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One of the earliest writings of Samuel is undoubt-
edly his commentary on Canticles, which he regards
as the representation of a dialogue between God and
the Jewish people, and as a description of the con-
dition of Israel in times of misery and of happiness.
In his other Biblical commentaries, on the contrary,
he opposes all haggadic interpretation. His sources
for this commentary were: the Bible, the Masoietic
text of which he closely followed, and with which
lie compared French, German, and Spanish manu-
scripts; the Targuin Onkelos; the Babylonian Tar-
gum to the Prophets; the Jerusalem Targuin to the
Pentateuch ; the Palestinian Targum to the Hagiog-
rapha; the Vulgate, in so far as he objected to
its renderings; the Mishnah, Mekilta, Sifra, and
Sifre ; the Baraita of R. Eliezer ; Seder 'Olam ; Pirke
Rabbi Eli'ezer: the " Dibre ha-Yamiin shel Mosheh "
(Jellinek, " B. H."ii. 1-11); Eleazar Kalir; Menahem
ibn Sariik ; Dunash ben Labrat ; Kalonymus of Rome
(on Num. xi. 35); and Menahem b. Helbo.

Rasiiliam explains his aim in Biblical exegesis
thus: "Those who love pure reason should ahvaj'S
remember that the sages have said a Biblical
passage must not be deprived of its original
meaning [on Gen. xxxvii. 1]. Yet as a conse-
quence of the opinion expressed by them, that the



23



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Samuel ha-Kohen
Samuel b. Melr



coustaiit study of the Talmud is one of the most
laudable pursuits, commentators have been unable,
by reason of such study, to expound individual
verses according to their obvious meaning. Even
my grandfather Solomon was an adherent of this
school; and I had an argument with him on that
account, in which he admitted that he would revise
his commentaries if he had time to do so. " It is sub-
sequently related that Eashbara so thoroughly con-
vinced his grandfather that the latter burned his
own woiks.

Briefly Rashbam may be said to have had the fol-
lowing objects in view in his exegesis: to harmo-
nize his comments with the progress made by the
exegesis of his time ; to simplify exegesis and inves-
tigate the inner meaning of the Scriptural text; to
preserve the traditional interpretation when it agrees
with the literal sense; to show the connection of dis-
connected passages of the Bible; and to defend Juda-
ism (pj^on nSICJTl)- In regaid to form, he advances,
adopts, or rejects explanations with a brief and
pointed statement of his reasons therefor (see Rosin,
I.e. pp. 92-98).

The following passage on Gen. xxxiv. 25 maj^ be
quoted as an example of the simplicity of Samuel's
exegesis: " ' They [Simeon and Levi] came upon the
city [Shechem].' This certainly means that they
came upon the city when it felt itself secure, since
tiie Hebrew word ' betah ' can be applied only to an
object at rest." This explanation is at the same
time a criticism of Rashi, who first refers "betah"
to the iidiabitants and not to the city, and tlien in-
terprets the passage haggadically. Rashbam was
liimself attacked by Ibn Ezra in " Iggeret Shabbat "
because in his interpretation of Gen. i. 5 he tries to
prove that the Jewish day, even the Sabbath, be-
gins at dawn and not at evening.

In liis comment on Ex. ii. 14 Rashbam shows his
mastery in determining the most evident meaning.
Tiie names of God are explained as verb-forms, the
first one, HTIK, as placing in the mouth of God Him-
self the declaration of eternal existence, iti'N ^^^X
n\"IN, and the second, ninV as placing in the moutii
of man the same declaration. Equally obvious is
the connection he finds between the Feast of Taber-
nacles and the festival of ingathering (Lev. xxiii.
43), basing it on the sentiment of humility and grat-
itude; the humble hut being occupied during the
most beautiful outdoor festival of the year, and being
a reminder at tlie same time of the ancient tent life.
He explains the threefold repetition of the word
JT'V''^ in Num. xv. 39 by saying that a notable play
on words underlies its third occurrence. The ob
scure u.'se of "lOK in Dent. xxvi. 17, 18, he explains,
as no commentator before Inm had done, by the pas-
sages Num. xv. 41 and Ex. xix. 6. On othei- pliil-
o.sophical explanations, some of which are untenal)le,
comp. Rosin, I.e. pp. 104-108.

