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Such is the judgment of an authoritative German hand-book on the
writer to whom, in Merriman's opinion, "we owe all that we really
know at the present moment about the New Testament," as though
the Christian thought and life of eighteen hundred years had pro-
duced no knowledge on that subject !

In fact, Mrs. Ward's comparison seems to me to point in exactly the
opposite direction :

I say to myself (says her spokesman, p. 466) it has taken some thirty years for German critical
science to conquer English opinion in the matter of the Old Testament. . . . How much longer
will it take beiore we feel the victory of the same science . . . with regard to the history of Chris-
tian origins ?

Remembering that the main movement of New Testament criticism
in Germany dates not thirty, but more than fifty years back, and that
thirty years ago Baur's school enjoyed the same applause in Germany
as that of Wellhausen does now, does it not seem more in conformity
with experience and with probability to anticipate that, as the Ger-
mans themselves, with longer experience, find they have been too
hasty in following Baur, so with an equally long experience they may
find they have been similarly too hasty in accepting Wellhausen?
The fever of revolutionary criticism on the New Testament was at
its height after thirty years, and the science has subsided into com-
parative health after twenty more. The fever of the revolutionary



criticism of the Old Testament is now at its height, but the parallel
suggests a similar return to a more sober and common-sense state of
mind. The most famous name, in short, of German New Testament
criticism is now associated with exploded theories ; and we are asked
to shut our eyes to this undoubted fact because Mrs. Ward prophesies
a different fate for the name now most famous in Old Testament crit-
icism. I prefer the evidence of established fact to that of romantic

But these observations suggest another consideration, which has a
very important bearing on that general disparagement of English the-
ology and theologians which Prof. Huxley expresses so offensively,
and which Mrs. Ward encourages. She and Prof. Huxley talk as if
German theology were all rationalistic and English theology alone
conservative. Prof. Huxley invites his readers to study in Mrs.
Ward's article

the results of critical investigation as it is carried oat among those theologians who are men of
ecience and not mere counsel for creeds ;

and he appeals to

the works of scholars and theologians of the highest repute in the only two countries, Holland and
Germany, in which, at the present time, professors of theology are to be found, whose tenure of
their posts does not depend upou the results to which their inquiries lead them.

Well, passing over the insult to theologians in all other countries,
what is the consequence of this freedom in Germany itself? Is it
seen that all learned and distinguished theologians in that country
are of the opinions of Prof. Huxley and Mrs. Ward ? The quotations
I have given will serve to illustrate the fact that the exact contrary is
the case. If any one wants vigorous, learned, and satisfactory answers
to Prof. Huxley and Mrs. Ward, Germany is the best place to which
he can go for them. The professors and theologians of Germany who
adhere substantially to the old Christian faith are at least as numer-
ous, as distinguished, as learned, as laborious, as those who adhere to
skeptical opinions. What is, by general consent, the most valuable
and comprehensive work on Christian theology and church history
which the last two generations of German divines have produced?
Herzog's " Real-Encyclopadie fur protestantische Theologie und
Kirohe," of which the second edition, in eighteen large volumes, was
completed about a year ago. But it is edited and written in harmony
with the general belief of Protestant Christians. Who have done the
chief exegetical work of the last two generations ? On the rational-
istic side, though not exclusively so, is the " Kurzgefasstes exeget-
isches Handbuch," in which, however, at the present time, Dillmann
represents an opposition to the view of Wellhausen respecting the
Pentateuch; but on the other side we have Meyer on the New Testa-
ment almost the standard work on the subject Keil and Delitzsch
on the Old Testament and a great part of the New, Lange's immense
" Bibelwerk," and the valuable " Kurzgefasster Kommentar" on the
whole Scripture, including the Apocrypha, now in course of publica-
tion under the editorship of Profs. Strack and Zochler. The Germans
have more time for theoretical investigations than English theolo-
gians, who generally have a great deal of practical work to do ; and
German professors, in their numerous universities, in great measure
live by them. But it was by German theologians that Baur was
refuted ; it is by German Hebraists like Strack that Wellhausen and
Kuenen are now being best resisted. When Prof. Huxley and Mrs.



