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DONATED BY

Mr. & Mrs^ Roy Papermaster



THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



A dcsciuptive: record of



THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS-
TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD



Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post-
Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) .

GoTTHARD Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department
of History from 14^2 to igoi) .

Louis GiNZBERG, Ph.D. {Department of
Rabbinical Literature) .

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. (Departments of
History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of
Post -Talmudic Literature) .

Joseph Jacobs, B.A (Departments of the
Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revi-
sing Editor) .



Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the Talmud).

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. (Department of the Bible) .

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. (Departments of Theology
and Philosophy) .

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. (Chief of the
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor).

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modern
Biography from 1750 to igoi) .

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) .



ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

Prolector and Managing Editor

ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS

(see page v)



VOLUME VII

ITALY— LEON



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.

N.Y. 2, N.Y.

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



5HLF

LITERARY DIRECTORATE /^^



EDITORIAL BOARD



v,7



CYRUS ABLER, Ph.D.

(Deijartmeiits uf P<M-BihUcal AntiQuitiea; the Jews of
America.)

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D.

(Department of Higtam from 1U$J to 1001.)

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah."

LOUIS GINZBERG, Ph.D.

(Department of Rahbinical Literature.)
New Yort ; Author of " Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatem."

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

{Departments of History from Ezra to 11,92 ; History of Post-

Talmudic Literature.)

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York;

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ;

President of the Federation of American Zionists.

JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A.

{Departments of the Jews of Emjland and Anthropology;
Beviging Editor.)

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ;
Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc.

MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D.

(Department of the TaJmud.)
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud."



MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D.

^Utpartiiuid 1,1 the Jiiljle.)
Professor of Sero'tic Languages and Librarian In the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig-
ion of the Babylonians and Ass>Tlans," etc.

KAUFMANN KOHLER, Ph.D.

{DcpartmenUi of Theology atid Philosophy.)

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of

Jewish Ministers, New York.

FREDERICK DE SOLA MENDES, Ph.D.

(Chief of the Bureau of Translation; Revising Editor.)

Rabbi of the ^Vest End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President

of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.

ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

Managing Editor.
{Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.)

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D.

(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic

Literature.)

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge. Mass. ;

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and

Christianity," etc.



AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish
Theological Seminary, New York.

B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago ; Author of " A
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."

GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.

EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate."

HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D.,

Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures,
Catholic University of .\merica, Washington, D. C.

J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto,

Canada; Author of " History, Prophecy, and

the Monuments."



H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D.,

Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu-
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud."

GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass.; Author

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc.

DAVID PHILIPSON, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiletlc*.

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; President of

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.

IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The .Monuments and

the Old Testament," etc.



IV



LITERARY DIRECTORATE



HERMAN BOSENTHAIi,

Chief of the Russian section of The Jewish Encyclo-
pedia.
In charsre of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.

JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D.,

President of Central Conference of American Rabbla ; Rabbi of
Temple Emanu-El, New York.



JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D.,

Rabbi of the ConjfreRation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro-
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal.

EDWARD J. WHEELER, M.A.,

Editor of •' The Literary Digest," New York.



FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.,

Coedltor of the " Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew-
ish Life In the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior TuUjr
in Jews' College, Loudon, England.

W. BACHER, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest,

Hungary.

M. BRANN, Ph.D.,

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger-
many ; Editor of " Monatsscbrift fur Geschichte und
Wlssenschaft des Judeuthums."

H. BRODY, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of "Zeltschrift fur
Hebrjiische Bibliographie."

ABRAHAM DANON,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople,

Turkey.

HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D.,

Professor of Literary Arabic at the Special School of Oriental
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute.

S. M. DUBNOW,

Author of " Isturiya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia.

MICHAEL FRIEDLANDER, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The
Jewish Religion," etc.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary.

M. GUDEMANN, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria.

BARON DAVID GUNZBURG,

St. Petersburg, Russia.

A. HARKAVY, Ph.D.,

Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library,
St. Petersburg, Russia.

ZADOC KAHN,

Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of the Alliance

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion

of Honor, Paris, France.

M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the
Royal Academy of Historj-, Madrid, Spain.

MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D.,

Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran,

Austria.



ANATOLE LEROY-BEAULIETT,

Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of

" Israel chez les Nations."

ISRAEL LEVI,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of
" Revue des Etudes Julves," Paris, France.

EUDE LOLLI, D.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University,
Padua, Italy.

IMMANUEL LOW, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary; Author of " Die Aramalschen
Pflanzennamen."

S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of
Florence, Italy.

H. OORT, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State
University, Leyden, Holland.

ABBE PIETRO PERREATJ,

Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatlna, Parma,

Italy.

MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and

Brussels ; President of the Deutsch-Jiidische

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.

SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia.

SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England;

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge ;

Author of "Studies in Judaism."

E. SCHWARZFELD, Ph.D.,

Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris,

France.

LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor
of " Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie," etc.

HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages,
University of Berlin, Germany.

CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D.,

Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. England ; Editor of
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.



44



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLLME YII



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. ,

President of the American Jewish Historical
Society ; President of the Board of Directors of
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America ;
Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C.

A. A A. Amar,

Paris, France.

A. Bii Alexander Biichler, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Keszthely, Hungary.

A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D.,

Editor (if the "Zeitschrift fiir Hebraisehe
Bibliographic"; Librarian of the Hebrew
Department, Stadtbibliolhek, Frankfort^on-
tbe-Main, Germany.

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Uealschule, Fiirth, Bavaria.
Germany.

A. F.-G A. Frankl-Griin, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Krenisir. Moravia, Austria.

A. Ga Abraham Galante,

Editor of "La Buena Esperanca," Smyrna.
Asia Minor.

A. Gu Adolf Guttman, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Syracuse, N. Y.
A. H Abraham de Harkavy,

Librarian of the Hebrew Department of the
Imperial Public Library, St. Petersburg,
Russia.

A. H. R . . . . A. H. Rosenberg-,

New York City.
A. K A. Kaminka, Ph.D.,

Rabbi ; Secretary of the Israelitische Allianz

zu Wien, Vienna, Austria.
A. Kai Alois Kaiser,

Cantor, Temple Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, Md.

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Prague. Bohemia, Austria.

A. Ku A. Kurrein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Teplilz. Bohemia, Austria.

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., Lli.B.,

Counselor at Law; Correspondent of "The
Jewish Comment," Baltimore, Md. ; New
York City.

A. P A. Porter,

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum."
New York ; Revising Editor " Standard Cyclo-
pedia," New York City.

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D.,

New York City.

A. R A. Rhine,

Rabbi, Hot Springs, Ark.

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B. A. ,

New York City.

B. B Benuel H. Brumberg,

Contributor to " National Cyclopedlaof Amer-
ican Biography," New York City.

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt,

New York City.
B. Fr B. Friedberg,

Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.
B. L Benno Lewinson,

Counselor at Law, New York City.



B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D.,

Fonncrly Paster of St. John's Lutherao
Church, Albany, N. Y. ; New York City.

B. T Blanche Tausik,

.New York City.

B. Te Bernhard Templer, Ph.D.,

Rablii, Vii'iina, .Austria.

B. Z Bernhard Ziemlich, Ph.D.,

Ralibi, .Nuremberg, Gerinany.

C. C. T Charles C. Torrey, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages, Yale Uni-
versity. New Haven, Conn.

C. I. de S. . . .Clarence I. de Sola,

President of the Federation of Canadian
Zionists, Montreal, Canada.

C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn,

Philadelphia. Pa.

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A.,

Instiuctor in Exegisisand Talmudlc Aramaic,
Hebrew t:nion College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

C. S Carl Siegfried, Ph.D., LL.D. 'decea.sed).

Late Pnife^.sor of Theolngy, University of
Jena, Germany.

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. ,

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

D. Ba David Bachrach,

Baliiuiore, Md.

D. G; Baron David von Giinzburg,

St. Petersburg, Russia.

D. P David Philipson, D.D.,

Rabbi. B"ne Israel Congregation ; Professor of
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin-
nati, Ohio.

D. Su David Sulzberger,

Philadelphia, Pa.

