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many instances that it is difficult, if not impossible, for one to decide
whether a miniature glacier sheltered in the encircling arms of a mountain
crest, is the beginning of a new ice extension or the remnant of a glacial
epoch that has nearly passed away. The depth and character of the
amphitheatre in which the snow and ice lie, and the shape and sculptur-
ing of the valley leading from it, may furnish proof of a former period of
intense glaciation. But whether in many instances the glacier that did
the work was completely melted and a new period of ice extension initi-
ated, or whether a remnant of the dying glacier still remains, I know of
no test by which to decide.

Throughout the growth and decadence of the glacier we have been
watching, it has been apparent that even the grandest results have been
attained by slow, and as they ordinarily appear to us, imperceptible
changes. More than this, the climatic variations made manifest by the
behavior of a glacier do not go on continuously in one direction for long
periods, but are accomplished by irregular pulsations. There have been
great cycles favoring growth or decline, and within these there have been
minor periods during which the changes in progress were retarded and
even reversed ; but the resultant of several minor periods coincided with
the general change in progress.

It is safe to say that the main features in the life histories of even the
greatest piedmont and continental glaciers are similar to those presented
by a single ice stream of the alpine type. Even the coming and going of
glacial periods are so far as one can judge in obedience to similar laws.
The records left by Pleistocene ice sheets show that they underwent many
fluctuations, some of which were so pronounced that they are usually con-
sidered as independent periods. One of these pulsations embraced a far
greater lapse of time than the entire life history of a glacier such as has
just been traced.

A wonderful vista is unfolded when one attempts to include in a
single mental picture the transformations that accompany a climatic revo-
lution so vast that a continent became buried beneath thousands of feet of
ice, and on retiring left a soil in which the most advanced civilization
known to history took root. Surely such a theme is worthy of being
interpreted in a great poem, beside which the vision of a Dante or a Milton
would be lacking in interest.



206 GLACIERS OF NORTH AMERICA.



CONCLUDING NOTE.

In preceding chapters I have attempted to present a review of what
is known concerning the existing glaciers of North America, and have
indicated in many instances where more detailed information in refer-
ence to special regions and to individual glaciers may be found. I have
also ventured to point out in some cases the direction in which new
explorations in this fascinating field can be most profitably undertaken.
In the chapter just concluded an attempt was made to present in one view
an outline of the life history of a single alpine glacier. A continuation
of the studies here begun would naturally lead to a review of the records
left by extinct glaciers, since in this, as in many other departments of
geology and physiography, "the present is the key to the past"; but as
our fireside journey over mountains and across ice fields has been long and
arduous, I will, for the present, part company with the reader here.

For the benefit of the student who may desire to continue the course
of reading to which this book is intended as an introduction, I would
suggest the numerous memoirs on surface geology contained in the annual
reports of the United States Geological Survey and in The Journal of
Geology, published at the University of Chicago.



Il^DEX.



Abrasion of glaciers, described, 18-21.

Advance glacier, 136.

Advance of Malaspina glacier, 127.

Agassiz, L., Views of, on glacial motion, 144.

Agassiz glacier, 110.

Alaska, Retreat of glaciers in, 150-156.

Glaciers of, 74-129.
Alaskan peninsula, Glaciers of, 108, 109.
Aleutian islands, Glaciers of, 108, 109.
Allen, H. T., Journey of, in Alaska, 105.
Alluvial cones, Malaspina glacier, 125, 126.
Alpine glacier, Term denned, 2.
glaciers of Alaska, 96-104.
Auk glacier, 104.

Baker, Mt., Glaciers of, 69, 70.

Baldwin, S. P., Observations on Muir glacier

by, 82.

Belcher, Sir Edward, Voyage of, 75.
Bell, W. H., Cited on glaciers of Stikine

river, 75.

Bergschrund, Description of, 9.
Bering glaciers, Alaska, Mention of, 96.
Blake, W. P., Cited on glaciers of Stikine

river, 75.

Bowdoin glacier, Rate of flow of, 144.
Brewer, H. W., Cited on Sierra Nevada

glaciers, 43.

Brainard, 0. L., Explorations by, 132.
British Columbia, Retreat of glaciers in, 149.
Bulam glacier, 61.

California, Evidence of retreat of glaciers

in, 148.
Geological survey of, in the High Sierra,

61, 52.

- Northern, Glaciers of, 55-62.
Canada, Glaciers of, 71-73.
Cantwell, J. C., Explorations by, 128.
Chaney, L. W., Jr., Cited on glaciers in

Montana, 33.



Chapin, F. H., Cited on glaciers in Colorado,

33.

