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Now three facts have come out clearly from the latest research,
i. That man is a characteristic member of this Quaternary fauna just as
much as any of these extinct animals ; or, in other words, that wherever
you find the mammoth, cave bear, or woolly rhinoceros, you may expect
to find man; and where you find man in old deposits, you may expect to
find the mammoth, cave bear, and rhinoceros.

2. That the man whom you thus find is "Palaeolithic man," that is,
man in such a rude and savage state that he has not yet attained the art
of polishing stones, and uses implements roughly fashioned by chipping
from flints or other hard stones of the district.

3. That these rude implements are found in the caves and gravels of
the Quaternary period in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America; in fact,
throughout the whole world, so far as it has been hitherto explored; and
whenever they are found, the rudest and earliest implements, such as stone
hatchets or celts, and flint flakes and scrapers, are almost identically of the
same type.

These facts have such an important bearing on the origin of the human
race, that it is desirable to consider them in some detail.

The discoveries, both of implements and of human skulls and skeletons,
have now been so numerous, especially in the caves of France, England,
Germany, and Belgium, that it has enabled geologists not only to prove
the existence of Quaternary man, but to a considerable extent to analyze
and classify the successive stages of his progress.

The earliest is that known as the Cave-bear epoch, which occupies the
lowest position in the oldest caves, and in which the rudest human
implements are found associated with a preponderance of bones belonging
to this formidable animal. Thus in Kent's Cavern, in Devonshire, we
have in descending order

1. A layer of black mould, near the entrance, from three to twelve
inches thick, containing successively rdics of the Historical and Neolithic
periods, and bones of existing species of animals.

2. A bed of granular stalagmite from one to three feet thick, securely
sealing all below it

3. Red cave earth, in places five to six feet thick.

4- A bed of older crystalline stalagmite, in places twelve feet thick.

5. Breccia of angular stones; red-clay and bones to the rock floor of
the cave.

In the lower deposits (4 and 5) the bones are numerous, but almost
exclusively those of the cave-bear, and a few human implements have



62 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

been found, including a flint hache or celt in the breccia, which is the
oldest deposit of all. In the upper stalagmite, and cave-earth beneath it,
were found numerous human implements of various sorts, including a
bone needle and barbed harpoon, associated with remains of lion, cave-
bear, mammoth, rhinoceros, hyena, reindeer, Irish elk, and other usual
animals of the Quaternary fauna, including one tooth of the Machairodus
or sabre-toothed tiger, which is characteristic of the Pliocene fauna.

Similar facts have been recorded in such a multitude of caves in
France, Belgium, and Germany, especially in those of the South of
France, that it is a perfectly well-established fact that the Palaeolithic
period may be divided roughly into three groups: an upper one, in which
the reindeer was very abundant, and human implements showed a con-
siderable advance in civilization ; a middle stage, in which the reindeer
was scarcer and the mammoth more abundant, with ruder human imple-
ments, though still showing considerable design ; and the lowest of all,
with fewer remains of the mammoth and more of the cave-bear, and with
fewer implements, and those exclusively of stone of a very rude type.

This is exactly what might be expected if the theory of evolution ap-
plies to the human race. The first dawn of intelligence when primitive
man emerged from the animal state, would show itself by his picking up
natural stones to use as tools or weapons of offence. He would naturally
select stones of the type of the hache, with a sharp point for crushing in
the skull, and a blunt butt-end to give weight to the blow and a firm
grasp for the hand. This would hardly require more intelligence than
that of the gorilla, who, living in forests, uses branches of trees as clubs ;
or of apes, who throw stones at enemies. The next stage would be to
improve natural stones, or supply them if deficient, by chipping, so as to
give a sharper and more solid point or edge, and a similar process would
apply to flint chips used as knives or scrapers.

After a while, some genius would discover that by hafting the hache, and
attaching it as a lance to a long handle, he could kill without coming to
such dangerous close quarters as was necessary when striking with the
hand. This would lead to finer chipping, both to ensure penetration at
the point, and to fit the butt-end for attachment. And finally, the in-
vention of the bow would lead to diminished size and still finer chipping
for the arrow-head. From this point the progress can be readily traced
to the invention of barbs for arrows and harpoons, and the occasional
substitution of bone for stone, as being more easily scraped into the de-
sired form ; and from these the evolution is uninterrupted up to the beau-
tifully finished weapons of the Neolithic and Bronze periods. But the
starting-point is the rude stone hache, such as is universally found in the
oldest deposits of caves and river gravels.

There has been a good deal of discussion as to the purposes for which
these implements were employed, but there can be little doubt that their
primary use was for killing large game and human enemies. The bush-



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 63

men of South Africa, who represent most nearly this primitive savage state,
use for the purpose implements so closely resembling those of the river
drifts, that some of those exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition, and labelled
' 'four le gros gibier, " might have been specimens from Amiens or St
Acheul.

