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HILLEL LIBRARIES

B'nai B'rilK Women's GranJ LoJge, DiBtricl No. 4



y




won CAREFUL USAGE OF THIS
BOOK ;2;iLL PRESERVE ITS
VALUE FDR THOSE \rHD

FDLLDu; you



IN HONOR OF

LUCILLE LOWE

DONATHI) in-

Mr. and Mrs. Roy Papermaster



THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



A DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OF



THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS-
TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD



Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post-

Btblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) .

GOTTHARD Deutsch, Ph.D. {Department
of History from 14^2 to igoi) .

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. (Department of
Rabbinical Literature) .

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of
History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of
Post ■ Talmudic Literature) .

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the
fews of England and Anthropology ; Revi-
sing Editor) .



Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. {Department of the Talmud).
Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. {Department of the Bible) .

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology

and Philosophy) .

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. {Chief of the
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor ) .

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern
Biography from IJ50 to Jgoi) .

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments of
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) .



ISIDORE SINGER. Ph.D.

Protector and Managing Editor

ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS

(see page v)



VOLUME IX

MORAWCZYK— PHILIPPSON



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.

N.Y. 2, N.Y.

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



LITERARY DIRECTORATE ^rl



EDITORIAL BOARD






CYRUS ABLER, Ph.D.

(Departments iif I'liM-IUlilUal AiUUiuitiia; the Jews of
America.)

>re8ldeDt of the American Jewish Historical So<'lety ; Librarian,
SuiitbsoDlan Institution, WushiURtou, D. ^.

GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D.

{Ihliniiiiii lit III Ilisliii fi I rniii i:,l>J III I'Ml.)

•rofessor of Jewish History, Hebrew I'nlon College, Cincinnati,
Uhlo ; Editor of " Deborah."

LOUIS GINZBERG, Ph.D.

(Department of Rahl>inical Literature.)
New York ; Author of " Die Haggada bel den Klrchenvatera."

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

Departments of HLftorufrnm Ezra to 1U9S ; History of Post-

TaJmudic Litci-nture.)

'rofessorof Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York;

Chief of the oriental Department, New York Public Library;

President of the Federation of American Zionists.

JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A.

Departments of the Jews of Enulaud and Anthropology;
licvising Editor.)

'onnerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ;
Author of " Jews of Anirevin England," etc.

MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D.

(Department of the Talmud.)
labbl Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; Author of " Dictionary of the Talmud."



MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D.

> iMpnilineia tij the liihh.)

Professor of SemUlc Languages and Librarian In the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig-
ion (if till' Haliylnnians and Ass)Tlans," etc.

KAUFMANN KOHLER, Ph.D.

(Departments of TheoU){jy and Philosophy.)

Rabbi of Temple Reth-El, New York ; President of the Board of

Jewish Ministers, New York.

FREDERICK DE SOLA MENDES, Ph.D.

(Chief of the Bureau of Truni'lation ; Uevising Editor.)

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York; Vice-President
of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.

ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

MAXA<ii.\(; Editor.
(Department of Modern Biimrnphu from 1750 to 1901.)

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D.

(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic

Literature.)

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.;

Author of "The Religion of Israel," "Judaism and

Christianity," etc.



AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D.,

flabbl of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Ueanof the Jewish
Theological Seminary, New York.

B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago; Author of "A
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."

GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Enianu-EI, New York.

EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.,

ilabbi of Chicago Slnal Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate."

HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D.,

3ead of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures.
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto,

Canada; Author of " History, Prophecy, and

the Monuments."



H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D.,

Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu-
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud."

GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass.; Author

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc.

DAVID PHILIPSON. D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel ; Professor of Homlletlcs.

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.

IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature. University of

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and

the Old Testament," etc.



IV



UTERARY DIRECTORATE



HERMAN ROSENTHAL,
Chief or the Rissian seltion ok the Jewish Encyclo-

fEOIA.

In cbartre ot Slavonic Depanment, New York Public Library.

JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D.,

PreaW^ci uf t.L.inl (."oiiffrvDic of Aiiiencau RubbU : Rabbi of
Temple Emanu-El, New York.



JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D.,

lUbbl of the Con(rrc(?auon Einanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.
fessor of Semitic Lanjfuages and Literatures, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal.

EDWARD J. WHEELER, M.A.,

Editor of " The Literary Digest," New York.



Pro-



FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.,

Coedttor of the ■■ Jfwisb guHit^rly Review"; Author of "Jew-

Uh Life In the .Middle AKe&." eic. : Senior Tutor

In Jews' College. Loudon. England.

W. BACHER, Ph.D.,

Profemor in tbe Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest,

Hungary.

M. BRANN, Ph.D.,
Proftu Bor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger-
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fiir GescUichte und
Wlssenschaft des Judeuthums."

H. BRODY, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia. .Ausiria ; Coedicor of "Zeltschrift fur
Hebr&iscbe Blbliographie."

ABRAHAM DANON,
Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople,

Turkey.

HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D.,

Profeaaor of Literary A ruble at the Special School of Oriental

Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute.

S. M. DU3N0W,

Author of " Istijriya Vev i>^vev," Ddessa, Russia.

MICHAEL FRIEDLANDER, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews' Collesre. London, England; Author of "The

Jewish Religion," etc

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D.,

ProfeBSorof s<-uiitlc Phllulogy, L'niversUy of Budapest, Hungary.

M. GUDEMANN, Ph.D.,

Chief Ilabbi of Vienna, Austria.

BARON DAVID GUNZBITRG,
St. Petersburg, Russia.

A. HARKAVY, Ph.D.,

Chief of the Hebrew Di-iiartment of ihe lm|)erlal Public Library,
St. Petersburg. Russia.

ZADOC KAHN,

Chief Rabbi of France; Honorary President of the Alliance

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion

of Honor, Paris. France.

M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Budat>e8t, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the

Royal Aca<leniy of Hiirtory, Madrid, Spain.

MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D.,

ProfeMor Emeritus of Psycholxgy, Lnlversliy of Berlin; Meran,

Austria.



ANATOLE LEROY-BEAXTLIETT,

Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free Scbool

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of

" Israel Chez les Nations."

ISRAEL LEVI,

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of
■' Revue des Etudes Julves," Paris, France.

EUDE LOLLI, D.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University,
Padua, Italy.

IMMANUEL LOW, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Szeged in, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen

Pflanzennamen."

S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Jewish Theologicjil Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of
Florence, Italy.

H. OORT, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State
University, Leydeu, Holland.

ABBE PIETRO PERREATJ,

Formerly Librarian of tbe Reale Biblloteca Palatina, Parma,

Italy.

MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and

Brussels ; President of the Deutsch-Jiidlsche

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.

SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D.,

Raljbi in Warsaw, Russia.

SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, University College, Li>ndon, England;

Reader In Rabbinic. University of Cambridge:

Author of "Studies In Judaism."

E. SCHWARZFELD, Ph.D.,

Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paria,

France.

LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor
of " Archlv fur Geschichte der Phllosophle," etc.

HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages,
University of Berlin, Germany.

CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D.,

Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. England ; Editor of
"Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.



44



COIs^TRIBUTORS TO VOLUME IX



Jl^ CyruB Adler, Ph.D.,

President of the Aiiierioan Jewish Historical
Society ; President of the Board of Directors
of the Jewish TheolOKicftl Seminary of Amer-
ica; Librarian of the Smithsonian institution,
Washington. D. C.

A. Be A. Beck, M.D.,

LemberK. (ialicia, Austria.

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Realschule. Fiirth, Bavaria,
Germany.

A. O Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Baltimore, Md.

A. Qu Abraham Galante,

Editor of "La Bueiia Esperanza," Smyrna,
Asia Minor.

A. H. C A. Hyman Charlap,

New York City.

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Prague, Bohemia, Austria.

A. L Alfred I.6vy,

Chief Rabbi, Lyons. France.

A. Lew Abraham Lewinsky, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Hildeshelm. Hanover. Germany.

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenbergr, B.S., LL.B.,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

Formerly Associate Editor of " The Forum."
New York ; Hevlsing Editor "Standard Cyclo-
pedia," New York City.

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D.,

New York City.

A. R A. Rhine,

Rabbi, Hot Springs, Ark.

