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"Erez Dagan," "Kab ha-Kemah," and "'Abodat
Abraiiam."

Judah Sid: Bulgarian rabbinical author of the
latter part of the eighteenth century ; born at Dub-
nic/.a; died at Philippopolis, where he was president
of the tribunal and chief rabbi during the Ottoman
rule. He was the author of " Ot Emet " (Salonica,
1799), on the rules which are to be observed in the
reading of the weekly lessons of the Law, and of
" Ner Mizwah " {ib. 1810),.a commentary on the Pen-
tateuch.
BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Kazan, Ha-Ma'alot li-ShelomoJi, pp. 7, 47, 73.

Samuel ben Sid (called also Sidillo) : Rabbin-
ical author, who emigrated from Spain to Cairo in
1492. His eloquence and presence of mind once



saved the Jewish community from a general mas-
sacre with which it was threatened by the gover-
nor, Ahmed- Pasha; and in commemoration of this
event iie instituted on Adar 28, 1524, the Cairo
Purim (see Porims, Special). He was the author
of the "Kelale Shemu'el," inserted in the collection
"Tummat Yeshanm" (Venice, 1622).

Bibliography: Azulai, SUem hoGedolim. p. 124.
1). M. Fr.

SIDDIM, VALE OF : The etymology of " Sid-
dim" is uncertain (see G. A. Smith, " Historical Geog.
of the Holy Land," p. 503). though Targ. Onk.
renders it " vale of fields." It is mentioned in Gen.
xiv. 3, 8, 10, verse 3 identifying it with the Dead Sea
— a geological impossibility, inasmuch as the Dead
Sea was in existence long before Abraham's time
("Z. D. P. V."18y6, pp. 1-59; 1898, pp. 65-83);
hence this verse is generally rejected as a late gloss.
Hommel ("Die Altisraelitische Ueberlieferung," p.
164) describes the place as a region rich in asphalt,
and which, as a result of some natural convulsion,
was flooded by the waters of the Dead Sea. It is
famed as the meeting-place of the confederation
against Chedorlaomer.

E. G. H. E. I. N.

SIDDTJB. See Prayer-Books.
SIDON. See Zidon.

SIDON, SIMON : Hungarian rabbi and author;
born at Nadas Jan. 23, 1815; died at Tyrnau Dec.
18, 1891. His father came from Kanitz in Moravia,
wherefore he signed himself " Simeon p:ip," in which
the latter name was misread by Steinschneider (" Cat.
Bodl."col. 2612)as"Konitz," and by Lftw (" Lebens-
alter," p. 92) as " Kunitz." He studied at the yeshi-
bah of Moses Sofer, and on settling in his native city
opened a yeshibah there. In 1H45 he was elected
rabbi of Cziffer, Hungary, and in 1856 of Tyrnau,
which latter position he held until his death. Strictly
conservative, he was tolerant of modern ideas, and
in 1860 he sent his son to the seminary of Breslau,
although he encountered considerable opposition for
doing so.

Sidon wrote " Ot Berit " (Presburg, 1850), on the
laws governing circumcision, proselytes, and the
redemption of the first-born ; and " Shebet Shim'on "
(Vienna, 1884-88), a work in three parts, the first
part containing notes on Yoreh De'ah and Eben
ha-'Ezer; the .second, sermons delivered on special
occasions; and the third, novelise on various treatises
of the Talmud. He also edited Manoah ben Ja-
cob's ritual work "Sefer ha-Manoah," to which
he wrote a commentary entitled "Bet Menuhab."
After his death appeared his conunentary on the
Pesah Haggadah (Munkacs, 1901), edited by M. Stein
under the title "Shebet Shim'on."

One of Sidon's sons, Adolf Sidon (born at Nadas
Jan. 5, 1843). received his early instruction in his
father's yeshibah, and in thatof Judah Aszod atSzer-
dahely. In 1860 he went to Breslau, where he was
graduated eight years later as rabbi and Ph.D. He
was a member of the Jewish Congress of 1868-69 (see
Jew. Enctc. vi. 502b, s.v. Hungary); in 1870 he
was elected rabbi of Simand. county of Arad; and
in 1873 he was called to the rabbinate of Versecz,



Sidra
Siesby



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



328



which position he still (1905) holds. He is also a
member of the board of e.xaminers of the rabbinical
seminary at Budapest, and a frequent contributor
to Jewish periodicals.

