most
High," and who came to meet Abraham after the
latter had defeated the four kings led by Chedor-
laomer(Gen. xiv. 18-20). According to thisaccount,
Shem, as a priest, came to Jerusalem (witli which
Salem is identified by the Rabbis), of whicli city he
became king, it being the proper place for the estab-
lishment of the cult of YnwH. He went to meet
Abraham to show him that he was not angry with
him for having killed the Elamites, his descendants
(Midr. Agadah on Gen. I.e.). Shem. however, for-
feited the priesthood by mentioning in his blessing
Abraham's name before that of God, so that God
took his office from him and gave it to Abraham
(Ned. 32b; Pirke R. El. xxvii.). According to the
Midrash Agadah (I.e.), Shem himself asked God to



Sbem

Shem ha-Meforash.



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



262



give the priesthood to Abraham, as he, in his pro-
phetic capacity, knew that lie (Sheni) would have
no cliildren eligil)le for the sacerdotal office. Con-
trary to the Pirlic R. El. and Gen. R. {.\liii. 10), the
Midrash Agadah explains that it was Shem who
gave tithes to Abraham, sliowing that he recognized
him as priest (see Gen. R. xliii. 7). The Rabbis
point out that in certain cases Shem ranked as the
equal of Abraham; so that the latter was afraid
lest Shem might be angry at him for having slain
the Elamites and might curse him (Gen. R. xliv. 8;
Tan., Lek Leka, 19). In another instance God

made a compromise between Shem and
Legends. Abraham, namely, w ith regard to the

name of the Holy City, the place of the
Temple, which Abraham had called "Jireh" (Gen.
xxii. 14; see Jehovah-jiheh) and which Shem
had called "Salem." God united both names; and
thus arose the name "Jerusalem" (Gen. R. Ivi. 16).
Shem is supposed by the Rabbis to have estab-
lished a school ("bet ha-midrash") in which the
Torah was studied, and among tiie pupils of which
was Jacob. Later, Shem was joined by Eber; and
the school was called after both of them. Besides,
the school was tiie seat of a regular bet din which
promulgated tlie laws current in ihose times. Thus
Esau was afraid to kill Jacob, lest he should be con-
demned by the bet din of Shem and Eber. The bet
din of Shem proclaimed the proliibition of and the
punishment for adultery; and according to this law
Judah condemned Tamar to be burned ('Ab. Zarah
36b; Gen. R. Ixiii. 7, Ixvii. 8). Shem'sbet din was
one of the three in which tiie presence of the Sheki-
nah was manifested (Mak. 23b). At Abraham's death
Shem and Eber marched before his bier; and they
indicated the place that was suitable for his burial
(Gen. R. Ixii. 6, according to the emendation of
the text in Yalk., Gen. 110). At the division of
the earth among the three sons of Noah, Shem's
lot consisted of twenty-six countries, thirty-three
islands, twenty-six out of seventy-two languages,
and six out of sixteen scripts. Thus Shem took one
script more thaneitherof liis two brothers; and this
was the Hebrew script, in which the Torah was
written. The other five were Egyptian, Libyan,
Assyrian, Chaldean, and Gutazaki (Guzarati ?)
(Midr. ha-Gadol on Gen. x. 32, col. 182).

w. B. M. Sel.

Critical View : Shem is not an individual, in

the sense that one person by that name came forth
with his father and brothers from the ark, and had
a share in the scene described in Gen. ix. 18-27.
Neither does the name in itself suggest geographical
or racial entities. It recalls more probably some
ethnic deity that had become the " heroseponymus "
of his worshipers. As it now occurs, the name has
no Iheophorous character; but it has been suggested
that " Shem " must be considered a corruption or
abbreviation of a name similar to Shemu'el (see
Samuel), the element "Shem" meaning "son" in
the combination. This suggestion — though none of
the critics seems to have noticed it — receives a strong
degree of probability from the blessing spoken over
Shem {ib. verse 26). There is no doubt that the
pointing of the text is incorrect. Budde proposes
to omit the 'Ti^H (which Grfttz would read "ohole "



= " tents"), and then vocalize: "Beruk YnwH
Shem" = "Shem is blessed of Yhwh." This would
at once place this " blessing " in the category,
.so numerously represented in Genesis, of name
oracles. From the oracle the name is readily recon-
structed as "Shemaiah " or "Shemu'el," the "Elohe
Shem" in the text indicating the latter possibility.

These oracles are always the primary elements
from which tlie legend in which they are found em-
bedded is a development. Tliat Japheth also orig-
inaii}'' had a theophorous form is indicated in the
oracle spoken concerning him (Gen. ix. 27; comp.
tiie name ^XIHS)- It is plain that Canaan should not
appear in this group. Ham is the brother of Shem;
and it was he who committed the unseemly deed.
The substitution of Canaan for Ham is secondary.
The curse upon him (Canaan) displays the temper
of the centuries when Yiiwu and Baal were strug-
gling for the ascendency (see Elijah). As Shem
represents Yhwh, he is proclaimed the master, while
Canaan is doomed to servitude. As Israel is the
people of Yhwh, Shem(yahu), i.e., "the son [of
Yhwh]," naturally must be Israel's progenitor. In
substance this is also the explanation of tliose schol-
ars who reject the suggestion that "Shem" is a
name like " Shemu'el." They read into " Shem " the
signification of " prominence," " mastership." The
people descended from Shem is thus the master peo-
ple destined to "lord it" over Canaan, the slave peo-
ple committing such dire atrocities as are hidden in
the legend of Noah's exposure. According to Budde,
Japheth — which name means "beauty "—represents
the Pheniciaus, while Canaan, signifying "lovvness,"
" vulgarity," represents the aboriginal population of
Palestine. Thus this triad would result: lordship
(Shem), beauty (Japheth), and meanness (Canaan).

In the table given in Gen. x. 1-xi. 9 Shem is re-
corded as the father of five sons, among whom are
named some that are not Semites. This catalogue,
however, is geographical and not ethnic. In this
list of Shem's descendants (ib. x.) verses 22 and 23
are assigned to P, verse 24 to R, and verses 25-30 to
J. In the last-mentioned passage the tendency to
connect Shem and Eber is patent. See Semites.

E. G. H.

SHEM HA-MEFORASH (Hebrew. DK'
t^'IIDtDn): Ancient tanuaitie name of theTetragiani-
maton. The exact meaning of the term is somewhat
obscure; but since the Tetragrammaton is called
also "Shem ha-Meyuhad " (inVDn D:^'), it maybe
assumed that " meyuhad " is used cLsewhere in
the terminology of the tannaitic schools as a syn-
onym for" meforash," both words designating some-
thing which is distinguished by a characteristic sign
from other objects of its kind (see Bacher, " Die
Aelteste Terminologie der Jiidischen Schriftausle-
gung," p. 71). In connection with " shem"(= "the
name [of God]"), both terms mean also " preeminent."
"Shem ha-Meforash," therefore, denotes the name
of God which differs from all the other names ap-
plied to Him, and is, consequently, the excellent



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