The most radical of Rashbam's commentaries is
that on Ecclcsiastes. For instance- (1) He declares
that the words "vanity of vanities" were not spoken
by tiie preacher, but were prefixed by the editor who
arranged the book in its present form. (2) Me draws
a distinction between practical wisdom, which is not
sj)eculative (Eccl. ii. 3), and theoretical wisdom,
which must not be confounded with it. (3) In op-



position to all the earlier commentators — unless
the comments of tiiis nature were added by a later
editor (comp. Rosin, I.e. p. 108, note 4) — he explains
according to their natural literal meaning all the
sentences of the preacher relating to doubts and to
pessimism (Eccl. iii. 21, v. 7).

Rashbam's attitude toward science may be consid-
ered from two points of view, (1) the theological, and
(2) the secular. In regard to theology he clings to the
doctrine of the spirituality and omniscience of God
(Gen. 1. 26; " Kerem Hemed," viii. 45), holding that
neither the former nor the latter is in any way cir-
cumscribed. In his view s on angels, prophecy, and
the miracles mentioned in the Bible he falls short of
the religious philosophers both of his own and of a
later epoch. Nor does he rise superior to the super-
stitions of his time and country, explaining many
Biblical passages («.^., Gen. xxxi. 19; Ex. xxxi. l)ac-
cording to the prevailing ideas. He bases the Bib-
lical laws {e.g.. Gen. xxxii. 33 [A. V. 32J ; Ex. xii. 8,
9, 17; XXV. 31) not only on ethical but also on other
grounds. Occasionally he offers to his reader ex-
traneous ideas suggested by some occurrence or train
of thought. As regards his secular attainments, he
gives evidence of being conversant with Old French
(see the Old French philological explanations which
he quotes, given in alphabetical order in Rosin, I.e.
pp. 92-97). He knew Latin also, and could even
read the Vulgate (see on Ex. xx. 13. in reference to
the translation of "Non occides" = "Thou shalt not
kill," and "Ego occidam," Deut. xxxii. 39).

Some correct geographical notes (on Gen. xxxv.
21; Num. xxi. 28; Deut. ii. 3) show that Rashbam
was conversant also with the geography of Palestine.
In his knowledge of Hebrew grammar and lexicog
raphy not only was he the equal of his contem-
poraries, but he even surpassed Menahem and Du-
nash in point of general scholarship, although he
could not make use of Saadia's works, as he did not
know Arabic (this topic is treated in detail in Rosin,
I.e. pp. 120-144, 145-1.55).

Among Rashbanrs Talmudical works are the fol-
lowing commentaries: (1) On the treatise Baba Batra
(iii. 29a to the end). (2) On Pesahim (x. 99b to the
end). (3) On 'Abodah Zarah, of which only a few-
passages are quoted in "Temim De'im," ed. Venice,
iii. 19h, 20b, 28c. (4) On the treatise Niddah, as
appears from the "OrZarua'" (Berliner's " Maga-
zin," i. 100a). (5) Additions to Alfasi (Ahaba, ed.
Amsterdam, i. 136b). (6) Additions to Rashi 's com-
mentary (Zunz, "Z. G."p. 32). (7)"Teshubot,"in R.
Eliezerb. Nathan's " Eben ha-'Ezer," ed. Prague,
143b-140c, and in the "Pardes," ed. Constantinople,
fol. 4a (I5erliner's "Magazin," 1876, p. 60: "Or
Zarua'," i. 79b; " Mordekai " on Ket. viii. 300, fol.
1081), in "Haggahot Maimuniyyot." "Ishot," iii.).
(8) On the treatise Abot (Zunz, "Z. G." pp. 124 et
seq.)- also tlu! work " Ha'al ha-Ma'or" (according to
Rieti), and the conclusions of the conunentaries on
the Talmud left incomplete by Rashi.