A. S Abram Simon,

Omaha, Neb.

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D.,

I'rofessor of German Literature, University
of the City of New York, New York City ;
Rabbi, Paterson, N. J.

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B.A.,

New York City.

A. S. W. R.A. S. W. Bosenbach,
Philadelphia, Pa.

A. V. W. J.. A. V.W.Jackson, Ph.D., Litt.D.,LL.D.,

Professor of Indo-Iraniaii Languages, Colum-
bia University. New York City.

B. Fr B. Friedbergr,

Frdnkfort-<jn-the-Main, Germany.

B. M Budgett Meakin,

London, England ; Author of ' '"'he Moorish
Empire."

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D. , D.D. ,

Formerly Pastor of St. John's Lutheran
Church, Albany, N. Y. ; New York City.

B. V B. Vajda,

Rabbi, Bela Losoncz, Hungary.

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A.,

Instructor In Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic,
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

O. L. S Cyrus L, Sulzberger,

President of the Jewish Agricultural and In-
dustrial Aid Society, New York City.



D Qotthard Deutsoh, Ph.D.,

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew UdIob
College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

D. I. F D. I. Freedman, B. A.,

Rabbi, Perth, Western Australia.

D. 3«[. H D. M. Hermalin,

Formerly editor of the "Jewish World," New
York ; Brooklyn. N. Y.

D. P David Philipson, D.D.,

Rabbi. B'ne Israel Congregation ; Professor of
Homlletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin-
nati, Ohio.

D. S. Co D. S. Cohen,

Counselor at Law, Portland. Ore.

D. s. M David Samuel Margoliouth,

Luudlan Professor of Arabic, University of
Oxford, England.

D. Su David Sulzberger,

Philadelphia, Pa.

E. A Edouard Andr^,

Paris. France.

E. A. C E. A. Cardozo,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

E. G Executive Committee of the Editorial

Board.

E. a. H Emiia. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation ; Professor of Rab-
binical Literature and Philosophy, University
of Chicago ; Chicago, 111.

E. Ms Edgar Mels,

New York City.

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Nagy-Kanisza. Hungary.

E. N. C Edward N. Calisch, B.C., M.A.,

Rabbi, Richmond, Va.

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis,

New York City.

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D.,

Rabbi. Eiiiumi-El Congregation, Chicago, III.

E. SI E. Slijper,

Rabbi, Amsterdam, Holland.

F. B F. Blum, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, MiJblhausen, Alsace-Lorraine. Ger-
many.

F. C Frank Cramer, B. So.,

New Yoi-k City.

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A.,

Associate Editor of the "Columbian Cyclo-
pedia " and of the Standarii dictioxary ;
New York City.

F. L. C Francis L. Cohen,

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

F. N. L Florence N. Levy,

New York City.

F. S. W Franklin S. Wilson, M.A.,

New York City.

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D,,

Brtwklyn, N. Y.

a Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia
University. New Y'ork ; Chief of the Oriental
Department. New York Public Library ; New
York City.



roNTRIBUTCRS TO VOLUME IX-



Ow>rv« A B*i-:ou Ph D.



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lU? Inl-



I«r*«l X>«Tid»on, Ph.D.,

I- . . n Ph D..



Ooldxlh«r, Ph.D..

•- • ' - ■ • '■' I'try. luiverelty (if



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Ph.D..
ibp-Mun, Oeru



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- ^' . LL.D.,

.aK>-> Hiiil l.iu-ra-
;> ».' t.:..4.^«v*. Ctilcasu, III.



U.A.,



J. rri
J. G. L

J. H.
J. H. O
J. H K.
J. Hy ..

J. Jr.

J. K.
J. Ka ..

J. Leu .
J. L. M
J. Ra.
J. So. .. .



J. S. R..

J. Wi ..
J. Wo. .
J. Z. li..
K



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Hunirmrjr. L. E. L.

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.... Muaeum. Wasljin^on. ; L. Q



L. B



L. G. L.
L. Or...
L. Grii..



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orpbaw' Court of AJIcffbtrny
iHirs. I'M.



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L. H. G

L. Hii..

L. N. D.

L. V

II. C

K. Co...



J. Friedmann, Ph.D.,

Habbi. drat/, I'ost-n. Genuaay.