Chaix hills, Alaska, Lakes near, 118-121.
Cirques, Mention of, 10.
Chamberlin, T. C. , Cited on the cause of

glacial motion, 183-185.

Cited on rock scorings, 21.

Explanation of glacial motion by, 170-

172.

Observations by, 132.

Observations by, in Greenland, 142.

Reference to writings of, 135.

"Chinese Wall," Grinnell land, 132.
Climatic changes shown by glaciers, 146-159.
Colman, E. T., Cited on glaciers of Mt. Baker,

69, 70.

Continental glacier, Term defined, 2.
Cordilleran region, Briefly described, 32.
Cowlitz glacier, 64.
Crevasses, Formation of, 7-10.

General description of, 7, 8.

in the glaciers of the High Sierra, 42.
Croll, J., Cited on the flow of glaciers, 179-181.

Reference to works of, 163.

References to the writings of, 181.

Cushing, H. P., References to writings of, 87.

Ball, W. H., Fossils identified by, 127.

Dana, Mt., Height of, and glacier on, 39, 40.

Davidson, George, Cited in reference to gla-
ciers of Mt. Rainier, 62.

Glacier named in honor of, 102-104.

Davidson glacier, Alaska, 102^104.

Mention of, 3.

Davis, W. M., Reference to writings of, 163.

Dawson, G. M. , Cited on retreat of glaciers,
149.

Cited on Vancouver system, 32.

Debris, Influence of, on movements of glaciers,
25-28, 158, 188.

Deeley, R. M., Cited on grain of ice, 175.



208



INDEX.



Deeley, R. M., Reference to writings of, 185.

"Devil's slides," 50.

" De Saussure's Theory," Brief statement of,

163.

Disrupted gouges, Mention of, 21.
Dilatation hypothesis of glacial motion, 164.
Diller, J. S., Cited on glaciers of Cascade

region, 70.

Cited on glaciers of Mt. Shasta, 56, 60,

61, 62.

Dirt bands on Sierra Nevada glaciers, 43.
Disenchantment bay, Alaska, Glaciers of,

92-95.

- Retreat of glaciers of, 151-153.
Drainage of Malaspina glacier, 121-123.
Driftless area, Alaska, 107.

Greenland, 134, 145.
Drumlins, described, 24-28.
Dundas bay, Alaska, Glaciers of, 91.
Dust on glaciers, Mention of, 5.

Eagle glacier, 104.

Eclectic hypothesis of glacial motion, 186-189.
Eminons, S. F., Cited on glaciers of Mt.
Rainier, 63-66.

Fletcher, G., Cited on grain of ice, 175.

Fish on Malaspina glacier, 14.

Forest beneath Muir glacier, 86, 87.

beneath gravel, Malaspina glacier, 125-

126.

on moraines of Malaspina glacier, 117.

Forbes, J. D., Cited on glacial motion, 165,

166.
Fossils from margin of Malaspina glacier,

127.

Gardner, T. C., Cited on ice blades, 51.
Geikie, J., Reference to writings of, 135.
Geological Survey of California, Work of, in

the High Sierra, 51, 52.
Gilbert, G. K., Visit of, to Mt. Lyell, 38, '48.
Glacial and ocean records, 126.
Glacier bay, Alaska, Glaciers on west side of,

91, 92.

Retreat of glaciers of, 150, 151.

Glacier garden, Switzerland, 14.
Glacier tables, Account of, 11.

on Parker Creek glacier, California, 44.

Glave, E. J., Glaciers seen by, in Alaska, 105.
Grain of glacial ice, 6, 103, 188.
Granular change in glaciers, 183.



Greely, A. W., Explorations by, 131, 132.
Green, W. S., Cited on the glaciers of Selkirk

mountains, Canada, 71, 72.
Greenland, Advance and retreat of glaciers

of, 155, 156.

Glaciers of, 133-159.

region, Glaciers of, 35, 36, 131-159.

Groton, Mass., Drumlins near, 24, 25.
Guyot glacier, 101, 110.

Haenke island, Alaska, View from, 92, 93.
Hague, Arnold, Cited on the glaciers of Mt.

Hood, 68, 69.
Hayes, C. W., Cited on glaciers of Alaska,

76, 105, 106.
Cited on retreat of Alaskan glaciers,

153-159.

Journey of, in Alaska, 105.

Healy, M. A., Reference to writings of, 128.
Heim, A., Cited on grain of ice, 175.
Henrietta Nesmith glacier, Grinnell land, 132.
High Sierra, California, Description of, 37, 38.

General characters of, 33, 34.

Hood, Mt., Glaciers of, 67-69.

Hopkins, W., Investigations by, 163, 164.

Hotlum glacier, 61.