D. W. A David Werner Amram, LL. B.,

Counselor at Law, Philadelphia, Pa.

E. A Edouard Andr^,

Paris, France.

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial

Board.

E. Q. H Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D.. LL.D.,

Rabbi, Sinai Cuiigregation ; Professor of Rab-
binical Literature and Philosophy, University
of Chicago; Chicago, 111.

E. I. N E. I. Nathans,

Philadelphia, Pa.

E. J Emil Jelinek,

Vienna, .Vustrla.

E. L Eude Lolli,

tliief Rabbi : Professor of Hebrew, Univer-
sity I if Piiilua, Italy.

E. Ms Edg-ar Mels,

New York City.

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D.,

Chief Uabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary.

E. N. A Elkan N. Adler,

Lomlon. Knglaiid.

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Euiauu-EI Congregation, Chicago, 111.



VI



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME VII



E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D.,

Secretary of the Jewish Colonization Associa-
tion, Paris, France.

E. SI E. Slyper,

Amsterdam. Holland.

E. C Frank Cramer, B.Sc,

\e\v York City.

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A.,

Associate Editor of the "" Columbian Cyclo-
pedia" and of the Standard Dictionary;
New York City.

F. li. C Francis Li. Cohen,

Principal Rabbi, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D.,

Brooklyn, N. Y.

G Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.,

Profe^^or of Semitic Languages, Columbia
University, New York : Chief of the Oriental
Department, New York Public Library : New
York City.

G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D.,

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic
L:\nguages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr,
Pa.

G. A. K George Alexander Kohut,

Formerly Rabbi in Dallas, Texas; Assistant
Librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary
of America, New York City.

G. F. M George F. Mooi-e, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Biblical Liteiature and the His-
tory of Religions, Harvard University, Cam-
bridge, Mass.

G. L Goodman Lipkind, B.A.,

Rabbi, New York City.

G. Ro G. Rosenmann, Ph.D.,

Vienna, Austria,

H. Ab Herman Abramowitz,

New York City.

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D.,

Rubbi; coeditor of the "Zeitschrift fiir He-
briiische Bibliographie " ; Nachod, Bohemia,
Austria.

H. Ba H. Baar,

Formerly Rabbi in New Orleans; Superin-
tendent, Hebrew Orphan Asylum, New York
City.

II. G. E H. G. Enelow, D.D.,

Rabbi, Congregation Adath Israel, Louisville,
Ky.

H. Gut H. Guttenstein,

New York City.

H. Hir Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jews" College, Loudon. England.

H. Hirs.. H. Hirschenson,

New York City.

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D.,

Assistant Professor, Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

H. N H. Necarsulmer,

Couiiselor at Law, New York City.

H. R Herman Rosenthal,

Chiif of the Slavonic Department, New York
Public Library, New York City.

H. S Henrietta Szold,

Secretary of the Jewish Publication Society of
America ; New York City.

H. V Hermann Vogelstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Ki'miirsberg. East Prussia, Germany.

I. A Israel Abrahams,

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge;
Coeditor of " The Jewish Quarterly Review "' ;
Cambridge, England.

I. Be Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D. ,

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Uni-
versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem, Pal-
estine.



I. Ber Israel Berlin,

Chemist, New York City.

I. Br Isaac Broyde [Oificc Editor),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France ; for-
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni-
verselle, Paris, France ; New York City.

I. E Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D.,

Instructor at the Lehranstalt fiir die Wissen-
scliaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany.

I. G. D I. George Dobsevage,

New York City.

I. li Israel L^vi,

Rabbi; Professor at the Jewish Theological
Seminary, Paris ; Editor of " Revue des Etudes
Juives"; Paris, France.

I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D.,

United States National Museum, Washington,
D. C.
I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, B.D., Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
ture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.

I. S I. Schwartz,

Paris, France.

I. Z Ignaz Ziegler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Carlsbad, Bohemia, Austria.

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A.,

Furinerly President of the Jewish Historical
Society of England ; Corresponding Member
of the Hoyal Academy of History, Madrid;
New Y'ork City.

J. D. E J. D. Eisenstein,

New York City.

J. E. B J. E. Boutelje,

Amsterdam. Holland.