J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.,

Assistant .\jrruiilturist. New Jersey State Ex-
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

J. Hessen,

(\>uii><l"r at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Julius H. Greenstone,

Rabbi, rbiladelpliia. Pa.

Jacob H. Kaplan,

itabbi. .\lbuquerque. New Mexlca.

J. Hyams,

Bonibay. India.
Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.,

I'n.fessor of Semitic l.anK'iiapes, Uulverslty of
Tcnnsylvania. Philatielpliia, Pa.

Joseph Krauskopf, Ph.D.,

Uubbi, I>n\i.-stown, Pa.

Jacques Kahn,
Kablii. Paris, FYance.

Joseph Leucht,
.Newark, iN. J.

J. L. Magnus, Ph.D.,
Itai't>i. Ilrooklyn, N. Y.

Julius Rappoport, Ph.D.,

Kal)bi. t Imago, 111.
Joseph Sohn,

tontrilmt'ir to "The New International En-
cyclopedia " ; New York City.

J. S. Raisin,

Uabbi. (Jciiiilut Chesed Congregation, Fort
(iibson. Miss.

. .J. Wiener,

Teaclicr. Pfalzburg, Alsace, Germany.
Josef Wohlstein, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, .Malmo, Sweden.

.J. Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D. {Office Edilnr),
Habbi. New Y(irk City.

..Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.,

Itabbi F.meritus df 'IVmple Beth-El, New
York ; Pn'sident of the Hebrew Union Col-
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio.

..Ludwig' Blau, Ph.D.,

Pnifes-sor. Jewish Thei)lopical Seminary: Edi-
tor of "Magyar Zsid<')-Szemle," Budapest,
Hungary.
Leo Back, Ph.D.,

Uabbi. oppeln, Silesia, Germany.

Louis E. Levy,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Louis Ginzber?, Ph.D.,

I'lufcs-SMi- (if Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem-
inary of America, New ■\()rk City: author of
" Die Haggada hei den Kirchenvatern," etc.
.Louis Germain Levy,
Uubbi, I)ij(in, France.

..Louis Grossman, D.D.,

Uabbi, Ciiicliinati, uhio.

..Lazarus Griinhut,

Dircctiir, <irphan Asylum, Jerusalem, Pales-
tine.

. Louis H. Gray, Ph.D.,

A?^i>tHnl Kditor<if the " Orientalische Blbllo-
graphle"; formerly on the editorial staff of
'The New International Encyclopedia";
.Scwiirk. N. J.

L. Hiihner, A.M., LL.B.,

Counsi'Icir at Law, New York City.

..Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L.,

Counw'liir at Law. Limisville, Ky.
. Ludwijr Venetianer, Ph.D.,

Uabbi. I Jpcst, Hungary.
. M. Caimi,

< iiifu, (ireece.
.Max Cohen,

Counselor at Law, Y'onkera, N. Y.



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME IX



JH. £i Mathias Eisler, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Klausfiil)iir(r. Hungary.

M. Fi Maurice Fishberg, M.D.,

StirKW)n to tlit; Helli Israel Hospital Dispen-
sary; Medical Examiner to the United He-
brew Charities, New York City.

M. Fr M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israelite Unlverselle
School, Demotlka, Runielia, Turkey.

M. Gar M. QarsBOu,

Now York City.

M. Qr M. Grunwald, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Vienna. Austria.

M. H. H M. H. Harris, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Temple Israel, Harlem, New York City.
M. J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.B.,

Counselor at Law ; Corresponding Secretary
of the American Jewish Historical Society,
New York City.

M. K Meyer Kayserlingr, Ph.D. ,

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary; author of "Ge-
schichte der Juden in Portugal."

M. L.an Max Landsberg, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Rochester, N. Y.

M. Ii. B Moses Lob Bambergrer, Ph.D.,

Uabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi-
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany.

M. P Miksa Pollak, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Oedenburg, Hungary.

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D.,

Visiting Physician, (ierman Dispensary, New
York City.

