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THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



A DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OF



THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS-
TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars aivd Specialists

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD

Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. (Departments of Post- Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. {Department of the Talmud) .

Biblical A7ittqtuties ; the Jews of America) .

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. [Department ^^^^^^'^ J^STRow, Jr.,Ph.D. (/)./«r^^^«/^///,.^/^/^).

of History from I4g2 to igoi) . Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. (Department of and Philosophy) .

Rabbinical Literature) . „

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. {Chief of the

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor).

History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of

Post -Talmudic Literature). Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern

T T -r. . . ,^ Biography from 17^0 to looi).

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the & ^ ->' J /J V >

Jews of England and Anthropology; Revi- CRAWFORD H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments of
sing Editor) . Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) .



ISIDORE SINGER. Ph.D.

Projector and Managing Editor

ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS

(see page v)



VOLUME III

BENCEMERO— CHAZANUTH



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.
N.Y. 2, N.Y.

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



« o^



(x:




L



LITERARY DIRECTORATE




V



EDITORIAL BOARD



CYRUS ABLER, Ph.D.

(Departments of I'o^t-Bihlical AidUjuitics ; the Jews of
America.)

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian,
Smithsonian Institution, 'Waslnnjiton, D. C.

GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D.

(Department of HiMorij from lU'Ji to 1901.)

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,
Ubio ; Editor of " Deborah."

LOUIS GINZBERG, Ph.D.

{Departmtnt of liahliinicid Literature.)
New York ; Author of " Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatem."

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

(Departmcntf: of HMorxifrom Ezra to ll,'J2 ; History of Post-

Tahmidic Literature.)

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York;

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ;

President of the Federation of American Zionists.

JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A.

(Departments of the Jens of Enylund and Anthropology;
Ucvisincj Editor.)

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ;
Author of "Jews of Angevin England," etc.

MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D.

(Dcpartmeut of tlie Talmud.)
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; Author of " Dictionary of the Talmud."



MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D.

iDcpnrtmcut of the Bible.)

Professor of SemUic Languages and Librarian in the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig-
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc.

KAUFMANN KOHLER, Ph.D.

(Departments of Thcohnjij and I'ltdosopliy.)

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of
Jewish Ministers, New York.

FREDERICK DE SOLA MENDES, Ph.D.

(Chief of the Bureau of Translation; licvisinu Editor.)

Rabbi of the AVest End Synagogue, New York; Vice-President
of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.

ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

Maxaging Editor.
(Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.)

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D.

(Departments of Hebrew I'ltilology and Hellenistic

Literature.)

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge. Mass. ;

Author of "The Religion of Israel," "Judaism and

Christianity," etc.



AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Zicbron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish
Theological Seminary, New York.

B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congiegation, Chicago; Author of "A
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."

GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.

EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate."

HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D.,

Head of the Departmeni of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures,
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto,

Canada ; Author of " History, Prophecy, and

the Monuments."



H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D.,

Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu-
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of Talmudic Litei'ature, Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud."

GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Hfl)rew Language and Literature and President of

Andover Theological Seminary, A ndover, Mass. ; Author

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc.

DAVID PHILIPSON, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Rene Israel ; Professor of Homiletice,

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.

IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and

the Old Testament," etc.



IV



LITERARY DIRECTORATE



HERMAN ROSENTHAL,

Chief of the Russian Section of The Jewish Encyclo-
pedia.
In charge of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.

JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D.,

President of Central Conference of American Uabbis ; Rabbi of
Temple Emanu-El, New York.



JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Consregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Gal. ; Pro-
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal.

EDWARD J. WHEELER, M.A.,

Editor of " The Literary Digest," New York.



FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.,

Coeditor of the " Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew-
ish Life in the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior Tutor
in Jews' College, London, England.

W. BACHER, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest,
Hungary.

M. BRANN, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger-
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fiir Geschichte und
Wissenschaft des Judeuthums."

H. BRODY, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of "Zeitschrift fiir
Hebriiische Bibliographie."

ABRAHAM DANON,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople,

Turkey.

HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D.,

Professor of Literary Arabic at the Special School of Oriental
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute.

S. M. DU3N0W,

Author of "Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia.



MICHAEL FRIEDLANDER, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews" College, London, England; Author of '
Jewish Religion," etc.



The



IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary.

M. GUDEMANN, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria.

BARON DAVID GTJNZBURG,

St. Petersburg, Russia.

A. HARKAVY, Ph.D.,

Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library,
St. Petersburg, Russia.