Ward would leave an impression that, because German theological
chairs are not shackled by articles like our own, therefore the best
German thought and criticism is on the rationalistic side, they are
conveying an entirely prejudiced representation of the facts. The
effect of the German system is to make everything an open question;
as though there were no such thing as a settled system of the spiritual
universe, aud no established facts in Christian history; and thus to
enable any man of great ability with a skeptical turn to unsettle a
generation and leave the edifice of belief to be built up again. But
the edifice is built up again, and Germans take as large a part in
rebuilding it as in undermining it. Because Prof. Huxley and Mrs.
Ward can quote great German names on one side, let it not be for-
gotten that just as able German names can be quoted on the other
side. Take, for instance, Harnack, to whom Mrs. Ward appeals, and
whose " History of Dogmas " Prof. Huxley quotes. Harnack himself,
in reviewing the history of his science, pays an honorable tribute to
the late eminent divine, Thomasius, whose " History of Dogmas" has
just been republished after his death, and who wrote in the devoutest
spirit of the Lutheran communion. Of course, Harnack regards his
point of view as narrow and unsatisfactory; but he adds that,
" equally great are the valuable qualities of this work in particular, in
regard of its exemplarily clear exposition, its eminent learning and
the author's living comprehension of religious problems." A man
who studies the history of Christian theology in Haruack without
reference to Thomasius will do no justice to his subject

But, says Mrs. Ward, there is no real historical apprehension in the
orthodox writers, whether of Germany or England, and the whole
problem is one of " historical translation." Every statement, every
apparent miracl j , everything different from daily experience, must be
translated into the language of that experience, or else we have not
got real history. But this, it will be observed, under an ingenious
disguise, is only the old method of assuming that nothing really
miraculous can have happened, and that therefore everything which
seems supernatural must be explained away into the natural. In
other words, it is once more begging the whole question at issue.
Mrs. Ward accuses orthodox writers of this fallacy; but it is really
her own. Merriman is represented as saying that he learned from his
Oxford teachers that

it was imperatively right to endeavor to disentangle miracle from history, the marvelous from the
real, in a document of the fourth, or third, or second century; . . . but the contents of the New
Testament, however marvelous and however apparently akin to what surrounds them on either
side, were to be treated from an entirely different point of view. In the one case there must be a
de-ire on the part of the historian to discover the historical under the miraculous, ... in the
other case tuere must be a desire, a strong " affection,." on the part of the theologian, toward prov-
ing the miracu:ous to be historical.

Mrs. Ward has entirely mistaken the point of view of Christian
science. Certainly if any occurrence anywhere can be explained by
natural causes, there is a strong presumption that it ought to be so
explained; for, though a natural effect may be due in a given case to
supernatural action, it is a fixtd rule of philosophizing, according to
Newton, that we should not assume unknown causes when known
ones suffice. But the whole case of the Christian reasoner is that the
records of the New Testament defy any attempt to explain them by
natural causes. The German critics Hase, Strauss, Baur, Hausrath,
Keim, all have made the attempt, and each, in the opinion of the
others, and finally of Pfleiderer, has offered an insufficient solution of the



problem. The case of the Christian is not that the evidence ought
not to be explained naturally and translated into every-day experience,
but that it can not be. But it is Mrs. Ward who assumes beforehand
that simply because the " Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah," by
that learned scholar and able writer, Dr. Edersheim, whose recent loss
is so much to be deplored, does not " translate " all the Gospel narra-
tives into natural occurrences, therefore it is essentially bad history.
The story has been the same throughout. The whole German critical
school, from the venerable Karl Hase and, much as I differ from his
conclusions, I can not mention without a tribute of respect and grati-
tude the name of that great scholar, the veteran of all these contro-
versies, whose " Leben Jesu," published several years before Strauss
was heard of, is still, perhaps, the most valuable book of reference on
the subject all, from that eminent man downward, have, by their
own repeated confession, started from the assumption that the mirac-
ulous is impossible, and that the Gospels must, by some device or
other, be so interpreted as to explain it away. " Affection " there is
and ought to be in orthodox writers for venerable, profound, and con-
soling beliefs; but they start from no such invincible prejudice, and
they are pledged by their principles to accept whatever interpretation
may be really most consonant with the facts.