Another son, Ignatz Sidon, is a lawyer in Buda-
pest. D.

SIDBA : Term, the original meaning of which
is "older" or "arrangement," frequently used in
both Talmuds to denote a section of the Bible read
cither in the synagogue or in the school. In the
statement " liab read a sidra before Kabbi " (Yoma
87a), Kashi explains "sidra " as meaning a section of
the Piophets or the Hagiographa. That the term
was applied to the part of the Bible read in the syn-
agogue in the prayer-service is indicated in Ycr.
Ta'an. i. 64c. But there no special division of the
Bible is indicated, while in Shab. 116b it is said that
in Nehardea the people used to read a sidra of the
Hagiographa in the Minhah service of the ISabbath.
Later the term entered into the usage of the Ash-
kenazim to denote the weekly lesson of the Penta-
teuch, just as " parasliah " is used by the Sepliardim.
It may be added that in both Talmuds " sidra " often
carries the meaning of "school," particularly a
school in which sections of the Bible ai.i read and
interpreted (Yer. Ber. iii. 6b; Yer. Bezah i. 60c et
passim).



Bibliography : Levy, Nenhchr. Wdrterb.
A.



M. Sel.



The following is a list of the sidrot (according to
the Sepliardim, parashiyyot), arranged according to
the annual and the triennial cycle. In the former,
which is nowadays universally followed, the sidrot
have special names, and are here numbered with
Roman numerals; each of them includes a group of
the smaller sidrot of the triennial cycle, which are
numbered in the table with Arabic figures. The
group of the triennial cycle and the corresponding
sidra of the one-year cycle are not always exactly
conterminous, however; in such instances attention
is called to the difference by means of an asterisk.
The list of the triennial sidrot is given from
a Yemen manuscript, as indicated in Ginsl)urg's
Masoretic Bible. According to the Masorah, these
should number 154, or, according to the Masseket
Soferim, 175; as a matter of fact the\' amount to
167. Rapoport ("Halikot Kedem," p. 11) suggests
that the 175 readings covered three and one-half
years, so that the Law was read through twice in a
Sabbath of years.

Bibliography: Ginstiurg's Maxsnretic jBt'Wc. London, 1894;
Ginsburg's Introduction to the Bible, iv. 31^-3}, ib. 1897;
Buchler, 27ie Reading of the Law and Pro-phets in a Tri-
ennial Cycle, in J. Q. R. v. 420-468.



Sidrot.



Annual
Cycle.


Triennial
Cycle.


I.

Bereshit

(Gen. 1. 1-

vl. 8)


1. (ien. i. l-ii.:i

2. *• ii. 4-iii.2l

3. " iii. 22-iv.
26

4. Gen. v. 1-vi. 8



Sidrot.



Annual
Cycle.


Triennial
Cycle.


IL

Noah

((Jen. vi. 9-

xi. 32)


5. Gen. vi. 9-vii.

24

6. Gen. viii. 1-14

7. " vili.l5-ix.
17

8. Gen. ix. 18-x.

32

9. Gen. xl. 1-32



Sidrot.



Annual




Triennial


Cycle.




Cycle.


III.


10.


Gen. xil. 1-xii.


I.ek Leka




18


((ien. xii. 1-


11.


Gen. xiv. 1-24


xvii. 27)


12.


" XV. 1-21




13.


" X vi . 1-
xvii. 27


IV.


14.


Gen. xviii. 1-:B


Wayera


15.


" xix. l-:?8


((ien. xviii.


16.


" XX. 1 18



1-xxii. 24)



17.
18.
19.



" xxi. \ - M
" xxii. 1-19
" xxii. 211-
xxiii. 20 *



V. 20.Gen. xxiv. 1-41

Hayye Sa- 21. " xxiv. 42-67

■ rah 22. " xxv. 1-18

(Gen. xxiii.