ZADOC KAHN,

Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of the Alliance

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion

of Honor, Paris, France.

M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the
Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain.

MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D.,

Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran,

Austria.



ANATOLE LER0Y-BEAULIEX7,

Member of the French Institute : Professor at the Free School

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of

" Israel chez les Nations."

ISRAEL LEVI,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France.

EUDE LOLLI, D.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University,
Padua, Italy.

IMMANUEL LOW, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen
Pflanzennamen."

S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of
Florence, Italy.

H. OORT, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State
University, Ley den, Holland.

ABBE PIETRO PERREAXJ,

Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma,

Italy.

MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and

Brussels ; President of the Deutsch-Jiidische

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.

SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D.,

Rabbi In Warsaw, Russia.

SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, Uuivei-sity College, London, England;

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge:

Author of "Studies in Judaism."

E. SCHWARZFELD, Ph.D.,

Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris,

France.

LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Pliilosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; EdltWT
of "Archiv fiir Geschichte der Philosophic," etc.

HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages,
University of Berlin, Germany.

CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D.,

Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. England; Editor of
"Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.



44



(mTRT?.lT01{S TO YOLLME III



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.,

President of the American Jewish Historical
Society ; President of the Board of Trustees
of the Jewish Theological Seminary of
America ; Lii rarian of the Smithsonian In-
stitution, Washington, D.C.

A. A. G- Amelie Andr^ Gedalge,

Paris, trance.

A. Bi A. Biach,

Rabhi at Briix, Bohemia, Austria.

A. Bu Alexander Buchler, Ph.D.,

i;uli. i, Kesztliely, t'omiUit Zola, Hungary.

A. Co A. Cowley, M.A.,

Orient;il Sublibrarian, Bodleian Library, Ox-
ford University, Oxford, England.

A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D.,

Editor of the " Zeitschrift fiir Hebriiische
Bibliographie " ; Librarian of the Hebrew
Department, Stadtbibliothek, Frankfort-on-
the-Main, Germany.

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D.,

Principal of the liealschule, Fiirth, Bavaria,
Germany.

A. F.-G Adolph Frankl-Griin, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Kicmsier, Moravia, Austria.

A. Fl A. Fleischmann,

New Yoi k City.

A. H. V A. Henrictues Valentine,

I.ondon. England.

A. Ka Adolph Kamphausen, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis at the
University of Bonn, Germany.

A. Ku A. Kurrein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Teplitz, Boliemia, Austria.

A. M Axel Moth, LLi.B.,

New York Pubhc Library, New York City.

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenbergr, B.S.,

Correspondent of "The Jewish Comment,"
Baltimore, Md. ; N.ew York City.

A. P A. Porter,

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum,"
New York ; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo-
pedia," New York City.

A. Pe A. Peigrinsky, Ph.D.,

New York City.

A. R A. Rhine,

Rabbi, Hot Springs, Ark.

A. S. C Alexander S. Chessin,

Professor of Matliematics, Washington Uni-
versity, St. Louis, Mo.

A. Sz Adele Szold,

Baltimore. Md.



B. B Benuel H. Brumberg,

Contributor to " National Cyclopedia of Ameri-
can Biography," New York City.

B. D Bernard Drachman, Ph.D.,

Rabl)i of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim ;
Instructor in the Bible and in Hebrew Gram-
mar at the Jewish Theological Seminary of
America, New York City.

B. E B. Eerdmans, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Jewish
Religious History, Babylonian and Assyrian
Languages, Ilijks University. Leyden, Hol-
land.

C. Br C. Bruckman,

New York City.

C. F. K Charles Foster Kent, Ph.D.,

Professor of Bibhcal Literature and Hlstorj
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

C. H. B C. H. Bjerregaard,

Formerly Professor, Fredericia College, Frede-
ricia, Denmark ; Librarian of the New Yorli
Public Library, New York City.

C. I. De S Clarence I. De Sola,

Montreal, Canada.

C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn,

Philadelphia, Pa.

C. Jj Caspar Levias, M.A.,

Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Ara-
maic, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Ohio.

C. T Charles Taylor, D.D., LL.D.,

Master, St. John's College, Cambridge, Eng-
land.

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.,

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, Ohio.



D. B. M...



D. P,



D. W. A.

E. A

E. C

E. G. H



.Duncan B. McDonald, B.D.,

Profe.ssor of Semitic Languages at Hartford
Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.

.David Philipson, D.D.,

Rabbi of ihc ('ongtv^'fiii"n B"ne Israel; Pro-
fessor of Homiletics, Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio

.David Werner Amram, LiLi.B.,
Attorney at Law, Philadelphia, Pa.