Rashbam is, however, much weaker than Rashi in
his Talmudic commentaries, and he occasionally be-
comes prolix in attemiUing detailed explanations,
while the simplicity of Rashi is at once evident
As a tosafist Rashbam is quoted in B. K. 6b, 10a.
and in B. M. 96b, while additions of his to the Pirke



Samuel, Moses
Samuel ben Nal^man



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



24



Abot arc found also in the "Migdal 'Oz " of Sbeni-
Tob Gaon.

Few details of Kashbam's life are known. He is
said to have beeu so modest that lie always walked
with downcast eyes; and Moidecai b. Hillel says
('Erubin, end) that he was so absent-minded that
once, while traveling, he climbed into a wagon
loaded with cattle.

BiBLKXiiiAPHV : Zunz. Z. G. pp. 3:.'. 57. 70. m^JihnhheUt ha-
Kahlialali. ed. Amsterdam, p. 391); Rieti, -lii'.a/dx/i Meat,
p KM); Aziilai, Shem ha-Gedi>Uni, i. 77(5, ii. liC"; Dukes, in
Zioii ii. 10-i; D. Kosin, R. Smmid h. Mnr ah Schi-ifter-
kliirir. Breslau, 1880; Geiger. Beitrii{ie, p. 2<>; idem, Par-
xchniKlatha, p. 20, Leipsic, 1855; Jellinek, in Monatsschnff,
ill 116- Oriott, Lit. viii. 354; Franz Delitzsch, Zur Gef<ch.
der JMifichen Poe.sic, p. 115: Steinschneider, Oat. Bod/,
col 2453; Gross, Gallia Judaica. pp. 179, 239, 3.59, 543, 63/ ;
Winter and Wiinsche, Jlhlischc Literatur, ii. 278, 286-388.
W. 15. S. O.

SAMUEL, MOSES : English author ; born in
London 1795; died at Liverpool 1860. He acquired
considerable reputation as a Hebrew scholar and an
authority on rabbinical literature. While at Liver-
pool he published an " Address to the Missionaries
of Great Britain," a forcible protest against the at-
tempts of conversiouisl societies to entice Jews from
their faith. He wrote also a pamphlet on the
position of Jews in Great Britain, and was one of
tlie editors of a monthly magazine entitled "The
Cup of Salvation." Samuel was a zealous advocate
of the emancipation of his coreligionists, and a re-
buke, entitled "The Jew and the Barrister," he ad-
ministered to a member of the bar was favorably
noticed in several magazines. He translated " The
Book of Jasher" and Mendelssohn's "Jerusalem,"
London, 1838.

RiBLm(iRAPHY: Jew. C/iro)i. April 37, 1860; Plcclotto, Sfcef c/ie.v
i)f A imlo-Jeicl'^h Historii, pp. 364-365.
.1 G. L.

SAMUEL BEN MOSES : Russian cabalist ;
lived at Swislotz, government of Grodno, in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the
author of "Shem Shemu'el," containing cabalistic
interpretations of the Pentateuch and giving caba-
listic reasons for the precepts therein. lu the pref-
ace the author quotes another work of his entitled
"Yad Shemu'el," on the Psalms.

Bibliography: Stcinschneider, Cat. Tiixll. col. 24.55: Furst.
Bihl. Juil. ill. 340.
.1. I Bl<-

SAMUEL B. MOSES PHINEHAS : Polish
rabbi; died in Posen Nov. 35, 1806. He was a
descendant of U. Joshua (d. 1648), theautlior of " Ma-
ginne Shclomoh," and was related to the Heiiprin
family. At the age of twenty-three he became
rabbi of Biiguria. near Zamosc/., and later held sim-
ilar positions in I'rzevvorsk and in Tarnopol, where
he was living in 1795. In 1801 he succeeded his
brother Joseph "iia-Zaddik" (son in-law of R. Eze-
kiel Landau of PragmO in tiie rabliinate of Po.sen,
where he remained until his death. He was the au-
thor of "Bet Shemucl Aharon," of which the first
parts contain responsa, and tlic last is devoted to
sermons on the weekly lessons from the Pentateuch
(Novidvor, 1806).