1-xxv. 18)



VI. 23. (Jen. xxv. 19-
Toledot xxvl. 35

(Gen. xxv. 24. Gen. xxvii. 1-
19-xxviil. 27

9) 25. Gen. xxvii. 28-

xxviii. 9



VII.
Waveze

(Gen.
xxviii. 10-
xxxii. 3)



26. Gen. xxviii. 10-

xxix. 30

27. Gen. xxix. 31-

XXX. 21

28. Gen. xxx. 22-

xxxi. 2

29. Gen. xxxi. 3-

xxxil. 3



VIII. 30. Gen. xxxii.4:-
Wayisljlah xxxiii. 18

(Gen. xxxii. 31. Gen. xxxili.
4-xxxvi.43) 19-XXXV.8

32. Gen. xxxv. 9-
XXXVI. 43



IX.
Waye.sheb

((ien.
xxxvii. 1-

xl. 23)



33. Gen. xxxvii. 1-

36

34. Gen. xxxviii.

1-30

35. Gen. xxxix. 1-

23

36. Gen. xl. 1-23



X. 37. Gen. xli. l-;!7

Mikkez 38. " xli.38-xlii.
(Gen.' xli'. 1- 17

xliv. 17) 39. Gen. xlii. 18-
xliii. 13
40. Gen. xliii. 14-
xliv. 17



XI.

VVayiggash

(Gen. xliv.

18-xlvii. 27)



XII.

Wayehl

(Gen. xlvii.

28-1. 26)



XIII.

Shemot
(Ex. i. 1-

vi. 1)



XIV.

Wa'era

(Ex. vi. 2-

ix. a5)



XV.

Bo
(Ex. x. 1-
xiii. 16)



41. Gen. xliv. 18-

xlvi. 27

42. Gen. xlvi. 28-

xlvii. 31*

43. Gen. xlviii. 1-

22

44. Gen. xlix.1-26

45. " xlix. 27-
1.26



46. Ex. i. 1-22

47. " ii. 1-25

48. " Iii. 1-iv. 17

49. " Iv. 18-vl. 1



50. Ex. vi.2-vli. 7

51. " vil. 8-viii.
15

52. Ex. viil. 16-lx.

a5



.53. Ex. X. 1-29



54.
.55.
,56.



xi.l-xii.28
" xii. 29.51
" xili. 1-xiv.
14*



Sidrot.



Annual

Cycle.



XVI.

Beshalliih

(Kx.xiii. 17

xvii. 16)



XVII.


Y


tro


(Ex.


xviii.


1-xx. 26)



XVIII.

Misbpatim

(Ex. xxi. 1-

xxiv. 18)



XIX.

Terumah

(Ex. xxv. I-

xxvii. 19)



XX.

Tezawweh
(Ex. xxvii
2()-xxx. 10)



Triennial
Cycle.



)7.


Ex. xiv. 15-




xvi. 3


58.


Ex. xvi. 4-27


-.9.


" xvi. 28-




xvii. 16


60.


Ex. xvlij. 1-




xix. 5


61.


Ex. xix. 6-xx.




23*



62. Ex. xxi. 1-xxii.

23
6:3. Ex. xxii. 24-

xxiii. 19
IH. Ex. xxiii. 2()

xxiv. 18



XXI.

Ki Tissa
(Ex. xxx.
11-xxxiv.

a5)



XXII.

Wayakhel

(Ex. XXXV.

1-xxxviii.

20)



XXIII.

Pekude

(Ex.

xxxviii. 21-

xl. 38)



XXIV.

Wavikra

(Lev. i. 1-

V. 26)



XXV.

Zaw

(Lev. vi. 1-
viii. 36)



XXVI.

Shemini

(Lev. ix. 1-

xi. 47)



XXVIL

Tazria'

(Lev. xii. 1-

xiii. 59)



XXVIII.

Mezora'

(Lev. xiv. 1-

XV. 33)



XXIX.

A hare Mot

(Lev. xvi. 1-

xviii. 30)



XXX.

Kedoshim

(Lev. xix. 1-

XX. 27)



XXXL

Emor

(Lev. xxi. 1-

xxiv. 23)



65.


Ex. xxv. 1-40


66.


" xxvi. 1-31)


67.


" xxvi. 31-




xxvii. 19


68.


Ex. xxvii. 20-




xxviii. 43


ti9.


Ex. xxix. 1-46


TO.


" xxx. 1-38*



71. Ex. xxxi. 1-

xxxii. 14

72. Ex. xxxil. 15-

xxxiii. 23

73. Ex.xxxiv. 1-26

74. " xxxiv. 27-

xxxv. 29*



"5. Ex. xxxv. 30-
xxxvi. 38

"6. Ex. xxxvii. 1-
xxxviii. 20



77. Ex. xxxviii. 21-

xxxix. 32

78. Ex. xxxix. 33-

xl. 38



79. Lev. i. 1-iii. 17

80. " iv. 1-35

81. " V. i-vi.
11*



82. Lev. vl. 12-vli.

38

83. Lev. viii. 1-x.



84. Lev. x: 8-20

85. " xl. 1-47



86. Lev.xiLl-xiii.

28

87. Lev. xili. 29-r^}



88. Lev. xiv. 1-32

89. •■ xiv. 33-.57

90. " XV. 1-24

91. " XV. 25-

xvi.34*



92.


