Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) online

. (page 9 of 160)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 9 of 160)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Library at Berlin. It deals with various grammat-
ical points and with the accents. According to
Steiusehneider, it is valuable as showing tlie begin-
nings of grammatical study among the French Jews
before the influence of Kimhi or of the Spanish school



was felt. The author may be identical with one
Samuel le Pointur, mentioned in a fax-roll of 1194
as living in Bristol.

BiBLiOGKAPHY : Steinschneider, Die Handachriften-Verzeich-
nisse der KCniiglichen Bihliothek zu Berlin,p. 100; Jacobs,
Jewx of A7i{icvi7i England, pp. 162. 421.
T. J.

SAMUEL. HA-NASI: Exilarch in Bagdad,
probably between 773 and 816. Until recently his
existence was known only from a difficult pa.ssage
in a manuscript, part of which is printed in the
"Mazref la-Hokmah." This states that the pious
had taken the basis of the liturgy from Aakon
BEN Samuel h.\-Nasi, who had left Babylon. An-
other manuscript (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris,
No. 174), dating from the fourteenth century, states
that the Moses who wrote the liturgical work " Emet
Nore'oteka" was a pupil of Aaron ben Samuel ha-
Nasi of Babylon. The importance of Aaron in the
Chronicle of Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, and his resi-
dence in Italy, prove the existence of Samuel ha-
Nasi.

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. v. 387,388. note 12; Ahimaaz
ben Paltiel, Chronicle, in Neubauer, M. J. C. ii. 111-132 ; Let-
ter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, I.e. 1. 41.
J. S. O.

SAMUEL BEN NATHAN: Amora of the
early part of the fourth century. He appears mostly
as the transmitter of the sayings of Hama b. Hanina
(Shab. 38a, note; Yer. Shab. 5d). On one occasion
Hama b. Hanina transmits a tradition of Samuel
concerning his journey to the baths at Gadar in
company with his father (Yer. Ter. 41c).

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. 1. 447, note 4.
w. B. S. O.

SAMUEL BEN NATHAN : Liturgical poet of
the fourteenth century ; place of birth and residence
unknown. He was the author of three prayers, and
is sometimes mentioned in manuscripts by the name
of Kabanu (KJai).

BiBUOGRAPHY : Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 371.

E. C. S. O.

SAMUEL BEN NATRON AI : German tosa-
fist of the second half of the twelfth century. He
was the pupil and son-in-law of R. Eliezer b. Natan
(RABaN), and brother-in-law of R. Joel b. Isaac ha-
Levi. He is often cited by his father-in-law in his
work '-Eben ha-'Ezer" (g§ 27, 28, etc.). and also by
Zedekiah b. Abraham in his "Shibbole ha-Leket"
("Hilkot Semahot." § 23 [ed. Buber, p. 176ai).
Some novellte by him are mentioned in " Haggahot
Maimuni " on "Hilkot Ishot," xxiii. 14. By the
Posekim he is often cited by the name of RaSHBaT
(="R. Samuel b. Natronai " ; not "Simeon ben
Tobias," as some have assumed). Samuel suffered
death as a martyr at Neuss in 1197.

Bibliography: Michael. Or ha-Hnuvim, No. 1210.

w. 1! J. Z. L.

SAMUEL PHOEBUS BEN NATHAN FEI-

TEL (^n^Q) : Austrian historiographer; lived in
Vienna in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-
turies, lie was the autiior of "Tit ha-Yawen," de-
scribing tiie horrible excesses perpetrated in the
Cossacks' Uprising under Bogdan Chmielnicki in
the Ukraine and Galicia in the seventeenth century.



27



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Samuel ben Nahman
Samuel ben Shneor



The work gives the names of several cities that
suffered, also 140 synagogues that were destroyed,
and states that 600,070 Jews were supposed to
have fallen victims in tJie uprising. This work was
first published in Venice after 1649; a second edition
appeared in Cracow in 1892, included in the " Le-
Korot ha-Gezerot be-Yisrael " of J. Hayyim Gur-
land.

BiBMOGRAPHY : Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 24V2 ; Benjacob,
Ozar ha-Sefanm. p. 208.
E. C. S. O.