A good deal of discussion has also taken place among British geologists
as to the exact place, with reference to the great Glacial periods, occupied
by the earliest drift and cave implements which have been found in this
country. Most of them are Post-Glacial, that is, later than the retreat of
the last of the two or more great ice-caps which extended over all except
a few of the southern counties of England during the Quaternary period.
Some, however, are clearly proved to be either Inter-Glacial or Pre-Glacial,
being overlaid by boulder-clay, as at Brandon, and in the caves of Cae
Gwyn in North Wales; while as to the lowest deposits of many caves, as,
for instance, the lower stalagmite and bone breccia of Kent's Cavern, there
is no distinct evidence except of extreme antiquity, though the presump-
tion is strong that they are either Pre-Glacial or Inter-Glacial. Mr. Pen-
gelley, who has devoted years of research to Kent's Cavern, expresses an
unhesitating opinion that the lowest deposits are Pre-Glacial.

As fresh evidence accumulates, it all points towards the existence of
man on British soil in Pre-Glacial, or very early Glacial times, and there-
fore to carry it back far beyond the period assigned to it by Post-Glacial
geologists.

Thus, quite recently, rude palaeolithic implements of unmistakable
human design have been found near Wye, in Kent, at an elevation of up-
wards of 300 feet, in a gravel which does not correspond with the existing
valleys, but which overspread the chalk plateau of the North Downs, and
was drained by rivers running southwards in a directly opposite course to
that of the present streams. Professor Prestwich, whose bias, as we have
seen, is towards shortening the period of man's antiquity, after a personal
examination of the locality, came to the conclusion that this drift was im-
mensely older than the ordinary high-level gravels of existing rivers, and
in all probability was Pre-Glacial.

Since Professor Prestwich's paper was read, similar palaeolithic imple-
ments have been found by Mr. Worthington Smith, on the chalk downs
near Dunstable, up to a height of 759 feet above Ordnance datum, and
some of them embedded in the brown clay which, with gravel, covers the
chalk. But the question of the evidence afforded by England is compara-
tively unimportant, for the wider induction of continental experience settles
conclusively the general relations of palaeolithic man to the Quaternary
period. It is absolutely certain that in the later stages of the palaeolithic
record, when man had already made considerable progress, and was able
to draw and carve figures of the contemporary animals with a good deal
of artistic skill, vast herds of reindeer roamed over the plains of Southern
France and Germany, accompanied by a group of Arctic animals, such as



64 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

the musk-ox and the lemming, which are found even on the Italian side
of the Alps. When this was the case in Southern Europe, it is evident that
all its northern portion and higher mountains must have been covered by
ice and frozen snow, and one of the great Glacial periods must have been
in full force. All earlier deposits, therefore, in which ruder implements and
a more temperate or even African fauna are found, must of necessity have
been either Inter-Glacial or Pre-Glacial, and there is no reasonable doubt
that the earliest of such deposits date back at least to the earlier stages of
the Quaternary period. We must recollect that when we talk of geologi-
cal periods, there was no real break in the succession of time. We merely
use a convenient expression to distinguish those formations, between which
the evidence of the regular progression of development has been lost for
such a long period, that when we find it again the characteristic fauna and
flora have undergone a marked change. But the idea of cataclysms and
of repeated destructions and miraculous renovations of the whole vegeta-
ble and animal worlds, is completely exploded, and every day affords
fresh evidence of the gradual process of transition from one so-called epoch
or formation to the succeeding one. Thus types and even species appear
sparingly in one formation become abundant in another, and finally die
out and disappear, or persist with slight modifications, as we see in the
first appearance of fish in the Silurian, and of reptiles in the Carboniferous
eras, in each case in one or two geological periods before they become the
predominant type. This applies specially to the relation of the Quater-
nary to the Pliocene and Miocene periods. It is difficult to say definitely
where one begins and the other ends. Thus not only do most of the
great Mammalian genera persist from the Miocene through the Pliocene
and Quaternary, down to the recent periods, but some specific forms, such
as the tapir, have continued unchanged; while the ox, bear, horse, wild
boar, and other species first found in the Pliocene, survive through the
Quaternary to the present day.

The gravels and sands of St. Prest the forest bed of Cromer, and other
Pre-Glacial formations, contain such a mixture of characteristic mammals,
that some geologists have considered them to be Pliocene, while others have
pronounced them to be Quaternary.

What we really can affirm with certainty is, that as soon as we find a
Quaternary fauna firmly established, we find man forming an essential and
characteristic part of it. Can he be traced further back into the Tertiary?
The question involves points of the highest interest, for, as in the issue be-
tween short-time and long-time geologists as to the duration of the Glacial
period, the issue really is between evolution and miracle.