Lev.


xvil


1-16


93.




xviii. 1-30


94.


Lev


xix.


1-22


95.


^'•


XIX.


23-




XX


.27





96. Lev. xxi. I-

xxii. 16

97. Lev. xxii. 17-

xxiii. 8

98. Lev. xxiii. 9-

44

99. Lev. xxiv. 1-

XXV. 13*



329



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Sidra
Siesby



Sidrot.



Annual

Cycle.



XXXII.

Belli! r
(Lev. x.xv.
1-xxvi. 2)



XXXIII.
Behukkotal
(Lev. xxvi.
8-xxvii. 34)



XXXIV.

Bemidbar

(Num. i. 1-

Iv. 20)



XXXV.

Naso
(Num. Iv.
21-vil. 89)



XXXVI.
Beha'alo-

teka

(Num. vlil.

1-xii. 16)



XXXVII.

Slielah

(Num. xiii.

l-xv. 41)



XXXVIII.

Kor.ih
(Niim. xvi.
1-xvlii. 32)



XXXIX.

Hukkat

(Num'.'xix.

1-xxil. 1)



XL.

Baiak

(Num. x'xii.

2- XXV. 9)



XLI.

Pinehas

(Num. XXV

lO-xxx. 1)



XLII.

Mattot



Triennial
Cycle.



100. Lev. XXV. 14-

34

101. Lev. XXV. 3.5-

xxvi. 2



10-'. Lev. xxvi. 3-

46
103. Lev. xxvil. 1-

34



104. Num. 1. 1-54
10."). '• ii. 1-34

106. " Hi. 1-iv.
16

107. Num. iv. 17-v.

10*



108. Num. v. 11-31

109. " vi. 1-21

110. " vl. 22-
vil. 47

111. Num. vii. 48-

89



112. Nimi. viii. 1-

ix. 23

113. Num. X. 1-xi.

15

114. Num. xi. 16-23

115. " xi. 23-xii.
16



116. Num. xiii. 1-

xiv. 10

117. Num. xiv. 11-

45

118. Num. XV. 1-41



119. Num. xvi


1-


xvii. 15




120.Num.xvil.


16-


xviii. 32




121. Num. xlx


1-


XX. 13




122. Num. XX.


14-


xxii. 1





123. Num. xxii. 2-

xxili. 9

124. Num. xxiii.

10-xxiv. 25

125. Num. XXV. 1-9



126. Num.xxv.lO-

xxvl. 51

127. Num. xxvi.

5"i-xxvii. 14

12S. Num. xxvii.

15-xxviji.25

129. Num. xxviii.

26-xxx. 1

130. Num. XXX. 2-

17



(Num. XXX. 131. Nnm.xxxi. 1-



2-xxxii. 42)



XLIII.

Masse 'e

(Num.

xxxiii. 1-

xxxvi. 13)



24

132. r;um. xxxi.

25-54

133. Num. xxxii.

1-42



134. Num. xxxiii.

1-56

135. Num. xxxiv.

1-xxxv. 8

136. Num. XXXV. |

9-xxxvi. 13



Sidrot.



Annual
Cycle.



XLIV.

Debarim

(Deut. i. 1-

iii. 22)



XLV.

Wa'etha-

nan
(Deut. Hi.
23-vii. 11)



XLVL
"Ekeb

(Deut. vil.

12-xi. 25)



XLVII.

Re' eh

(Deut. xl.

26-xvi. 17)



XLVIII.

Shofetim
(Deut. xvi.
18-xxi. 9)



XLIX.

Ki Teze

(Deut. xxl.

10-xxv. 19)



L.

Ki Tabo

(Deut. xxvi.

1-xxix. 8)



LI.

Nizzabim

(I)eui. xxix

9-xxx. 20)



LII.

Wayeiek

I Deut. xxxi.

1-30)



LIII.

Ha'aziim

(Deut.

xxxii. 1-.52)



LIV.

Wezot ha-

Berakah

(Deut.

xxxiii. I-

xxxiv. 12)



Triennial
Cycle.



137.