SAMUEL BEN REUBEN OF BEZIERS :

French Talmudist; flourished at the beginning of
the fourteenth century. He was one of Solomon
ben Adret's numerous correspondents during the
religious controversy of 1303-6. He addressed a
rimed epistle to Adret, in which he took the part of
his relative Levi of Villefrauche, while excusing
himself for having signed the letter sent by the lib-
eral party to the rabbis of Barcelona, a letter the
contents of whicli, as he said, were unknown to him.
He agreed with Adret in forbidding the study of the
liberal sciences to young students. According to
Gross, Samuel was perhaps a son of Reuben ben
Hayyim of Narbonne, the uncle of Levi of Ville-
franche.

Bibliography: Renan-Neubauer, Xcs Rahhins Frangai^^p.
674; Zunz. Z. O. p. 478; Gross, GalUa Judaica, pp. ia5-200.

E. c. A. Pe.

SAMUEL BEN REUBEN OF CHARTRES :

French liturgical poet. He wrote a "reshut" in
Aramaic which was recited with the Targum of the
haftarah for the Feast of Weeks, an<l whicli con-
sisted of sixty half-lines riming with XH- The re-
shut is signed " Samuel ha-Ketabi. " Gross explains
this ambiguous designation as follows: The name
of Samuel's native city, Chartres, is very similar to
the old French word "charte" (document, charter),
which may be translated in Aramaic by "ketab."
From this noun Samuel formed the adjective " keta-
bi," alluding to his native city.

Bibliography : Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 464 ; Gross, Gallia
Judaica, p. 605.

E. c. A. Pe.

SAMUEL, SAMPSON : Solicit or and secretary
to the London Board of Deputies; born in 1804;
died in London Nov. 10, 1868. He began life on the
Stock Exchange, but after some time resigned liis
membership and entered the legal profession. He
became honorary solicitor to several of the leading
charities; as solicitor and secretary to the Board
of Deputies his advice was sought on many impor-
tant issues, and he accompanied Sir Moses Montefiore
on his mission to ]\Iorocco. Samuel was a member
of the committee of the Great Synasxogue and of
nearly all the charitable institutions, in the founda-
tion of many of which he was concerned. He helped
to establish the Jews' Infant School, London, and
took an active part in its management.

Biiu.iOGRAPiiY : Jen\ Chron. Nov. 13 and 20, 1868; Jeicish
Record, Nov. 20, 1868.

.1. G. L.

SAMUEL, SIR SAUL, Bart. : Australian
statesman; born in London, England, Nov. 3, 1820;
died there Aug. 29, 1900. In 1833 he emigrated
with relatives to New South Wales. He entered



Sydney College, and afterward engaged in mining
and commercial pursuits. In 1839 he made the
acquaintance of Sir Henry Parkes, whose colleague
he later became in several governments. His public
career began in 1846, when he was appointed a
magistrate of the territory of New South Wales.
In 1854 he won legislative honors, and in 1856 en-
tered the Representative Assembly of New South
Wales. In 1859 he joined the ministry ; and from
that time forward he held oflice continuously up
to his appointment in 1880 to the London agent-
generalship of New South Wales. In 1873 he was
nominated to a seat in the Legislative Council, in
which chamber he represented the government; he
was minister for finance and trade in 1859, 1865,
1866, 1868, 1869, and 1870, and postmaster-general
from 1873 to 1875, in 1877, and from 1879 to 1880.

Samuel's main work in the colony was of a finan-
cial character. As agent-general he expended over
£6,000,000 in the purchase of railway plants and war
material, and effected large loans totaling £50,000,-
000. As colonial treasurer he made financial ar-
rangements for separating Queensland from the
parent colony of New South Wales. As postmaster-
general he negotiated a postal service to Great Brit-
ain via San Francisco — an achievement which se-
cured him the C.M.G. (1874). In 1882 he was made
K.C.M.G. , and in 1886 the Companionship of the
Bath was conferred upon him. He was the author
of the Government Savings Bank Act, the Naviga-
tion Act, and other acts of equal importance.

Samuel was one of the most practical pioneers in
the work of Australian federation, and cultivated
the interests, not of New South Wales only, but of
the whole of Australia. He was also the pioneer of
several important industries which have developed
in the colon3^ He represented Sydney at several
international exhibitions, and in 1887 was one of the
delegates of New South Wales to the Colonial Con-
ference held in London.

Sir Saul Samuel was a member of the council of
the Anglo-Jewish Association, and was connected
also with other leading communal institutions.

Bmi.iOGRAPHY : Jew. Chrnn. Oct. 22, 1897, and Aug. 31, 1900;
Jew. Year Book, 5661 (= 1901), p. 320.
J. G. L.