Even if the Glacial or Quaternary periods were extended to the 200,-
ooo years assigned to them by Lyell, Croll, Geikie, and other leading
geologists, the difficulty as to man being a produce of evolution would be
only postponed and not removed. By no possibility could such condi-
tions of the human race as are found at the commencement of the Quater-



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 65

nary period have been produced by the natural laws applicable to the
rest of the animal creation, unless man can be carried back into the Ter-
tiaries.

For under what circumstances do we find undoubted traces of the exist-
ence of man upon earth, early in the Quaternary period ? Not in small
numbers, or in some limited locality, in which we may suppose the human
species to have originated, and from which we can trace the different
races slowly developing and radiating out to more distant regions. No,
when we find them lowest in the Quaternary, we find them in large num-
bers, and practically all over the world, from China to Peru, and from
Northern Europe to South Africa.

This is so important that I proceed to state the facts in some detail,
and specify the localities in which stone hatchets and knives, of the rude
type of the oldest river drifts and oldest cave deposits, have been found
in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.

The list is doubtless incomplete, and every day is adding to it, but it
is already amply sufficient to prove the general proposition.

In England they have been found in the river drifts and deposits of the
Thames, the old Solent river, and all the existing and Quaternary valley
systems south of a line drawn across ?t, a little to the north of the Bed-
ford Ouse ; and in the caves of all the limestone districts of Yorkshire,
Derbyshire, North and South Wales, Somersetshire, and Devonshire, and
they are absent only in those northern districts which were covered with
ice during the successive phases of the Glacial period. In France and
Belgium they are met with in the oldest drifts of the valleys of the Seine,
Somme, Meuse, Loire, Rhone, Garonne, and other rivers, and in almost
innumerable caves and rock-shelters in all the limestone districts, from
Liege and Maestricht to the Pyrenees, and on the Mediterranean coast at
Mentone. In Spain and Portugal they appear in the drifts of the Tagus
and Ebro, and in Italy in those of the Tiber and Arno. In Central and
Southern Germany and Switzerland they are found in numerous caves
and river drifts, often deeply buried under thick beds of the loess, or fine
glacial mud, which was deposited during the melting of the great ice-fields.

In Asia these palaeolithic implements, associated with extinct animals,
have been found almost everywhere, where search has been made for
them They have been found in Asia Minor and Syria, in the Caucasus,
in Mongolia, China, and Japan. India, which has been examined by
competent geologists, affords the most authentic and complete record.
Here they have been found in large numbers, both in the river drifts of
the Nerbudda, Godavery, and other rivers, and in the laterite of Madras
and other places, which is a loamy land-deposit similar to that of the
loess of Europe and China. Implements almost exactly of the type of
those of St. Acheul, though made of quartzite, as flints were wanting,
have been found in Bengal, Orissa, the Deccan, Scinde, Assam, and
other provinces ; and some of them in deposits which, from the extinct



66 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

animals associated with them, experienced geologists are doubtful whether
to consider as upper Pliocene or as the lowest Quaternary.

In Africa, well characterized palaeolithic implements have been found
in Algeria and in the valley of the Nile, and at the other extremity of
the continent, at Natal and other places in Cape Colony.

America furnishes some of the most conclusive proofs, both of the ex-
treme antiquity, and of the wide diffusion of man. Human implements,
human skulls and bones have been found associated with the mastodon
and other extinct animals, over nearly the whole area of the United States ;
in Mexico, Brazil, and in the pampas of Buenos Ayres and Patagonia ;
associated in South America with the Glyptodon and other extinct mam-
mals of its peculiar fauna. In one instance, in Buenos Ayres, a human
skull was found under a huge carapace of this extinct armadillo, which
it was conjectured might have been used as a roof for a hut In these
South American cases, however, as well as in those which will presently
be referred to from Califorina, the geological age is uncertain, and they are
considered by some to be evidences of Pliocene, by others of early Qua-
ternary man ; while in other instances they are probably Post-Glacial, or
at latest, Inter-Glacial. But in one typical case, that of the discoveries
of Mr. Abbot in the drift of the Delaware valley at Trenton, in New Jersey,
there can be no hesitation in referring them to the same early Quaternary
period as the corresponding finds in the oldest river drifts of Europe and
Asia. The Trenton implements are of a granular argillite, exactly resem-
bling in size and form the flint implements of the valley of the Somme ;
and they are found sometimes twenty feet deep, in an old bed of gravel,
with large boulders, which is exposed in the cliffs of the river's banks.
A portion of a human lower jaw was found at a depth of sixteen feet in
the gravel, and also a human skull of a peculiar type, being small, long,
and very thick.