I have only one word to say, finally, in reply to Prof. Huxley. I
am very glad to hear that he has always advocated the reading of the
Bible and the diffusion of its study among the people; but I must say
that he goes to work in a very strange way in order to promote this
result. If he could succeed in persuading people that the Gospels are
untrustworthy collections of legends, made by unknown authors, that
St. Paul's epistles were the writings of " a strange man," who had no
sound capacity for judging of evidence, or, with Mrs. Ward's friends,
that the Pentateuch is a late forgery of Jewish scribes, I do not think
the people at large would be likely to follow his well-meant
exhortations. But I venture to remind him that the English Church
has anticipated his anxiety in this matter. Three hundred years ago,
by one of the greatest strokes of real government ever exhibited, the
public reading of the whole Bible was imposed upon Englishmen ;
and by the public reading of the lessons on Sunday alone, the chief
portions of the Bible, from first to last, have become stamped upon
the minds of English-speaking people in a degree in which, as the
Germans themselves acknowledge,* they are far behind us. He has
too much reason for his lament over the melancholy spectacle pre-
sented by the intestine quarrels of churchmen over matters of mere
ceremonial. But when he argues from this that the clergy of our day
" can have but little sympathy with the old evangelical doctrine of the
' open Bible,' " he might have remembered that our own generation of
English divines has, by the labor of years, endeavored at all events,
whether successfully or not, to place the most correct version possible
of the Holy Scriptures iu the hands of the English people. I agree
with him most cordially in seeing in the wide diffusion and the
unprejudiced study of that sacred volume the best security for " true
religion and sound learning." It is in the open Bible of England, in
the general familiarity of all classes of Englishmen and English-
women with it that the chief obstacle has been found to the spread of

* See the preface to Riehm's ' na


the fantastic critical theories by which he is fascinated ; and, instead
of Englishmen translating the Bible into the language ot" their
natural experiences, it will in the future, as in the past, translate them
and their experiences into a higher and a supernatural region.




IN the February number of this review Prof. Huxley put into the
mouth of Mr. Frederic Harrison the following sentence : " la his [the
agnostic's] place, as a sort of navvy leveling the ground and cleansing
it of such poor stuff as Christianity, he is a useful creature who
deserves patting on the back on condition that he dues not venture
beyond his last." The construction which I put upon these words
and of which I still think them quite capable was that the professor
meant to represent Mr. Harrison and himself as agreed upon the
proper work of the agnostic, and as differing only as to whether he
might or might not "venture beyond" that. On this supposition,
my reference that he had called Christianity "sorry," or, as I ought
to have said, "poor s^uff" (the terms are, of course, equivalent),
would have been perfectly correct.

On re-reading the sentence in question, however, in connection
with its context, I see that it may more correctly be regarded as alto-
gether ironical; and this from the professor's implied denial in his
last article of the correctness of my version, I conclude that he
intended it to be. I accordingly at once withdraw my statement, and
express my regret for having made it. May I plead, however, as some
excuse for my mistake, that this picture of himself when engaged in
his agnostic labors is so wonderfully accurate and life-like that I
might almost be pardoned for taking for a portrait what was only
meant for a caricature, or for supposing that he had expressed in so
many words the contempt which diplays itself in so many of his
utterances respecting the Christian faith ?

Nevertheless I gladly admit that the particular expression I had
ascribed to him is not to be reckoned among the already too numer-
ous illustrations of what I had described as "his " readiness to say
unpleasant," and after reading his last article I must add, offen-
sive " things."

With this explanation and apology I take my leave of the professor
and of our small personal dispute small, indeed, beside the infinitely
graver and greater issues raised in his reply to the unanswered argu-
ments of Dr. Wace.