.Edward Andre,

Paris, France.

. Executive Committee of the Editorial
Boaid.

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Ral)l)i of (liicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago,
111.; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and
Philosophy in the University of Chicago.



VI



C'()NTK1J5LT01J8 T() VuLl.ME III



E. Ms Edgar Mels,

Nfw •> (ii-k ( iiy.

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D.,

Cliii'f lialilii III' Nii^y-Kainsza, Iliiiij::iry.

E. N. A Elkan N. Adler,

I.diiiliiii, Kiif;iaiRl.

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis,

New \nyk ( ily.

E. Schr E. Schieifcer, Ph.D.,

Ralilii of ('niiL:rcf,'ati(iii K,iiianii-F,l, Cliirap". 111.

E. Sd E Sc'.iwarzfeld, LL.D.,

Scci'rtary uf Jovvisli (\)Uinization A>si)cjaiiiin,
Paris, FraiKM!.

F. Bu Frants Buhl, Ph.D.,

lM-ol'ess(ir of t>LMuilic TliiloloRy al tin- Univer-
sity of Copenbagen, Denmark.

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly,

.V.'-sociate Editor of '" Tiie Coliiinbian Cyclope-
dia," and on standauh Dictio.varv Edito-
lial Staff, New Yorli City.

F. Li. C Francis L. Cohen,

Ral)l>i, liiiidiiirli New Synagogue, London,
I'.ngland; Coeditor of "Voice of Praver and
I'raise."

F. de S. M. .Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York
City.

F. T. H Frederick T. Hannemann, M.D.,

Brooklyn, N. V.

G Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia
University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental
Department, New York Public Library ; Presi-
dent of the Federation of American Zionists.

G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D.,

Associate Professor in Riblical Literature and
Semitic Languages at Hryn Mawr College,
Bryn Mawr, Pa.

G. A. K George Alexander Kohtit. Ph.D.,

Formerly Rabbi in Dallas, Texas ; now New
York City.

G. B. Li Gerson B. Levi,

Philadelphia, Pa.

G. Li Goodman Lipkind, B. A.,

Rablii in London, England.

G. M G. Margoliouth,

Assistant Custodian, Oriental Department,
British Museum, London, England.

G. Mo Godfrey Morse,

Lawyer in Boston, Mass.

G. Se G. Selikovitch,

New York ( ity

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D.,

Coeditor of the " Zeitschrift fiir Hebriiische
Bibliographle " ; Kabbi at Nacliod, Bohemia,
Austria.

H. Be ITenry Berkowitz, D.D.,

Chancellor Jcwisli Ctiautautiua Soi iety, Phila-
delphia, Pa.

H. Bl Heinrich Bloch, Ph.D.,

Professor of History at the Jewish Theological
Seminary Budapest, Hungary.



H. G. E H. G. Enelow, D.D.,

Kalilii of ilie Cuti^n-c^'-aiioii Adath Israel, Loiiis-
\ine, Ky.

H. Gut H. Guttenstein,

,\cw York ( ily.

H. H Henry Hyvernat, D.D.,

I'nifcssor nf orii-nial Languages and Arche-
ology, Catholic CniMisiiy of Americ'a, Wash
inglon, D.C.

H. Hir Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D.,

I'l'ofe-Mir in .lewb" Cnllei.'e. London, England.

H. Li. S Hermann L. Strack, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament E.xegesis and Sem-
itic Languages at the University of Berlin,.
(iermany.

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D.,

Assi.-^taut Professor, Hebrew Union College,
( incinnati, Ohio.

H . R Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of theSla\onic Department of the New
York Public Library, New York City.

H. S Henrietta Szold,

Secretary of the Publication Committee of the
Jewish Publication Soiiety of America, Balti-
more, Md.

H. V Hermann Vog^lstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Kiinigsberg, Germany.

I. Aa Israel Aaron, D.D.,

Uabbi in Buffalo. \. Y.

I. B Isaac Bloch,

Chief Hahlii of NaiK-y, I-'rance.

I. Be Inimanuel Benzinger, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis at the
University of Berlin, Germany.

I. Ber Israel Berlin,

Cheinist, .New York City.

I. Br I. Broyde,

Diplome of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes;
Formerly Librarian of Alliance Israelite Uni-
verselle, Paris, France ; now New York City .

I. D Israel Davidson, Ph.D.,

New York City.