SAMUEL SCHMELKA BEN HAYYIM
SHAMMASH : Preacher and actuary of the rab-
binate of Prague under Epiir.^im Solomon of
Lencziz.\ in the second half of the sixteenth cen-
tury. He was the author of the following works:
"Perush al ha-Masoret," a supplement to Elijah
Levita's Masoretic explanations (Prague, 1610);
"Seder Nashini." on the three chief commandments
concerning women — "niddah," "hallah," and "dc-
likah"— written in Judico-German (i7». 1629); "Ba-
Heshbnn," a multiplication table (//;. n.d.) ; " Som
Sekel," a work on the Masorah (Cracow, after 1629) ;
"Haggaliot li-Sliehitot u-Bedikot," additions to
Jacob Weil's rules for slaughtering (Prague, 1668).

Bihi,io(;rapmy: Steinsohneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2412, 2413;
Zunx, Z. (1. pp. 207, 298; K. Liehen, Gal 'Ed. p. &3 (German
part); Benjacob, Ozar ha-.Sefnrim. pp. 412, 469, .568.

E. c. • ' S. O.

SAMUEL BEN SHNEOR. See S.vmuel of

EVHKIX.



Samuel ben Simeon
Samuel ITarhina'ah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



28



SAMUEL BEN SIMEON (CiiUed also Samuel
Astruc d'Escola) : Frencli scliolar; lived iu Pro-
vence ill the fourteenth century. His Hebrew sur
name was " Kenesi," incorrectly derived from "ke
ncset" (= "'school "), the Hel)rew translation of
"d'Escola," a name frequently found in southern
France. He wrote a preface to the astronomical
work "Shesh Kenafayim " by Immanuel ben Jacob,
which is still in manuscript. Probably he is the
Nasi Samuel d'Escola who explained the astronom-
ical tables of Bonet Bon Giorno.

IJiBi.ioGRAPHY : Gross, Gallia Judaica , p. 147.
V. S. Man.

SAMUEL, SIMON: German patholo,<,nst ; born
at Glogau Oct. 5, 1S33; died at Konigsberg, East
Pru.ssia, May 9, 1899. He studied medicine at
Berlin and V^ieniia (M.D. 18o5), established himself
as a physician in Konigsberg in 1856, and became
privat-docent in 1864, and assistant professor in
1874.

Among his many works and essays may be men-
tioned: " Diotrophische Nerven," 1860; " Der Ent-
ziinduugsprocess," 1873; "Die Entsteiumg der
Eigenwiirme und des Fiebers," 1876; "Handbiicli
der AUgemeiuen Pathologic," 1879. With A. Eulen
burg he published also " Handbuch der Allgemeincti
Therapie und der Therapeutischen Methoden."
Leipsic and Vienna, 1899.

Bibliography: Paget, Bing. Lex.

s. F. T. H

SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE :

Tosatist of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries

His French name was Sir Morel, by which he is often

designated in rabbinical literature: ^X'lID ,V"I"1^Z)

PIID TC*. He was a pupil of Judah Sir Leon

of Parisand of Isaac ben Abraham of Sens. In 1240

he took part in tiie renowned controversy instigated

by the baptized Jew Nicholas Donin.

Sauuiel was the autiior of the following works:

(1) tosafot to several Talmudical treatises, among

which tiiose to the 'Abodah Zarah were published.

together with the text, according to the redaction of

his disciple Perez ben Elijah; (2) a commentary, no

longer in existence, on the laws concerning Passover

composed in verse by Joseph Tob 'Elem, (juoted by

Hayyim Or Zarua' ('"Or Zarua'," ii. 114); (3) ritmil

decisions, frequently cited by Meir of Hf)thenburg,

Mordecai ben Hillel. and other rabbinical authorities

of that time.

Buii.KXiRAPHY : Loeb, in Ti. E. J. i. 24.S ; (iross, GaUin Juda-
ica, pp. 478-479: nmiuwr's Maaazin, iv. 179-194; (iratz,
Ge.-<cli. vii. i:W) : Zunz, Z. G. p. ;}7 ; Jacobs. Jews of A)igei'iii
England, pp. 53, 14(5, 421.
p:. r. T. Bk.

SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON NASI OF CAR-
CASSONNE : French scholar of the thirteenth
century. He was the author of a comme<itary on
the " Moreli Nebukim," which is still extant in man-
uscript in tlu! Library of the Neophytes at Rome.
Gross identities Samuel Nasi with Samuel Sekili.
whom Menahem lAIe'iri n'presents as one of the
greatest scholars of the thirteenth century, and as
being very well versed both in rabbinical literature
and in secular science. Samuel Sekili's authority is
often invoketi in " Orhot Hayyim " and in " Kol Bo."

BiKi.iofiRAPHY : Gross, Gallia Judaica. pp. 4;$!. t)1.5.

J. I. Bii.



SAMUEL B. SOLOMON SEKILI. See S.\m-
t'Ei. iiK.v Solomon Nasi.

SAMUEL, SYDNEY MONTAGU: English
author and conununal worker ; born in London June
21, 1848; died June, 1884; educated at University
College, London. For upwaid of lifteen years
Samuel threw himself into comnuinal work with
much ze;dand earnestness. In 1878 he became hon-
orary secretary to the Board of Guardians, and wrote
its annual reports from 1878 to 1882. He held a
similar otlice in tlie Jewish Association for the Diffu-
sion of Religious Knowledge, and assisted iu estab-
lishing the Jewish Working ]\Ien s Club. In 1879
he journeyed to the East, and made investigations
into the moral and physical condition of the Jews
in the Holy Land and in other parts of the Orient.
The result was eml)0(lied in his "Jewish Life in the
East." He contributed also to the general press,
and wrote some verj'' graceful verses.

Samuel displayed much activity in theatrical mat-
ters, was a ready adapter of plays, and wrote the Eng-
lish libretto of "Piccolino," produced at Her Majes-
ty's Theatre in 1879. A comedy by him entitled " A
Quiet Pipe" was produced at the Folly Theatre in
1880. In collaboration, he translated Victor Hugo's
'■ La Lyre et la Harpe " into English verse for a can-
tata by Saint-Sal'ns, produced at tlie Birmingham
Musical Festival in 1879.

Samuel was a broker of the city of London, and

was engaged in the banking establishment of his

relatives, Samuel Montagu & Co. An authority

on finance, he contributed to the "Examiner";

and wrote for the "Times" an annual survey of the

course of exchange. His health broke down under

the strain of his multifarious exertions.

Biblio(;raphy : TimeK (London), June 28, 1884 ; Jew. Chrmi.
and Jew. World, June 27. 1884.
.1. G. L.

SAMUEL BEN URI SHRAGA PHOEBUS :

Polish rabbi and Talmudist of Woydyslaw in the
second half of the seventeenth century. In his early
youth he was a pupil of R. Heshel in Cracow, and
on the hitter's death he continued his studies under
R. Heshel 's successor, R. Leib Fischeles, whose
daughter lie married.

Samuel officiated as rabbi in Siiydlow, Poland,
whence Iu; was called in Sept., 1691, to the rab-
binate of Fiirth, German}'. In his new office he
displayed great activity, and was the recipient of a
good income; nevertheless liis new surroundings
were distastefid to him. The reason is not known ;
but it is recorded that he longed for his former rab-
binate. In 1694 he received a call to return to
Shydlow, which he soon accepted, as appears from
iiis ai)pn)bation of tiie work " Tr Binyamin " (Frank-
fort -on-t lie-Oder, 1698), in which he is menti(.ned as
rabbi of the Polish town.

Sanuiel wrote in Hel)rew a clear and comprehen-
sive conunentar}' on the Shulhan "Aruk, Eben ha-
'Ezer. which apjii^ared in Dyhernfurtli in 16.'^!l.
beinii' the first Hebrew work i)rinted there. Lali r
he thoroughly icvised it ; and a second edilion, with
sevend emendations and additions, apiniired at
Furtli in 1694. He wrote also sevcial responsa and
()|unions. one of which is published in " Hinuuk Bet
Yehudah." No. IHl ( Frankfort-on-the Main, 170.")).



29



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Satauel ben Simeon
Samuel Yarhina'ah



BiBLiOGRAHiiY : Hayvini N. Dembltzer, Kelilat Ynfi, i. 81a, b,
ii. 58b, Cracow,' 1HS8-93; M. Brann. Geschichte V7id Aii-
iinloi der DiiheruUtrter LyruckereA, in Monatsschi-ift, xl.
r>:i(); idem, Eine Sammhuiy FUrthir Grahschrifteii, in
Knufmann Uedenkbucli, pp. 396, 397; Azulai. Shem ha-
trt'doiim, S.V.; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2494.
E. c. J. Z. L.