Hubbard glacier, Alaska, Brief account of,

92-94.
Humboldt glacier, Greenland, Brief account

of, 134, 135.

Hutli glacier, Alaska, Reference to, 78.
Hypotheses of glacial motion, 160-189. .

Icebergs, Origin of, Discussed, 83-86.
Ice pyramids on Mt. Lyell glacier, 45, 46.
Ice tongues of Sierra Nevada glaciers, 47, 48.
Icy cape, Alaska, Brief account of, 95, 96.
Icy strait, Former extent of ice in, 90.
Illecellewaet glacier, Brief description of, 72.

Johnson, W. D., Observations of, in Califor-
nia, 38, 39.
Juneau glacier, 104.

Kane, Cited on Humboldt glacier, 135, 136.
Kautz, A. V., Ascent of Mt. Rainier by, 62.
Kidd, D. A., Experiments by, 167.
King, C., Cited, 52.

Cited on glaciers of Mt. Shasta, 55-58.

Klocke, Fr., Observations by, 162.
Klutlan glacier, 105.
Recession of, 153.



INDEX.



209



Koch, R. H., Observations by, 162.
Kon wakiton glacier, . 60.
Kotzebue sound, Ice cliffs of, 128.

Lake Castani, Alaska, Brief account of, 121.
Lakes, Marginal, of Malaspina glacier, 118-
121.

on Malaspina glacier, 115, 116.

Le Conte, J., Cited on " ice blades " of Sierra
Nevada glaciers, 42.

Explorations by, in the High Sierra,

50, 51.

Lemon Creek glacier, 104.
Lenticular hills, see Drumlins.
Libbey , Jr. , W. , Cited on Alaskan glaciers, 76.
Life history of a glacier, 189-205.
Lockwood, Cited on glaciers of N. Greenland,

138.

Explorations by, 132.

Loess, Mention of, 16.

Logan, Mt., Height of, 74.

Lyell, Mt., California, Glaciers on, 40, 41.

- Height of, 40.

Lynn canal, Alaska, Glaciers of, 101-104.
Retreat of glaciers on, 150.

Malaspina glacier, Description of, 109-127.

- Mention of, 3.

Mention of tunnels in, 15.

Moraines on, 12.

- Recession of, 151, 152.
Malaspina's expedition, Reference to, 92.
Mammillary hills, see Drumlins.
Marginal lakes of Malaspina glacier, 118-121.
Mathews, W., Views on glacial motion, 169.
McConnel, J. C., Experiments by, 167.
McConnel, R. G., Cited on retreat of glaciers,

149.

McClure, Mt., California, Height of, 40.
Mexico, Height of peaks in, 33.
Mer de Glace, A type of alpine glaciers, 1.
Mer de Glace Agassiz, Grinnell land, 132.
Miles glacier, Recession of, 153.
Molecular motion in glaciers, 179-183.
Moraines, Characteristics of, 12.
decribed, 22-24.

Ideal sketch of, 7.

of Malaspina glacier, 113-118.
of Sierra Nevada glaciers, 46.

- Varieties of, 6, 7.

Moseley, H. , Cited on movements of glaciers,
176.



Moseley, H., Experiments by, 169.
Movements of glaciers, Explanations of, 160-

189.

Mt. Dana glacier, Description of, 35-40.
Mt. Lyell glacier, Description of, 40, 41.
Mtigge, O., Experiments by, 167, 168.
Muir, John, Cited on Alaskan glaciers, 76.
Cited on glaciers of Glacier bay, 91.

Discovery of Muir glacier by, 80.

Explorations of, in the High Sierra,

49, 50.

Muir glacier, Alaska, Description of r 80-91.
Recent recession of, 150, 151.

Nansen, F. , Explorations of the inland ice of
Greenland, 140, 141.

Reference to writings of, 135.

Nave's, Characteristics of, 4, 5.

of glaciers in the Sierra Nevada, Colo-
rado, 42.

Newberry, J. S., Reference to observation by,
70.

Nisqually glacier, Mt. Rainier, 64.

Nordenskiold, Baron, Explorations by, in
Greenland, 139, 140.

Norris glacier, Alaska, Reference to, 78.

North America, General distribution of gla-
ciers, 32-36.

Nunatak, Meaning of the term, 133.

Nunatak glacier, Alaska, Brief account of,
92-94.

Nunataks of Greenland, 133.

Oregon, Evidence of retreat of glaciers in,

149.
Osars, described, 28, 29.

of Malaspina glacier, 123-125.

Osier island, Alaska, View from, 95.

Parker Creek glacier, California, Description

of, 41, 43, 44.
Pacific glacier, Alaska, 91.
Peary, R. E., Journeys in Greenland, 140.