J, F. M J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D.,

Professor of Oriental Langu-ises and Litera-
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada.

J. F. McC.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University
College, Toronto, Canada.

J. G. L J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.,

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex-
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

J. de H J. de Haas,

Journalist; Secretary of the Federation of
American Zionists, New Y'ork City.

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone,

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa.
J. H. H Joseph Hermann Hertz,

Rabbi, Pretoria, South Africa.

J. Hy J. Hyams,

Bombay, India.

J. Ka Jacques Kahn,

Rabbi, Paris, France.

J. So Joseph Sohn,

Contributor to " The New International En-
cyclopedia"; formerly with "The Forum";
New York City.

J. Sto Joseph Stolz, D.D.,

Rabbi, Chicago, 111.

J. Stos Joseph Stijssel, Ph.D.,

r.aijiii, Stuttgart, Wuritemberg, Germany.

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D.,

iiablij, Bojanowo, Posen, Germany.

J. V Jacob Voorsanger, D.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
ture, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. ;
Rabbi, Congregation Emanu-El, San Fran-
cisco, Cal.

J. Z. L J. Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D.,

New York City.

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New
Y'ork ; President of the Hebrew Union Col-
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio.



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME VII



vu



K. B Karl Budde, Ph.D.,

Professiir of Did IVstainent Exegesis, Univer-
sity of Marburg, Uerinany.

L. B Iiudwig' Blau, Ph.D.,

P.ofessor, Jewish Thei)logicaI Seminary ; Edi-
tor of "Magyar Zsidd-Szemle " ; Budapest,
Hungary.

L. Be L. Belleli,

London, England.

L. E li. Edelstein,

New York t'ity.

Zi.Ot Louis Ginzbergr, Ph.D.,

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem-
inary of America, New York City.

L. Grii Lazarus Griinhut,

Director, Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem, Pales-
tine.

L. La Laura Landau,

New York City.

L. Le Leo Lewinsohn,

New York City.

L. M L. Mag-nes, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Brooklyn, N. Y.

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L.,

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky.

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Ujpest, Hungary.

L. Wie Leo Wiener,

Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, Har-
vard University, Cambridge, Mass.

L. Y L. Ysaye,

Vienna, Austria.

SI. A M. Abrahams,

Leeds, England.

M. Ad Michael Adler, B.A.,

Rabbi, Hammersmith Synagogue; Fellow of
Jews' College, London, England.

M. A. M Martin A. Meyer,

Rabbi, Temple Beth Emeth, Albany, N. Y.

M. Co Max Cohen,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

M. Ei Mathias Eisler, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Klausenburg, Hungary.

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D.,

Principal, Jews' College, London, England.

M. Fr M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israelite Universelle
School. Demotica, Rumelia, Turkey.

M. Qar M. Garsson,

New York City.

M. Go Milton Goldsmith,

Philadelphia, Pa.

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Vienna. Austria.

M.J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.B.,

Counselor at Law ; Recording Secretary of
the American Jewish Historical Society, New
York City.

M. K Meyer Kayserling, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

M. L. B Moses Lob Bambergrer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi-
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany.

M. L6 Max Lbhr, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Theology and Ex-
egesis, University of Breslau, Germany.

M. Mr M. Marg^el, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Pozega, Slavonia, Austria.

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D.,

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New
York City.

M. Sc Max Schloessingrer,Ph.D.(0^ceJEdifor),

Rabbi, New York City.



M. Sel Max Seli^sohn (Office EdWjr),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France;
New 'N'ork City.

M. St Marcus Stiegrlitz,

Berlin, (Germany.

M. Sta M. Stark,

Kai)bi, Konlgllche Welnberge, near Prague

Bohemia, Austria.

M. Su Mayer Sulzbergrer,

IMiiladclpliia, Pa.

M. W Max Weisz, Ph.D.,

Budapest, Hungary.

M. We M. Weissberg,

stanislaw-Ziireiiicze, Gallcla, Austria.

M. W. L Martha Washington Levy, B.A.,

Contribut(jr to "The New International En-
cyclopedia," New York City.