I do not care to distract the attention of the public from these to a
fencing-match with foils between Prof. Huxley and myself. In eight
of Gethsemane and Calvary such a fencing-match seems to me out of





CHARLES, or more properly, Karl, King of the Franks, consecrated
Roman emperor in St. Peter's, on Christmas day, A. D. 800, and
known to posterity as the Great (chiefly by his agglutinative Galli-
cized denomination of Charlemagne), was a man great in all ways,
physically and mentally. Within a couple of centuries after his death
Charlemagne became the center of innumerable legends; and the
myth-making process does not seem to have been sensibly interfered
with by the existence of sober and truthful histories of the emperor
and of the times which immediately preceded and followed his reign,
by a contemporary writer who occupied a high and confidential position
in his court, and in that oi his successor. This was one Eginhard, or
Einhard, who appears to have been born about A. D. 770, and spent
his youth at the court, being educated along with Charles's sons.
There is excellent contemporary testimony not only to Fginhard's
existence, but to his abilities, and to the place which he occupied in
the circle of the intimate friends of the great ruler whose life he sub-
sequently wrote. In fact, there is as good evidence of Eginhard's
existence, of his official position, and of his being the author of the
chief works attributed to him, as can reasonably be expecttd in the
case of a man who lived more fhan a thousand years ago, and was
neither a great king nor a great warrior. These works are 1. " The
Life of the Emperor Karl." 2. "The Annals of the Franks." 3.
"Letters." 4" The History of the Translation of the Blessed Martyrs
of Christ, SS. Marcellinus and Petrus."

It is to the last, as one of the most singular and interesting records
of the period during which the Roman world passed into that of the
middle ages, that I wish to direct attention.* It was written in the
ninth century, somewhere, apparently, about the year 830, when Egin-
hard, ailing in health and weary of political life, hfd withdrawn to
the monastery of Seligenstadt, of which he was the founder. A manu-
script copy of the work, made in the tenth century, and once the
property of the monastery of St. Bavon on the Scheldt, of which
Eginhard was abbot, is still extant, and there is no reason to believe
that, in this copy, the original has been in any way interpolated or
otherwise tampered with. The main features of the strange story con-
tained in the " Historia Translations " are set forth in the following
pages, in which, in regard to all matters of importance, I shall adhere
as closely as possible to Eginhard's own words :

While I was still at court, busied with secular affairs, I often thought of the leisure which I
hoped one day to enjoy in a solitary place, far away from the crowd, with which the liberali'y of
Prince Louie, whom I then served, had provided me. This place is situated in that part of Germany
which lies between the Neckar and the Main.t and is nowadays called the Otlenwnld by loose v, ho
live in and about it. And here having built, according to my capacity and resource*, not only
houses and permanent dwellings, but also a basilica fitted for the performance of divine service
nd of no mean style of construction, I besrm to think to what saint or nv-rtyr I could best dedi-
cate it. A good deal of time hid passed while my thoughts fluctuated about this matter, when it

* My citations are made from Tenlet'8 "Einhardi omnia quse extant opera," Paris, 1840-1843.
which contains a biography of the author, a history of the text, with translationsinto French, and
many valuable annotations.

t At present included in the duchies of Hesse-Darmstadt and Baden.



happened that a certain deacon of the Roman Church, named Deusdona, arrived at the conrt for
the purpose of seeking the fayor of the king in some affairs in which he was interested. He
remained some time : and then having transacted his business, he was about to return to Rome,
when one day, moved by courtesy to a stranger, we invited him to a modest refection ; and while
talking of many thing-* at table, mention was made of the translation of the body of the blessed
Sebastian,* and of the neglected tombs of the martyrs, of which there is such a prodigious
number at Rome; and the conversation having turned toward the dedication of our new basilica,
I began to inquire how it might be possible for me to obtain some of the true relics of the saints
which rest at Home. He at first he-itated, and declared that he did not know how that could be
done. But observing that I \vaa both auxious and curious about the subject, he promised to give
me an answer some other day.