SAMUEL YARHINA'AH (generally known
as MAR SAMUEL) : Babylonian amora of Mie
fust generation ; son of Abba b. Abba ; teaclier of the
Law, judge, physician, and astronomer; born about
165 at Nehardea, in Babylonia ; died there about 257.
As in the case of many other great men, a number
of legendary stories are connected with his birth
(comp. "Halakot Gedolot," Gittin. end; Tos. Kid.
*■''• 'NO- His father, who subsequently was known
onl}' by the designation Abuh di-Shemu'el ("father
of Samuel"), was a silk-merchant. 11. Judah b.
Bathyra ordered a silken garment from him, but
refused to take it after Abba had pro-
His Birth, cured it, and when the latter asked him
the reason of his refusal, II. Judah
answered, "The commission was only a spoken
word, and was not sufticient to make the transac-
tion binding." Abba thereupon said, "Is the word
of a sage not a better guaranty than his money?"
"You are right," said 11. Judah; "and because you
lay so much stress upon a given word yon shall
have the good fortune of having a son who shall be
like the prophet Samuel, and whose word all Israel
will recognize as true." Soon afterward a son was
born to Abba, whom he named Samuel (Midr.
Shemu'el, x. [ed. Buber, p. 39a]).

Even as a boy Samuel displayed rare ability
(Yer. Ket. v. oOa; Yer. Peali viii. 21b). His first
teacher was an otherwise iniknown, insignificant
man, and Samuel, who knew more about a certain
legal (piestion than did his teacher, would not
submit to ill treatment by hinj (Hul. 107b). Then
Samuels father, who was himself a prominent
teacher of the Law, recognized as such even by Rab
(Abba Arika; Ket. 511j), undertook to instruct the
boy. As he seems to have been unequal to this
task he sent him to Nisibis to attend the school
of the rabbi who iiad predicted the boy's birth,
that he might there acquire a knowledge of the
Law (" Tanya," Hilkot" Abel, "ed. Horowitz, p. 137,
quoted from Yer. ; comp. also Mordecai on M. K.
889). Samuel seems to have remained onlj' a short
time at Nisibis. On his return to Nehardea he
studied under Levi b. Sisi, who was in Babylon be
fore the death of Judah ha-Nasi I. (see A. Krochmal
in "He-Haluz," i. 69), and who exerted a great in-
fluence on Samuel's development. Samuel made
such rapid progress and became so proficient in his
studies that he soon associated as an e(|ual with his
teacher (Hoffmann, "Mar Samuel," j). 70).

Apart from I he Bilile and the traditional Law,
which were usuiilly the only subjects of study of
the Jewish youth of tliat time, Samuel was in-
structed, probably in his early youth, in other
sciences. It is likely that he accompanied his father
on the hitter's journey to Palestine (Yer. B. M. iv.
9c; Yer. Pes. v. 32a); for after his teacher Levi b.
Sisi liad gone to Palestine there was no one in Bal)y
Ion with whom he could have studied. According
to an account in the Talnuid (B. M. 85b), which



Rapoport declares to be a later addition (" 'Erek Mil-
iin," pp. 10, 222), but which may have some basis

in fact, Samuel is said to have cured

His R. Judah ha-Nasi I. of an affection

Training, of the eyes. Although Samuel was at

that time too young to study directly
under H. Judah, he studied under the pupils of the
patriarch, especially with Hama b. Hanina (comp.
Hoffmann, I.e. pp. 71-73; Fessler, "iNIar Samuel, der
Bedetitendste Amora," p. 14, note 1).

After having acquired a great store of knowledge
in Palestine, his studies there including the i\Iishnali
edited by R. Judah ha-Nasi as well as the other col-
lections of traditional lore, Samuel left the Holy
Land, probably with his father, and returned to his
native city. His reputation as a teacher of the Law
having preceded him, many pupils gathered about
him. As he was especially well versed in civil law,
theexilarch Mar 'Ukba, who was his pupil, appointed
him judge of the court at Nehardea, where he was
associated with his friend the learned and clever
Kama. This court was regarded at that time as

the foremost institution of its kind.