Deut. 1


. 1-ii. 1


i:is.


" Ii.


2-30


139.


" ii

22


31-lii.



140. Deut. lii. 23-
iv. 24

141. Deut.lv. 25-40

142. " iv. 41-
vl. 3

143. Deut. vi. 4-
vii. 11



144. Deut. vii. 12-

viil. 20

145. Deut. ix. 1-29
46. " x. 1-xi. 9

147. '• xl. 10-
xii. 19*



148. Deut. xii. 20-
xiii. 1

149. Deut. xiii. 2-
19

150. Deut. xiv. 1-
XV. 6

151. Deut. XV. 7-
xvi. 17



152. Deut. xvi. 18-

xvii. 13

153. Deut. xvii. 14-

xviii. 12

154. Deut. xviii.

13-xx. 9

155. Deut. XX. 10-
xxi. 9



156. Deut. xxi. 10-

xxii. 5

157. Deut. xxii. 6-

xxiii. 9

158. Deut. xxiii.

10-21

159. Deut. xxiii.

22-xxiv. 18

160. Deut. xxiv.

19-xxv. 19



161. Deut. xxvi. 1-

xxvii. 2(i

162. Deut. xxviii.

1-xxix. 8



163. Deut. xxix. 9-

XXX. 10

164. Deut. XXX. 11-

xxxi. 13*



165. Deut. xxxi.
14-30



166. Deut. xxxii.
1-52



167. Deut. xxxiii.
1-xxxiv. 12



J. I. G. D.

SIEBENBERGER, ISAAC BEN DAVID:

Russian Hebraist; died at Warsaw April 2, 1879.
He occupied himself especially with apocryphal lit-
eratuie, his translations into Hebrew and Jnda^o-
German including the following : " Hayye Tobiyah "
(Warsaw, 1839), a translation of the Book of Tobit;



"Megillat Yehudit" {ib. 1840). the Book of Jiidkh
and other narratives; "Sefer Baruk " {ib. 1841), the
Book of Baruch and the prayers of Manasseli and
of Daniel's three companions; and "Sifre Makka-
bi" {ib. 1843), the Books of the Maccabees. To all
these translations he added Hebrew commentaries
and introductions.

Siebenberger further published " Ma'gal Yasliar "
(ib. 1843), an elementary course in Hebrew, with
Hebrew and Juda.'0-Gerinau texts, and containing
an outline of Hebrew grammar, as well as nariatives
and fables ; and " Ozar ha-Shorashim ha-Kelali " {ib.
1846-62), a Hebrew-German dictionary with a vocab-
ulary containing all the words of the Bible and the
Mishnah.
Bibliography : Zeitlin, Bibl, Poxt-Mcitdels. pp. 360-361.

s. M. Sel.

SIEGEIi, HENRY: American merchant ; born
at Eubigheim, Germany, March 17, 1852. At the
age of fifteen he emigrated to the United States and
entered on a commercial career, being employed as
a clerk by various firms in Washington, D. C,
Parkersburg, W. Va., and Lawrenceburg, Pa. In
1876 he founded the firm of Siegel, Hartsfield & Co.,
and ten years later the great department store of the
Siegel Cooper Company, both in Chicago. A branch
of the latter company was established in New York
in 1896. In 1902 Siegel bought the Simpson Craw-
ford Company in New York, and the Schlesinger and
Mayer Company in Chicago; in the same year he
took up his residence in New York city. Siegel is
also president of the 14th Street Store in New York
city.

BiBLKXiRAPiiv : American Jewish Tear Book, 5665, p. 186.
A. F. T. H.

SIEGFRIED, KARL: German Protestant the-
ologian ; born at Magdeburg Jan. 22, 1880; died at
Jena Jan. 9, 1903. In 1875 he became professor of
theology at the University of Jena, and in 1892 re-
ceived the title of "Geheimer-Kirchenrat."

Of Siegfried's works the following are of spe-
cial interest to the Jewish world: "Spinoza als
Kritiker iind Aiisleger des Alten Testaments" (Ber-
lin, 1867); "Philo von Alexandria " (Jena, 1875), one
of the standard works on the subject, dealing also
with theintlueiiceof thellaggadahonPhilo; " J.ehr-
bucli der Neuhebiiiischen Sprache unci Litteratur"
(Carlsruhe, 1884), in collaboration with Strack, Sieg-
fried contributing the grammatical part ; "Die His-
toiische und Theologische Betrachtung des Aiten
Testaments" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1890); " He-
braisches Worterbiu'h zum Alton Testament" (Leip-
sic, 1893), in collaboration with Stade; "The Book
of Job" {ib. 1893), in Hanpt's Polychrome Bible.
To Nowack's " Handkommentar zum Alten Testa-
ment" Siegfried contributed the commentaries on
Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon. Ezra, Nehemiah.
and Esther.
Bihlkxiraphy : Brockhaus, Konversations-Lexikon.