When I returned to the question, some time afterward, he immediately drew from his bosom a
paper, which he begged me to read when I was alone, and to tell him what I was disposed to think
of that which was therein stated. I took the paper, and, as he desired, read it alone and in secret.
(Cap. i, 2, 3.)

I shall have occasion to return to Deacon Deusdona's conditions,
and to what happened after Eginhard's acceptance of them. Suffice it,
for the present, to say that Kginhsrd's notary, Ratleicus (Katleig), was
dispatched to Home and succeeded in securing two bodies, supposed to
be those of the holy martyrs Marcellinus and Petrus; and when he
had got as far on his homeward journey as the Burgundian town of
Solothurn or Soleure,f notary Eatleig dispatched to his master, at St.
Bavon, a letter announcing the success of his mission.

As soon as by reading it I was assured of the arrival ol the saints. I dispatched a confidential
messenger to Maestricht, to gather together priests, other clerics, and also laymen, to go out to
meet the coming saints as speedily as possible. And he and his companions, having lost no time,
after a few days met those who had charge of the saints at Solothurn. Joined with them, and
with a vast crowd of people who gathered from all parts, singing hymns, and amid great and uni-
versal rej licings, they traveled quickly to the city of Argemoratum, which is now called Stras-
burg. Thence embarking on the Khine they came to the place called Portus.J and landing on the
east bank of the river, at the fifth station, thence they arrived at Michilinstadt,^ accompanied by
an immense multitude, praising God. This place is in that forest of Germany which in modern
times is called the Odenwald, and about six leagues from the Main. And here, having found a
basilica recently built by me, but not yet consecrated, they carried the sacred remains into it and
deposited them therein, as if it were to be their final resting-place. As eoon as all this was
reported to me. I traveled thither as quickly as I could. (Cap. ii, 14.)

Three days after Eginhard's arrival began the series of wonderful
events which he narrates, and for which we have his personal guaran-
tee. The first thing that he notices is the dream of a servant of
Katleig the notary, who, being set to watch the holy relics in the
church after vespers, went to sleep, and during his slumbers had a
vision of two pigeons, one white and one gray and white, which came
and sat upon the bier over the relics; while, at the same time, a voice
ordered the man to tell his master that the holy martyrs had chosen
another resting-place and desired to be transported thither without

Unfortunately, the saints seem to have forgotten to mention where
they wished to go, and, with the most anxious desire to gratify their
smallest wishes, Eginhard was naturally greatly perplexed what to do.
While in this state of mind, he was one day contemplating his " great
and wonderful treasure, more precious than all the gold in the world,"
when it struck him that the chest in which the relics were contained
was quite unworthy of its contents; and after vespers he gave orders
to one of the sacristans to take the measure of the chest in order that
a more fitting shrine might be constructed. The man, having lighted
a wax candle and raised the pall which covered the relics, in order to
carry out his master's orders, was astonished and terrified to observe
that the chest was covered with a blood-like exudation (loculum

* This took place in the year 826 A. D. The relics were brought from Rome and deposited in
the Church of St. Madardus at Soissons.

t Now included in western Switzerland.

J Probably, according to Teulet, the present Sandhofer-fahrt, a little below the embouchure of
the Neckar.

& The present Michilstadt, thirty miles northeast of Heidelberg-



mirum in modum humor* sanguinto undiqut distillantem), and at
once sent a message to Eginhard.

Then I and those priests who accompanied me beheld this stupendous miracle, worthy of all
admiration. For just as when It is going to rain, pillars and slabs aud marble images exude
moisture, and, as it were, sweat, so the chest which contained the most sacred relics was found
moist with the blood exuding on all sides. (Cap. ii, 16.)

Three days' fast was ordained in order that the meaning of the
portent might be ascertained. All that happened, however, was that
at the end of that time the " blood," which had been exuding in drops
all the while, dried up. Eginhard is careful to say that the liquid
"had a saline taste, something like that of tears, and was thin as

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