The Judges In Palestine, as well as in Babylon,

of Samuel and Kama Avere called the

the Exile, "judges of the Diaspora" (dayyane

Golah; Sanli. 17b). Upon the death
of K. Shila, the director of the Academy (" resh
sidra") of Nehardea, Mar Samuel was appointed to
the office, after it had been refused by Rab, who
would not accept any post of honor at Nehardea,
Samuel's home (Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neu-
bauer, "M. J. C." p. 28). The Academy of Nehar-
dea entered upon a brilliant phase of its existence
under Samuel's directorate, and, with the academy
founded by Rab at Sura, enjoyed a high general
reputation.

Rab at Sura and Mar Sanuiel at Nehardea estab-
lished the intellectual independence of Babylon
Y'oung men taking up the study of the Law
there were no longer obliged to go to Palestine,
since they had the foremost teachers at home. Bab}'-
lon now came to be regarded, in a sense, as a sec-
ond Holy Land. Samuel taught, " As it is forl)idden
to migrate from Palestine to Babylon, so is it for-
bidden to migrate from Babylon toother countries "
(Ket. Ilia). After Rab's death no new diiector was
elected, and Rab's greatest i)U|)il, \i. Huna, who be-
came president of the court of Sura, subordinated
himself to Mar Samuel in every respect, asking his
decision in every difficult religio-legal question (Git.
66b, 89b; comp. Sanh. 17b; Tos, ih., .s.r. x^N. the
phrase "be Rab" referring to R. HunaV

The Academy of Nehardea was now the only one
in Babylon, and its director, Samuel, who survived
Rab about ten years, was regarded as the iiigliest

authoiity by the Bal)ylonian Jews.

Supreme at Even R. Johanan, the most prominent

Nehardea. teacher in Palestine, and who at first

looked upon Samuel merelv as a col-
league, became so convinced of his greatness, after
Sanuiel had .sent him a large number of responsa
on important ritual laws, that he exclaimed "I
have a teacher fn Babylon " (Hul. !).-)b)

As a man. Mar Samuel was distinguished for his
modesty, gentleness, and unselfishness, beingalways



Samuel Yarbina'ah
Samuel ^arfati



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



30



ready to subordinate his own interests to those of
the community. He said : ''A man may never ex-
clude himself from the community, but must seek
his welfare in that of society " (13er. 49b). He de-
manded seemly behavior from every one, saying
that any improper conduct was punishable by law
(Hag. 5a). One should help one's fellow man at
the first signs of approaching difficulties, so as to
prevent them, and not wait imtil he is in actual dis-
tress (ib.). In liis solicitude for helpless orphans he
imposed upon every court the task of acting as
father to them (Yeb. GTb; Git. 37a, 52b); and he de-
clared that a loan taken from an orphan was not
canceled in the Sabbatical year, even if no pros-
bul had been made out for it (Git. 36b-37a). He
stored his grain until prices had risen, in order to
sell it to the poor at the low prices of the harvest-
time (B. B. 90b). In order to save the people from
being cheated he ordered the merchants never to
take a profit of more than one-si.\thof the cost price
(B. M. 40b), and he was ready even to temporarily
modify the Law in order to prevent ihem from sell-
ing at a high price goods necessary for the fulfilment
of a religious duty (Pes. 30a; Sukkah 34b). In a
certain case also he permitted the infraction of a
religious prescription in order to keep people from
harm (Shab. 42a).

Mar Samuel was very modest in his associations
with others, openly honoring any one from whom lie
had gained any knowledge (B. M. 33a).
His He never obstinately insisted on Iiis

Halakah. own opinion, but yielded as soon as
he was convinced of being in error
('Er. 90a, b; Hul. 76b; Ber. 36a). He was friendly
to all men, and declared : " It is forbidden to deceive
any man, be he Jew or pagan " (Hul. 94a). " Before
the throne of the Creator there is no difference be-
tween Jews and pagans, since there are many noble
and virtuous among the latter" (Yer. R. H. i. 57a).
He taught that the dignity of manhood should be
respected even in the slave: the slave is given to
the master only as a servant, and the master has no
right to treat him Avith condescension or to insult
him (Niddah 17a, 47a). Once, when a female slave
liad been taken away from Samuel and he had un-
expectedly recovered her by paying a ransom, he
felt obliged to liberate her because he had given up
hope of recovering her (Git. 38a).

Mar Samuel secims to have possessed a thorough
knowledge of the science of medicine as it was



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 11) → online text (page 9 of 160)