Cited on flow of Bowdoin glacier, 144.

Cited on glaciers of Greenland, 135.

Explorations by, 133, 135.
Piedmont glaciers, Description of, 109-127.

Term defined, 2.

Plasticity hypothesis of glacial motion, 165.
Pleistocene glaciers of the Sierra Nevada,

52-54.
Pot-holes, Origin of, 14.



210



INDEX.



Rainier, Mt., Washington, Glaciers of, 62-67.

Recent ascents of, 67.

Recession of Muir glacier, 90, 91.

Red snow of Sierra Nevada glaciers, 48.

Regelation hypothesis of glacial flow, 172-176.

Reid, H. F., Cited on Alaskan glaciers, 76.

Cited on origin of icebergs, 85, 86.

Cited on variations of glaciers, 156.

Observations on Muir glacier by, 81.

References to writings of, 87, 91.

Rhone glacier, Mention of, 3.

Richter, Cited on variations of glaciers, 153.

"Ribbon structure" in Sierra Nevada gla-
ciers, 42.

Rink, H. , Reference to writings of, 135.

Russell, I. C., Papers on Alaskan glaciers
by, 76.

References to writings of, 87.

Russell glacier, Alaska, 106.

Recession of, 153.

St. Elias, Mt. , Height of, 74.

View from, 97, 98.

St. Elias region, Alaska, Retreat of glaciers
of, 151, 152.

Salisbury, R. D., Visit of, to Greenland, 145.

Sand cones, Brief account of, 13.
- Origin of, 13.

Sand plains, described, 29.

Schwatka, F., Journey of, in Alaska, 105.

Sediments of glaciers, Definition of term, 28.

Selkirk mountains, Glaciers of, 71, 72.

Selwyn, A. R. C., Cited on Vancouver sys-
tem, 32.

Seton-Karr, H. W., Cited on glaciers of
Alaska, 76.

Seward glacier, Alaska, 98-101.

Shaler, N. S. , Reference to writings of, 163.

Shasta, Mt., California, Glaciers of, 55-62.

Sierra Nevada, California, Description of gla-
ciers of, 37-54.

Sita-da-ka glacier, Alaska, see Muir glacier.

Sliding hypothesis of glacial motion, 163.

Smith, E. C., Ascent of Mt. Rainier by, 67.

Snow-line, Definition of, 5.

Striae, Direction of, 20.

Striated surfaces not due to glaciers, 19, 20.

Subsoil ice of Alaska, 127-130.

Surface features of glaciers, 11.

Tacoma, Mt. , Glaciers of, 63-67.

Taku glacier, Alaska, Description of, 78-80.



Taya inlet, Alaska, Glaciers of, 102.
Thompson, G., Cited on glaciers of Mt.

Shasta, 58-62.

Thompson, J., Experiments by, 178.
Thompson, W., Cited on glacial motion, 178.
Tide-water glaciers, Description of, 77-96.
Till, described, 24.
Topham, H. W., Cited on Alaskan glaciers,

76.

Topographic changes made by glaciers, 30, 31.
Tyndall, J., Cited on glacial motion, 165, 166.

Cited on regelation hypothesis, 173.

Tundras of Alaska, Brief account of, 129, 130.
Tunnels in glaciers, Brief account of, 15.
Turner, J. H. , Glacier named in honor of, 93.
Turner glacier, Alaska, Brief account of,

92-94.

Unglaciated region in Alaska, 107, 108.

Greenland, 134, 145.

Upham, Warren, Cited on Drumlins, 25.

Cited on Greenland glaciers, 155.

Reference to writings of, 135.

Vancouver, Observations of, in Icy strait,

90, 91.

Vancouver system, Mention of, 32.
Variations in glaciers, How to observe, 156.
Theoretical consideration of, 156-159.
Volcanic dust on Alaskan glaciers, 159.

Washington. Evidence of retreat of glaciers

in, 149.

What is a glacier ? 16-18.
White River glacier, Alaska, 106.

Oregon, 68.

Washington, 65.

Whitney, J. D., Cited on absence of glaciers

in the Sierra Nevada, 51, 52.
Whitney glacier, California, 56.
Whitney, Mt., California, Height of, 37.
Williams, W., Cited on Alaskan glaciers, 76.
Wintun glacier, 60, 62.
Wood, A., Ascent of Mt. Hood by, 67, 68.
Woodward, R. S., Computations by, 130.
Wright, G. F., Cited on glaciers of Alaska, 76.
Observations on Muir glacier by, 80,

81.
Reference to writings of, 37, 135.

Yakutat bay, Glaciers of, 93.
Yukon river, Work of ice in, 19.



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