■v. F. T. H.

SIESBY, GOTTLIEB: Danish poet and editor;
boiii in Copenhagen May 4, 1803; died there Nov.
28, 1884; brother of Oskar Siesby. His first publi-
cation was a (lollection of poems entitled "Lyriske
Forsog," which appeared in Copenhagen in 1826.



Siesby
Sifra



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



330



Later he publislied " PoelisU-Politisk Nytaarsgave "
and " Anekdot-Alnianak," two humorous poetical
works, and in 1834 an opera entitled "Robinson,"
which was produced at the Royal Tiieater.

In 1847 Siesby became coeditor of Edward Meyer's
periodical "Flyveposten," which he later purchased.
He was not successful in this venture; and in 1870
the "Flyveposten " ceased to appear.

6. F. C.

SIESBY, OSKAR: Danish philologist; born
in Ebeltoft, Jutland, July 19, 1833; brother of Gott-
lieb Siesby. He graduated from the University of
Copenhagen (B.A. 1850), and then took up thestudy
of philology, passing in 1856 the historico-philo-
logical examination for teachers. In 1853 he was
appointed teacher of Latin and Greek at the Von
Westenske Institut in Copenhagen, where he re-
mained till 1893.

In 1871 Siesby was appointed lecturer in classical
philology at his alma mater, which office he held
until 1876, when he refused reappointment. In
1883 he was appointed privat-docent iu philology
at the same university.

Siesby's literary activity has been neither varied
nor extensive. He has written some grammatical
and semasiological treatises which have appeared
in " Filologisk Tidsskrift,'' in " Dauia." and in " Opus-
cula Philologica ad Madvigium Missa."

Bibliography: C. F. Bricka, Z)an.sfc Biografisk Lexicon;
Universitetsproaram til Refiyrmalion»fe»teiu Copenhagen,
1876.
8. F. C.

SIFRA : Halakic mid rash to Leviticus. It is
frequently quoted in the Talmud, and the study of
it followed that of the Mishnah, as appears from
Tanhuma, quoted in "Or Zarua'," i. 7b. Like Le-
viticus itself, the midrash is occasionally called
"ToratKohanim" (Kid. 33a; Sanh. 103b; Cant. R.
vi. 8), and in two passages also "Sifra debe Rab "
(Ber. lib, 18bJ. According to Lekah Tob (sec-
tion "IV), this latter title was applied originally to
the third book of the Pentateuch because Leviticus
was the first book studied in the elementary school,
and it was subsequently extended to the midrash ;
but this explanation is contradicted by analogous ex-
pressions such as " Sifre debe Rab "and, in a broader
sense, "ketubot debe Rab" (Yer. Ket. 26c) and
"lelji'ata debe Rab" (Yer. 'Ab. Zarah 89c). It is
true, Maimonides, in the introduction to his "Yad
ha-Hazakah," and others, quoted by Friedmann, in
the introduction to his edition of the Mekilta (p.
xxvi., Vienna, 1870), have declared that the title
" Sifra debe Rab " indicates Rab as tlie author of the
Sifra; and this opinion Weiss, in the introduction
to his Sifra edition (p. iv.), attempts to support.
His proofs are not conclusive, however; neither, it
must be confessed, are the opposing arguments of
Friedmann {I.e. pp. xvi. et seq.), who tries to show
that the expression " Sifra debe Rab " does not refer to
the midrash under discussion. The question as to au-
thorship has been correctly answered byMalbim.who
proves in the introduction to his Sifra edition thatR.
Hiyya was the redactor of the Sifra. There are no less
than thirty -nine passages in Yerushalmi and the mid-
rashim in which expositions found also in the Sifra
are quoted in the name of R. Hiyya (comp. the list