BlBl.iocUAlMlY : Pn-fnct' to Tiit b^ltinnul At.utniii: M(i)iats-
sc/oiff. xiv. 2.'>ii (■/ .s7(/.: Eiscnstadt-Wiener, Da'df Krihinliiin.
p. 69. St. Petersburg, 1897-98.
H. K . P. Wl.



SAMUEL HA-NAGID (SAMUEL HA-
LEVIBEN JOSEPH IBN NAGDELA) : Span-
ish statesman, giaminarian, poet, and Tabuudist ;
born at Cordova 993; died at Granada 1055. His
father, who was a native of Merida, gave him a
thorough education. Samuel studied rabbinical lit-
erature under Enoch, Hebrew language and gram-
mar under the father of Hebrew philology, Judah
Hayyuj, and Arabic, Latin, and Berber under vari-
ous non-Jewish masters. In 1013, in consequence
of the civil war and the conquest of Cordova by the
Berber chieftain Sulaiman, Samuel, like many other
Jews, was compelled to emigrate. He settled in
the port of Malaga, where he started a small busi-
ness, at the same time devoting his leisure to Tal-
mudic and literary studies.

Samuel possessed great talent for Arabic callig-
raphy ; and this caused a change in his fortunes.
A confidential slave of the vizier Abu al-Kasim ibn
al-'Arif often employed Samuel to write his letters.
Some of these happened to fall into the hands of the
vizier, who vvas so struck by their linguistic and
calligraphic skill that he expressed a desire to make
the ac(]uaintance of the writer. Samuel was brought
to the palace, and was forthwith engaged by the
vizier as his private secretary. The former soon
discovered in Samuel a highly gifted statesman,
and allowed himself to be guided by his secretary's
counsels in all the affairs of state. In 1027 the vizier
fell ill, and on his death-bed confessed to King
Habus, who had expressed his sorrow at losing such
an able statesman, that his successful
Appointed undertakings had been mainly due to
Vizier. his Jewish secretary. Being free from
all race prejudices, Habus raised Sam-
uel to the dignity of vizier, and entrusted him with
the conduct of his diplomatic and military affairs.

In his exalted position Samuel remained the same
pious and modest scholar, and disarmed his enemies,
who could not forgive him his Jewish faith, by his
gentleness of manner and his liberality. The fol-
lowing is an illustration of his magnanimity: A
fanatical Mohammedan dealer in spices, wlio lived
near the calif's palace, once grossly offended Samuel
while accompanying the calif. Incensed at the of-
fense, the calif commanded Samuel to punish the
fanatic by cutting out his tongue. Instead of exe-
cuting tills order Samuel made a present to the of-
fender, anil thus gained his gratitude. When the
calif again noticed the seller of spices he was aston-
ished at the change, and questioned Samuel about
it. "I have torn out," answered the vizier, "his
angry tongue, and given him instead a kind one."

The year 1037 proved to be tiie turning-point in
Samuel's life. Habus died, and there arose two
parties in Granada who respectively rallieil round
two iirinces. The majority of the Berber nobles,
and some infiuential Jews— Josejih ibn Migas, Isaac
ben Leon, and Nehemiah Ashkofa— sided with the
vounger son of Habus, Avhile Samuel at tlie head of
a smaller party supported the ehlerson Badis. The
chances were all in favor of the majority, and Sam-
uel ran the risk of losing not only his position, but
also his life, when unexpectedly the younger .son of
Habus abdicated in favor of his elder brother.
Badis was then hailed king, and Samuel not oulr



25



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Samuel, Moses
Samuel ben Nahman



retained liis former position, but became practically
king of Granada, as the pleasure-seeking Badis paid
but little attention to allairs of state.