I. E Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D.,

Instructor at the Lehiatistalt fi'ir die Wissen-
schaft des Judentliums, Berlin. Germany.

I. G. D I. George Dobsevage,

New Ym-K Ciiv.

I. Hu Isaac Hvisik,

1 utor, dratz College, Philadelptia, Pa.

I. L Israel Levi,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary.
Paris. France; Editor of "Revue des Etudes
Juives."

I. Lio Immanuel Low,

Chief i;al)bi of Szegedin, Hungary.

I. M. P Ira Maurice Pric 3, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
tures in the l'ni\ ersity of Chicago, 111.

J Joseph Jacobs, B. A.,

Formeilv Pr<'siileiit of the Jewish Historical
Society of England; Corresponding Member
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrifl-
New York city.



CONTKIBUTOKS TO VOLUME HI



Vll



J. Co.



J.


D.


B


J.


D.


E


J.


F,




J.


F.


McC...



Josiah Cohen,

JuilRe of llir uipliiitrs Court of ^MleRlicn)
Couniy, Pa.

J. D. Bravermann, Ph.D.,

.New ^nrk (.ity.

J. D. Eisenstein,

New York t ity.

Joseph Ezekiel, J. P.,

liiiiiibay, India.

J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., L.L..D.,

I'rofessor of oriental I.anguage.s in tlie Uni-
versity College, Toronto, Canada.

J. G. li J. G. Liipman,

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex-
periuient Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

J. Hf Josef Hoff, Ph.D.,

Uabbi at Uiseiiz, Moravia, Austria.

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone,

Italjbi in PliiladelpLiia, Pa.

J. H. M. C. .J. H. M. Chumaceiro,

liablji in New Yoik City.

J. Hy J. Hyams,

P.<)iiiba.\, India.

J. Jr Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.,

PnifesMirof Setnilic Languages, University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

J. So Joseph Sohn,

( ontriiiutorto "The New International Ency-
clopedia " ; formerly of " The Forum," New

York City.

J. Sr Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D.,

Uabbi EuieritUL-; of the Congregation Rodef
Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D.,

Kalibi in linjunowo, Posen, Germany.

J. V Jacob Voorsanger, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Emnnu-El, San
Francisco, Cal.: Professor of Semitic Lan-
guages and Literatures in the University of
California, Berkeley, Cal.

J. W Julien Weill,

Ual)lii in Paris, France.

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York; e.\-
President of Board of Jewish Ministers, New-
York City.

K. H. C KarlHeinrich Cornill, Ph.D.,

Profr.-.sor of Hebrew and Old Testament E.\e-
gesis at the University of Breslau, (iermaiiy.

L. B Ludwig- Blau, Ph.D.,

Professor of the Jewish Theological Seminary,
Budapest, Hungary; Editor of " Magyar Zsido-
Sz.'^mle."

L. E L. Edelstein,

New York City.

Li. G liouis Glnzberg-, Ph.D.,

Pr(jrrs.><(ir of Talmud at the Jewish Theolo;:-
ical S( miliary of America, New York City.

Li. Gr Louis Grossmann,

Cincinnati, ( )liio.

Li. H. G Liouis H. Gray,

Inslructflr in In lo-Iranian at Princeton Uni-
versity.



Li. HU Li. Hiihner, A.M., LL.B.,

Attorney at Law, .New Y'ork City.

L. J. G Leopold J. Greenberg-,

Forineily Editor of " Israel," London, Eng-
land.

L. K. F LeeK. Frankel,

Manager of the United Hebrew' Charities,
New Y'ork City.

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz,

Attorney at Law, Louisville, Ky.

L. V Ludwig- Venetianer, Ph.D. ,

Uaiibi in Neupest, Hungary.

M. B Moses Beer,

London, England.

M. Bl Maurice Bloch,

Principal of tlje Itischoffsheim School at Paris,
France.

M. Br M. Brann, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Semi-
nary at Breslau, (jermauy.

M. C M. Caimi,

Corfu, Greece.

M. Co Max Cohen,

Attorney at Law, New Y'ork City.

M. E M. Ellinger,

Editor of ■' The Menorah," New York City.

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews' College, Loudon, England.

M. Fi Maurice Fishberg:, M.D.,

Surgeon to the Beth Israel Hospital Dispen-
sary; Medical Examiner to the United He-
brew Charities, New York City.

M. Fr M. Franco,

Principal of the Alliance Israelite Universelle
School, Shumla, Bulgaria.

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D.,

Itaiibi in Hamburg, Germany.

M. J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.D.,

Attorney at Law ; Recording Secretary of the
.\merican Jewish Historical Society, New York
City.