M. Ra Max Raisin,

Rabbi, Portsmouth, Ohio.
M. S Moise Schwab, Ph.D.,

Librarian of the Hebrew Department at the

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France.
M. Sc Max Schloessingrer, Ph.D.,

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis,

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.
M. Sel Max Seligsohn {Office Editor),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France;

New York City.

M. Su Mayer Sulzberger, LL.D.,

President Judge of the Court of Common Plea,s,
District of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pa.

M. W. M. . . .Mary W. Montg-omery, Ph.D.,

New York City.

M. W. R M. W. Rapoport,

Lemberg, Galicia, Austria.
N. D Newell Dunbar,

Newark, N. J.
N. E. B. E. N. E. B. Ezra,

Shanghai, China.
N. SI N. Slouschz,

Doctor of the University of Paris; Lecturer

on Neo- Hebraic Literature, University of

Paris, France.

N. T. L N. T. London,

New York City.
P. B Philipp Bloch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Posen, Germany.
P. Wi Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.



S Isidore Singer, Ph.D.,

Masai. i.sii KiiiTOR. New York City.
S. D Simon Debr^,

Pans, Knuice.
S- J S. Janovsky,

( <iuiiMl..r lit ijiw. gt. Pe(«nburK, Rii«U.
S- J. L S. J. Levinaon,

Hrai.klyo, N. Y.
S. K S.Kahn,

Uuldil, .Nimeg. Fmnce.
S- Kr Samuel Krauaa, Ph.D.,

I 'n. feasor. N'lniiiiK .,||.-K.-. Hudarx-Bl^Huniniry.
S- M 8. Mendelsohn, Ph.D. ,

Ualibl. Wllinlngton, N. C.
S- Man 8. Mannheimer, B.L.,

Intitructor. Hebrew UdIod Colleee, aDclnnmU.

Ohio.

S. Mdl 8. Mandl, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Neiiiit.Kchln. Moravia. Au»li1*.
S. O Schulim Ochaer, Ph.D ,

New York City.
S. Pe S. Penn,

tiflessu, Rus.sia.
S. de R Seymour de Ricci,

Paris, Kranre.

S. S Solomon Schechter, M. A., Litt I>

President of the Ka<uliy of the Ji

logical Seminary nf America, New i. i» i nj.
S. Sa Sig-ismund Salfeld, Ph.D.,

Uablii, Mayenre, Ili-s.>.<'. Germany.
S. S. W Stephen S. Wise, Ph.D..

Itahbi, Portland, ore.
S. We Samuel Wessel,

Uiibbi, sunijevo. Bosnia. Austria.
T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.,

Prufessdr (if Helirew, Harvard InlMTsity,

Cambridge. Ma.vs.

T. K Theodor Kroner, Ph.D.,

Uabhi. Stuttgart. Wurttemberjj. G<-r

T. R The'odore Reinach,

Docteur <"-< Lettnis ; formerly Prealdont of tbe
Socieit- des Etu(K's Julves ; Part*. France.

T. Se Thomas Seltzer,

Philadelphia, Pa.

U. C Umberto Cassuto,

Eilitor of " Ui RIvlsta Israclitlra," Floreooe,
Italy.

v. C Vittore Castifirlione,

( hief Rabhj. Rnme. Italy.

"V. E Victor Rousseau Emanuel,

Laurel. .v|d.

W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.,

I'nifessor. Jewish Theolo^cal Seminary. Buda-
pest. Hungan'.

W. M. M....W. Max Miiller, Ph.D..

I'nifessiir'if IlibleF.xegi-jiLs, li> '
pal Theological .•^emlnury. Phi ^

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D..

Profes-snr of iild Tcstameiil i I'nJ-

versity of Straaburg. Germany.

W. P William Popper, M.A., Ph.D.,

(iustav (iiittheil l>vturer In .'v>mlt»r Lan-
guages, Columbia University. .Vew York Cliy.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN A'OLUMK IX



N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated
under each heading. Cross-references in this list are to other items in the list, not to articles in
the Encyclopedia.



I-Ai.E

Agrippa I., Bronze Coin of Fig. 17 of plate beitDeen S.'H-a.'.r,

Alexander JanniBus, Bronze Coin of Figs. 1 1 and 12 ofplnU betitcen SM-S-Vi

Almemar of a Dutch Synagogue of the Eighteenth Century 2Tu

of the Synagogue at Padua i -<t

of Temple Shearith Israel, New York

America: see National Farm School; New Orleans; New York; Newport; Pbiladelimua.