Samuel not only employed liis power for the ben-
efit of the Jews of Granada, of whom he was the
authorized chief (" nagid "), exercising
As Nag-id. the functions of rabbi, but also strove,
in his diplomatic relations, to amelio-
rate tiie condition of the Jews in other places.
Greatly interested in the iiropagation of science, he
spent enormous sums for copies of books, which he
presented to poor students. He coirespouded with
the leading scholars of his time, especially with Hai
Gaon and R. Nissim of Kairwau. Among the re-
cipients of his bount}'^ was Ibn Gabirol, who had
been banished from Saragossa. " In Samuel'stinie,"
says Moses ibn Ezra in his " Kitab al-Muhadarah "
(comp. Munk, "Notice sur Abu'l Walid," p. 57),
"the kingdom of science was raised from its lowli-
ness, and the star of knowledge once more shone
forth. God gave unto liim a great mind which
reached to the spheres and touched the lieavens, so
that he might love Knowledge and those that pursued
her, and that he might glorify Religion and her fol-
lowers." Samuel found recognition not only among
his coreligionists, but also among the Mohammedans,
many of whom were his stanch friends and admirers.
An Arabic poet, Muntafil, e.xtoUed him in verse,
and acknowledged that Samuel had made him a secret
worshiper of the God who had prescribed the sanc-
tification of the Sabbath. The best proof, however,
of Samuel's great popularity is that, notwithstand-
ing the machinations of the Mohammedan fanatics,
he remained vizier until his death, and was succeeded
in that office by his son Joseph.

Of Samuel's writings only a few have been pre-
served. Besides two responsa, which have been
inserted in the"Pe'er ha Dor " (Amsterdam, 1765).
only the "Mebo ha-Talmud " has been published
(Constantinople, 1510; frequently re-
His printed together with the "Halikot

Works. Olam" of Joshua ha-Levi; and since
1754 together with the Talmud, at the
end of the treatise Berakot). The work is divided
into two parts: the first containing a list of the
bearers of tradition from the members of the Great
Assemblv down to Enoch, Sanuiel's teacher; the
second, a methodology of the Talmud. It was trans-
lated into Latin by Constantin I'Empereur, under
the title "Clavis Talmudica, Completas Fornui-
las, Loea Dialectica et Rhctorica PrLscorum Jud«-
orum " (Leydeu, IGoS). Another Talmudic work of
Samuel's, entitled "Hilkata Gibbarwa, " containing
Tahnudic decisions, is quoted b}- Me'iri in his com-
mentary on Abot, by l>ezalecl Ashkenazi ("Sliittah
Mekubbezet," Ketubot 36b), and by others.

Of the poetical jjroductions of Sanuiel there have
been preserved a part of the "Ben Mishle," contain-
ing aphorisms and ma.xims, some of which have
been published in various periodicals (.see bibliog-
raphy below), ami fragments of a diwan, still i-xtant
in manuscript (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS."
No. 2422, 18). Some verses of liis are cited b}-
Moses ibn Ezra, and his poem on the pen is (]Uoted
by Judah ibn Tibboii in a letter addressed to his
son Samuel. Mention is made also of a poem in



seven languages addressed to King Habus. In ad-
dition Samuel wrote "Ben ]\Iishle," containing de-
votional poems, and "Ben Kohelet," containing
philosophical meditations, both of which are no
longer extant. Samuel's poetic compositions are
distinguished for their elevation of thought; but
they are devoid of elegance of form. It became
proverbial to say, " Cold as the snow of Hermon, or
as the songs of tlie Levite Samuel " (Dukes, "Nahal
Kedumim," p. 5). The diwan of Samuel ha-Nagid
was edited, although not in its entirety', by A. Har-
kavy in "Studien und ]\IitTlieilungen aus der St.
Petersburger Kaiserlitihen Bibliothek," i. ("Zikron
la-Rishonim "), St. Petersburg, 1879.