in Holl'mann, " Zur Einleitung die Halachischen Mid-
raschira," p. 23, to which Yer. Shab. 2d and Ket. 28d
must be added, according to Levy in "Ein Wort,"
etc., p. 1. note 1); and the fact that no tannaim
subsequent to Rabbi are mentioned iu the Sifra sup-
ports the view that the book was composed during
the time of that scholar. The omission from the
Sifra of some interpretations of Leviticus which are
elsewJiere quoted in the name of R. Hiyya can not
be taken as proving the contrary (comp. the list in
Hoffmann. I.e. p. 24, and Yoma 4a; Hul. 141b;
Levy, I.e.); nor does the fact that Hiyya himself is
mentioned in the Sifra offer any difficulty. Indeed,
as Hoffmann shows {I.e. p. 25), in the three passages
in which it can with certainty be said that the ref-
erence is to R. Hiyya, namely, Wayilira, Nedabah, v.
6, vi. 3, and Mezora', ii. 10, Hiyya himself, in refer-
ring to preceding interpretations, indicates that he
is the editor. It is perhaps doubtful whether Hoff-
mann is correct in comparing the above-mentioned
passages, or the final remark of R. Joshua in Kin-
nim, with Mid. ii. 5. But even if Hoffmann's view
does not seem acceptable, it is not necessary to infer
that Rab was the editor of the Sifra ; for he may
merely have added the passages in question, just as
he seems to have made an addition to Sifra xii. 2,
following Niddah 24b (comp. Weiss in Sifra nd loe. ;
also Epstein ["Mi-Kadmonlyyot ha-Yehudim," p.
53, note 1], who holds that in some passages Rab is
meant by "aherim " and " we-yesh oraerim "). Nor
is Hiyya's authorship controverted by various con-
tradictions presented by individual passages in the
Sifra as compared with the Tosefta, which latter
also is ascribed to him; e.g., Sifra, Kedoshim, vi. 8,
compared with Tosef., Mak. iv. 14 (see below). If

it be assumed that Hij'ya is the au-

Author- thor, the title "Sifra debe Rab" is to

ship. be explained as indicating that Sifra

was among the midrashim which M'cre
accepted by Rab's school and which thereby came
into general use. The name is differently ex plained
by Hoffmann {I.e. pp. 12 et seq.), who, on the basis
of Hul 66a and in conformity with Rashi ad loe.,
takes " be Rab " to mean " school " in general, and
who accordingly differentiates between "Tauna
debe Rab" and "Tanna debe R. Ishmael," i.e., be-
tween the midrashim of R. Akiba's school, which,
being decisive for the Halakah, were generally stud-
ied, and those of R. Ishmael's school, which were not
intended for general use, though they were studied
by some and were consulted occasionally, as was
the case with other midrash collections Avhich are
quoted only rarely. Hoffmann himself admits,
however, that the expression "de-bet Rab " in Yeru-
shalmi certainly indicates Rab's school ; so tliat it is
in any case doubtful whether a different usage is to
be assumed in the case of Babli.

As regards the sources of Sifra, it is said in the
well-known passage Sanh. 86a (which must be com-
pared with 'Er. 96b and the parallel passages men-
tioned there), "Setam Sifra R. Yehudah." That the
Sifra belongs to R. Akiba's school, as the above-
mentioned passage in Sanhedrin indicates, is shown
by the principles of exposition contained in the
Sifra; e.g., that where the same expression oc-
curs in two different laws the phrase need not



331



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Siesby
Sifra



be "mufneli" (pleonastic) in one of them in order
to permit of its being used for "gezerah slir.wali "
(argument from analogy); the double use of tlie
c'xpression being explained in accordance with
the principles of "ribbui u-mi'ut" and "kelal u-
perat," Certain peculiarities of phraseology are

likcAvise noteworthy: ^ID"" replaces ""JX yOlK' <)i"
XTpN. the phrases usually found in the Mckilta
<once, in Sanii. 4b, a passage beginning ""jx Kipx
is cited as coming from the Sifra, while as a matter
of fact the Sifra fTazria', ii. 2] has ^13>); comp. fur-
ther -101^ i^TDJ DX1, nainc mo ht-'n ■'si, nvs xn,

nN3 r^D "'31- -IDKJC' ^^3D nXV )''Nn ■'^l; and for
further details sec Hoffmann, I.e. p. 31.

Traces of R. Judah's influence are less evident.
The fact that the views expressed in some "seta-
mot" may be proved to agree with R. Judah's
views has little significance; e.g., Sifra, Ahare, 5,
beginning, compared with Men. 27b; ib. Kedoshim,



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