M. K Mori tz Kay serling, Ph.D.,

Ralibi, Budapest. Hungary.

M. L. B Moses Lob Bamberg^er, Ph.D.,

Rabbi at Aschallenburg. Bavaria, Germany.

M. L. M Max L. Marg-olis, Ph.D..

As.sociiUe Professor of Semitic Languages in
the University of California, Berkeley, Cal.

M. B, Max Rosenthal, M.D.,

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary. New

York City.

M. Ra Max Raisin,

Rabbi at Portsmouth, Ohio.

M. S Moise Schwab, Ph.D.,

Librarian of the Hebrew Department at the
Bibliotheq lie National 3, Paris, France.

M. Sc Max Schldssingrer, Ph.D.,

Heidelberg, dci liiany.

M. Schw....M. Schwarzfeld, M.D.,

Buchaix'st, Rumania.

M. Se M. Seiffert,

Nt'W York City.



Vlll



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME III



M. Sel M. Selig-sohn,

Diploiiiti of the EfOle Ues Haiites Etudes,
Paris, France ; now New York City.

M. Si M. Silberstein, Ph.D.,

llabbi of Wiesbaden, (ieniiany.

M. S. Z M. S. Zuckermandel, Ph.D.,

Professor at the Theological Seminary, Bres-
lau, Germany.

M. W Max Weisz, Ph.D.,

Uabbi in Budapest, Hungary.

M. W. L. Martha Washing-ton Levy, B.A.,

Contributor to "The New International En-
cyclopedia."

M. Z M. Zametkin,

New York City.

N. P N. Porg-es, Ph.D.,

Uabbi in Leipsic, Germany.

N. Sc Nathaniel Schmidt, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
tures, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

O. S. S Oscar S. Straus,

Former Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary of the United States to Tur-
key; Member of the Court of Arbitration at
The Hague ; New York City.

P. B Philipp Bloch, Ph.D.,

Ifabbi in Posen, Germany.

P. Co P. Cowen,

Publisher of "The American Hebrew," New
Y^ork City.

P. Wi Peter Wiernik,

New Y'ork City.

K. W. R... Robert "W. Rog^ers, D.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exe-
gesis, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison,
N.J.

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D.,

Managing Editor, New York City,

S. B Samuel Baeck, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Lissa, Germany.

S. J S. Janovsky,

Lawyer, St. Petersburg, Russia.

S. K S. Kahn,

Rabbi in Nimes, France.

S. Kr S. Krauss, Ph.D.,

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary.

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Wilmington, N. C.



S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L.,

Instriictoi-, lU'bicw t'liion College, Cincinnati,
Ohio.

S. M. D S. M. Dubnow,

Odessa, Russia.

S. R S. Roubin,

Uabbi, Woodbine, N. J.

S. Sa Sig-ismund Salfeld, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Mayence, Hesse, (Germany.

S. Sc S. Schulman,

Associate Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New
York City.

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LI..D.,

Professor of Heiirew in Ilarv^ird University,
Cambridge, Mass.

T. F. S Theodore F. Seward (Deceased),

Late lOdi'or <<{ the "New York Musical
Gazette," New York City.

V. C Victor Castiglioni,

Professor, 'Iriest, Austria.

V. R Vasili Rosenthal,

Kremenchug, Russia.

V. Ry Victor Ryssel, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and
Semitic Languages at the University of
Zurich, Switzerland.

W. B W. Bacher, Ph.D.,

Professor at the Jewish Theological Semi-
nary, Budapest, Hungary.

W. H. B William H. Bennett, M. A.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, New
College, London, England.

W. M. M....W. MaxMiiller, Ph.D.,

Professor of Bible Exegesis in the Reformed
Episcopal Theological Seminary. Philadelphia,
Pa.

W. N. ..... . .William Nowack, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis at the
University of Strasburg, Germany.

W, P William Popper, Ph.D.,

New York City.

W. Rei W. Reich,

Rab|ii ill Vienna, Austria.

W. S William Salant, M.D.,

New York Ciiy.

Z. K Zadoc Kahn,

Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of
the Alliance Israelite Universelle ; Officer ol
the Legion of Honor, Paris, France.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III



N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated

under each heading.



PAGE

Agrippa II., Copper Coin of, Struck at Ca^sarea 487

Alepli as a Symbol of the Four Cabalistic Worlds 476

Almemar of the Old Synagogue at Charleston, S. C G78

see also Moses, Cuaiu of.



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 169)