Among Samuel's works on grammar, which are
no longer in existence, mention should be made of
the "Sefer ha-'Osher" (Arabic title, "Kitab al-
Istighna "), which was divided into twentj'-two sec-
tions. In this work, as in all of his writings on
grammar, Samuel did not go beyond the rules laid
down by his master Judah al-Hayyuj. Indeed, his
respect for the father of Hebrew philology was so
great that he waged war against Ibn Janah and
wrote and caused others to write the pamphlets
known as "Epistl('Sf)f the Companions " (" Rasa'il al-
Rifak "), in which that grammarian was, violently
attacked for his strictures on Hayyuj's writings.

Bibliography: Abraliaiii it)n Paurt, >iifer ha-Kahhalah, ed.
Constantinople, p. 43a; Abratiaiii Zacuto, Sefcrlia-Yuhoxin.
e.d. Amsterdam, p. 127a; Gedaliah ibn Yahya, ShaMieUt lia-
Kahhalali, ert. Amsterdam, p. 29b; David Gans, Zemah Da-
wid, for the year 1027; Saadla 1l)n Danan, in HenulaJi (icmi-
zah, p. 29; Conforte. Kme ha-Doi'nt, p. tJa ; Aziilai, .S7ie/i/
ha-Ge(UiUii), i. 89; De" Rossi, />i2io)inM'(i. s.v.; Duties. Bii-
trituc, p. 179; idem, Nahal Kedumim. p. 81 ; idem, Blumcii-
lese, p. 56; Luzzatto, in' Kerem firmed, iv. 31; Ziinz, .s'. /'.
p. 218; Dozy. iDtroductidti a rHistuire de rAfti(pie et de
VEspagne IntituU'e al-Haiianal-Mafi>irih pai- ll>)t Aditai i.
i. 81 et seq., Leyden, 184t)-.51; Munli, Notice .su?' AhiH Wa-
lid, p. 87; Jost, Oearli. iv. 137; Steinschneider, Cat. Badl.
col. 2457 ; Griltz, Gesch. vi. 11 et xrq.: idem, Blumeuleiic. p. IB ;
Bactier, Lehen und Werke .Vadwalida. 1888, pp. 18-25;
idem, in Winter and Wiinsolie, Jiidische Literatiir. il. 18();
Joseph Derenhdurg, Oimscules d\li}iiid}i'alid. )). xxxv. et
passim.
.1. I. r>i:.

SAMUEL BEN NAHMAN (NAHMANI) :
Palestinian amora; born at the beginning of the
third and died at the beginning of the fourth cen-
tury. He was a pupil of R. Jonathan ben Eleazar
(Pes. 24a) and one of the most famous haggadists of
his time (Yer. Ber. 12d ; Midr. Teh. to Ps.lx. 2). He
was a native of Palestine and may have known the
patiiarch Judah I. (Gen. R. ix). It appears that he
went to Babylon in his youth but soon returned
to Palestine (Sanli. 96b). He seems, however, to
have gone to Babylon a second time in an official
capacity in order to determine the intercalation of
the year, which, for political reasons, could not be
done in Palestine (Yer. Ber. 2d; Pes. 54b). As an
old man he went to the court of Empress Zenobia
(267-273) to i)etition her to pardon an oiphaned youth
who had committed a grave political crime (Yer.
T( • 46b). In the days of Judah II., Samuel ben

Nahman appears among the most in-

Relations timate associates of the patriarch, with

with whom he went (286) to Tiberias at

Diocletian. Diocletian's order ; later he joined the

emperor at Paneas (Yer. Ter. ix., end ;
Gen. R. Ixiii.). In the school Samuel held a po-
sition of authority; to him is ascribed the rule



Samuel ben NaJ^man
Samuel ben Shneor



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



26



that during the heat of the day instruction should be
suspended (Lam. R. i. 3, end; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xci.
6). On account of his fame as a haggadist questions
were addressed to him by such authorities as the
patriarcli Judah II. (Gen. R. xii., end), Simeon ben
Jehozadak (Geu. R. iii., beginning; Lev. R. xxxi. ;
Pes. 145b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. civ.; Tan. to Wayak-
hel, beginning; Ex. R. 1., beginning), Ammi (Lev.
R. xxxi., beginning; Lam. R. i. VS), Hanina ben
Pappa (Pes. 157a; Midr. Teh. to Ps. Ixv. ; Lam. R.
iii. 45; Yer. Sheb. 35b), and Helbo (B. B. 123a, b).