M. W. M....Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D.,

New York ( ity.

M. Z M. Zametkin,

New York ( ity.

N. P N. Porgres, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Leipslc, Germany.

N. SI N. Slouschz,

Paris, France.

N. T. L N. T. London,

New York City.

P. B Philipp Bloch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Posen, Germany.

P. Wi Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

R. Qu Raphael Gug'grenheimer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Kolin, Bohemia, Austria.

R. H. K Rosa H. Knorr,

New York City.

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D.,

Managi.N(; Editor. New York City.

S. A. B Samuel Augustus Binion, M.D.,

New York City.

S . Ba Solomon Bamberger,

Strasburg, Germany.

S. Be Simon Bernfeld,

Berlin, Germany.

S. E Samuel Ehrenfeld, Ph.D.,

Prague, Bohemia. Austria.

S. Fr Siegmund Frankel, Ph.D.,

Profess((r of Semitic Philology, University of
Breslau, Germany.

S. Fy Siegmund Frey ,

Rabbi, ( hicago. 111.

S. K S. Kahn,

Rabbi, .N'imes, France.

S. Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.,

Professor, Normal College. Budapest, Hungary.

S. Le .S. Levy, M.A.,

Rabbi, London, England.

S. Lev S. Levene,

Brooklyn, N. Y.

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Wilmington. N. C.

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L.,

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Ohio.

S. Mdl S. Mandl, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Neutit,schm, Moravia, Austria.

S. Mu S. Miihsam, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Grutz, Styria. Austria.

S. P Samuel Poznanski, Ph.D.,

Hal)lii. Warsaw, Poland. Russia.

S. Po S. Posner,

Warsaw, Poland, Russia.



Vlll



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME VII



S. S Solomon Schechter, M. A., liitt.D.,

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theo-
logical Seminary of America, New York City.

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Mayence, Hesse, Germany.

S. Se Sigmund Seelig-mann,

Rabbi, Amsterdam, Holland.

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL..D.,

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Mass.

TJ. C TJmberto Cassuto,

Florence, Italy.

V. O Vittore Castiglioni,

Chief Rabbi, Rome, Italy.



v. E Victor Rousseau En^anuel,

Laurel, Md.

v. R Vasili Rosenthal,

Kremeuchug, Russia.

V. Ry Victor Ryssel, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and
Semitic Languages, University of Zurich,
Switzerland.

W. B W. Bacher, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda-
pest, Hungary.

"W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni-
versity of Strasburg, Germany.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME YII



N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated

under each heading.



America : see Jamaica ; Lancaster.

Amygdalon, Pool of: see Hezekiah, Pool of. page

Antonia, Tower of, Jerusalem 139

" Arba' Turim," Page from the First Edition of Jacob ben Asher's, Piove di Sacco, 1475 29

Archeology: see Coin; El-Amarna; Jehu; Lachish ; Seal; Tombs.

Arches, Street of, Jerusalem 155

Architecture: see Jachin; Job's Well; Synagogues; Tombs.

Ark of the Law and Perpetual Lamp of the Synagogue at Ramsgate, England 599

Entablature of the, of the Synagogue at Lancaster, Pa 605

Arms of Sir Otto Jaff e 61

of the Jews of Judenburg 374

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Coat op Arms; Costume; Kaufmann, Isidor; Ketubah;
Lamts, Perpetual; Lamps, Sabbath; Manuscripts; Typography.

Ashkenazic Synagogue, Jerusalem. After Schwarz, 1850 137

The Great, Jerusalem 188

Atonement, Day of, Kapparot Ceremony Before the 435

Bar Kokba, Obverse of a Coin of. Bearing a Laver 630

Basins and Ewers, Used for Washing of the Hands by Priests 630-633

Bir Ayyub or Job's Well, South of Jerusalem 202

Black Obelisk, Tribute of Jehu to Shalmaneser XL, as Depicted on .the 89

Boaz, Column of: see Jachin.

Cairo Genizah, Thirteenth-Century Manuscript of Kohelet Kabbah, from the 531

Catacombs, Plan of the, on the Mount of Olives, East of Jerusalem 147



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 7) → online text (page 1 of 168)