Amulet : Cabalistic Charm Against Scorpions Used by Moroccan Jews S4

Antipas, Herod, Bronze Coin of Fig. 18 of plate betieeen SM-SS.")

Archelaus, Herod, Bronze Coin of Fig. 16 of plate bettcun 354-365

Archeology: see Musicians ; Nippur; Numismatics.

Architecture: see New Orleans; New York; Nikolsburg; Philadelphia; Stnaoogues.

Aristobulus I., Bronze Coin of Fig. 10 nf plate betiteen 354-355

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Manuscripts; Oppenheim, Moritz Daniel; Passover;
Periodicals ; Typography.

" ' Aruk," Page from the First Edition of the, Rome (?), Before 1480 181

Autograph of Moses ben Maimon 78

Bar Kokba, Coins of Figs. 24-26 ofplatt betitetn a>4-355

Basel, Page from the Munster Edition of the Hebrew Bible, Printed in 1534 at 113

Berber Jews from the Atlas Mountains 23

Bible, Hebrew, Page from the Munster Edition of the, Basel, 1534 113

Page from Stephanus Edition of the, Paris, 1543 ■'^'^

see also Numbers.

"Birkat Kohanim," Music of 132

Brooklyn, New York, Beth Talmud Torah ' '

Hebrew Orphan Asylum - •'

Part of Cemetery of Temple Emanu-El, Cypress Hills 286

i^art of Washington Cemetery 288

Cemeteries: see Nagasaki; New York; Newport; Nikolsburg.

Ceremonial: see Confirmation; Lag be-'Omer; New Moon; New- Year; *0mer Tables; SABiiATn
Blessing.

Charm, Cabalistic, Against Scorpions Used bj- Moroccan Jews -••

Coins Current in Palestine (c. 500 B.C.-135 c.E.) P''^'' 'x''"'''^': 3.''.l-3:>5

" Confirmation." From a painting by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim ^^^

Costume of Berber Jews from the Atlas Mountains

257

of Dutch Jews, circa 1725

of Jewish Merchants at Odessa, 1862

of Moroccan Jewesses "

of Nuremberg Jews, Eighteenth Century



«' Dalalat al-Ha'irin," Holograph (?) Draft of the, of Mairaonides



!•>



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME IX



PAGE



Ec gland : *ir' H.

«,_- . I. ./,..., .i,..«^r,iV -Rome (t). Before 1480 ^'^

• Rome (r). Before 1480 '»

- .g." Rome (?>. Before 14% 69

0*r!n»ny v , \[ moh ; NlKOl>BfRO; NlREMBERG.

•■' I... ^i...;.,n -Advenlui Aug(u8ti) ludaeae" Fig. 23 of plate between 354-355

Fig. 15 of plate between 354-355

BK; PuiLADEU'm.\. ^ , „^^ ^^^

, ,. r'^t^ ^f Y'\s. ^ of plate between ^bir-^ob

HjfixAiu. Juiuj. l>.v.i.ic Cotnol * •'^

IncuMbuU: *c«Li»iu>}(: Rome. 127-129

leUuii. Muck of

Italj : tee Padca ; PebaRO.

-. I K 1

anoldprint ^^0

I^ for. From a drawing by Picart, 1735 549

V. ..lides" Commentary on the Peutateucb, Printed in 1489 at 89

.(rript : I^tUr of Wasliinirton to the Jews of Newport plate between 294-295

Dutch : "f New York City Relating to the Jews, Dated Sept 7, 1654. . 261

'- '-■ ;it al-I.Ia'irin " of Maimonides 75

XiuubiTS 347

l; ., in Hebrew Characters 647

. of the " Mordekai " 11

- A liere Jews Reside 29

. 'iig tlie Synagogue 259

iig Buildings of Jewish Interest folder between 258-259

■ 'T • ., 483, 486, 487, 489, 491, 496, and i?Voni!e«j9iVc«

y. ... 1 ...McentliCentury Manuscript of the ".Mordekai" 11



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