Among the transmitters of Samuel's sayings were
Helbo, the haggadist Levi, Abbahu (Lev. R. xxxv.,
end; Yer. Ta'an. iii.), and Eleazar ben Pedat (Pes.
159b). Of Samuel's sous two are known by name —
Nahman and Hillel; sayings of both have been pre-
served (Gen. R. x.. xxxii. ; Midr. Teh. to Ps. Iii. ; Yer.
Sheb. 36b; Yer. Kid. 61c; Eccl. R. i. 4; Midr. She-
mu'elxv., on Neh. viii. 17). Samuel ben Nahman's
decisions and sayings concern the study of dogma
(Yer. Peah 17a; Meg. 74d ; Hag. 76d), prayer (Pes.
157a, b; Deut. R. ii. ; Yer. Ber. 7a; Gen. R.
Ixviii.), and Sabbath regulations (Gen. R. xi., end;
Pesik. R. 23; Yer. Shab. 15a); the history of Israel
and the nations and empires (Pes. lob, 151b; Lev. R.
ii., beginning, xxiv., end, xxix. ; Num. R. ii., end;
Yer. Sheb. 35b; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah 44b); the ordi-
nances regarding proselytes (Cant. R. vi, 2; Yer.
Ber. 5b, c) ; Scripture ('Ab. Zarah 25a; B. B.
15a; Gen. R. vi., end; Cant. R. i. 1, end), halakic
exegesis (Yer. Shek. 45d; Yer. Shab. 9b; Yer.
Hal. 57b), and Biblical characters and narratives
(B. B. 123a; 'Ab. Zarah 25a; Yer. Yeb. 9c; Yer.
Ber. 4b; Tosef., Shab. vii., 25; Gen. R. xlii., xlix.,
Ixii., xcviii. ; Ex. R. xliii. ; Lev. R. xi. ; Pes. vi. ;
Eccl. R. vii. 1; Midr. Shemu'el xxiii.).

Especially noteworthy is Samuel b. Nahman's
description of the grief of the patriarchs Abra-
ham, Isaac, Jacob, and of Rachel, over the destruc-
tion of the Temple (Lam. R., Pref. 24,
His end). It is Written in beautiful He-

Dirges, brew prose, and is accompanied by
dramatic dirges in Aramaic. Then
follow the dirges of all the Patriarchs, which they
intone when Moses for the second time has commu-
nicated to them the sad tidings. Finally, Moses
himself chants a lament, addressed partly to the sun
and partly to the enemy.

Other utterances of Samuel b. Nahman's refer to
homiletics (Gen. R. xiv., xx., xliii.; B. B. 123b;
Hul. 91d; Shab. 113b), to God and the world (Gen.
R. xxxiii. ; Pes. 139a; 'Er. 22a; B. K. 5a, b), and to
eschatology (Gen. R. viii. ; Midr. Teh. to Ps. Ixxiii.,
end ; Pes. "l56b; Midr. Shemu'el xix. ; Eccl. R. i. 8).

BiBi.iocRAPHY : Bacher, Aa- Pal. Amor. i. 477-.5.51, il., and iii.
(see Index); Frankel, Mebo, pp. 146 e( seq.; Weiss, D<n\ iii.
66; Jellinek, If. H. vi. 104.
W. B. S. O.

SAMUEL HA-NAKDAN: Masorite and
grammarian of the twelfth century. A grammatical
work of his entitled " Deyakut" is extant in the Royal



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