We are able, therefore, to affirm as an undoubted fact, that at the
earliest stage of the Quaternary period the human species not only existed,
but was already widely diffused over four continents, and occupied near-
ly the whole surface of the habitable globe. How did man get there ?
Evidently by the same process by which other fauna become distributed
over wide distances and extensive zoological provinces, that is, by migra-
tion from one or more centres, where the different species were first de-
veloped in the course of evolution. In the case of land mammals, this
implies where there has been an uninterrupted land connection within re-
cent geological periods.

There is no fact better established by geological and zoological research,
than that the existing fauna are not uniformly alike throughout the world,
but are located in separate provinces, bounded * y some barrier of sea,
mountain, or desert, insurmountable by the ordinary animal species. The
most signal instance of this is that of the absolute separation of the two
totally dissimilar faunas of Southern Asia and Australia, by the narrow



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 67

strait of Lombok, not above twenty miles wide, which is a deep sea fis-
sure or channel, dating back to very remote geological times. On the
other hand, in the north temperate zone of Europe and Asia one may
travel from the Atlantic coast of Western Europe to the Eastern coast of
China, without observing any marked change in the familiar fauna and
flora, the extension of which to the British Islands and Japan, leaves no
doubt that they recently formed part of the same continent; while the
existence of so many of the same forms in North America, makes it cer-
tain that there was a land connection, at no distant geological date, be-
tween the Old and New Worlds, by what is now the North Atlantic, and
probably also by Behring's Straits. The familiar instance of the absence
of snakes in Ireland, shows clearly how this extension of a fauna was ac-
complished by gradual migration. Ireland was connected with England
and with continental Europe long enough to enable most forms of the
European fauna to occupy it. Herds of Irish elk, deer, oxen, wolves,
and other animals roamed over it; but some of the slower moving rep-
tiles had not had time to reach it before it became finally separated from
England by St. George's Channel.

The only alternative to migration is the special miraculous creation of
every seperate species which has ever existed throughout the vast range of
geological time, and, this idea is as thoroughly exploded as that of the
absence of snakes in Ireland being due to the prayers of St Patrick in the
seventh or eighth century. It breaks down under the weight of the
innumerable instances of special miracles, which must be invoked on the
most trivial occasions. Thus it has been shown that more than 160
miraculous creations must have taken place to account for the separate
species of land-shells alone, which are peculiar to the little group of the
Madeira Islands.

Admitting, then, evolution to be the cause of the origin of species, and
migration for their diffusion, it must be observed that the human species
is specially organized for extensive migration. The structure of man, and
his intelligence, even in the most rudimentary form, enable him to over-
come obstacles and resist changes of climate and environment, which
would be fatal to most of the brute creation. And as a matter of fact, in
historical times we know that New Zealand and the Pacific Islands have
been peopled by migration; and that races like the Bushmen, Esquimaux,
and Australians, which come nearest to the state of primitive men, are
essentially migratory. If the population of America were annihilated,
with the exception of the Esquimaux and Fuegians, there is little doubt
that they would creep onwards along the sea-coast, accumulating their
Kjokkenmiddens as they went, until they had occupied the whole
continent. But the process must necessarily have been a very slow one,
and there must have been already a considerable population and pressure
on the means of subsistence, before these Quaternary men could have
spread over nearly the whole habitable globe, and left their remains where



68 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

we now find them. The fact that they are so found makes it certain that
they npist have had a long series of ancestors, and that the first origins of
the b eman race must be sought in a vastly more remote antiquity. The
immense time required for such migrations will be apparent when we con-
sider that it is not only a question of traversing such great distances, but
much more of becoming gradually acclimatized during the passage from
Arctic, or temperate, through tropical regions. Evidently the existing
Esquimaux or Laplanders could not reach Patagonia or South Africa,
without passing through a wide extent of hot and pestilential country, in
which the northern immigrants could only live by the gradual survival of
new types adapted to the altered conditions.

Another well-established fact points to the great antiquity of the human
race when those early palaeolithic implements were so widely distributed.
A sufficient number of skulls and skeletons have been found associated
with these implements to enable ethnologists to classify them as belong-
ing to essentially different races. Thus the skulls found in America all
present distinctive characters of the high and narrow type now existing
among the various native races of that continent. In Europe, those of
the Canstadt type, which is considered to be the oldest, and of which the
celebrated Neander-thil skull, is an extreme instance, are very dolicoce-
phalic, or long-headed, with markedly projecting brows, differing essen-
tially from those of the Cro-Magnon type, which represent an exception-
ally tall race with a good cranial development, equal to that of many
modern European races; while the Furfooz type again, is that of a dwarf-
ish race, with small round heads, resembling the modern Laplanders.
This diversity of race argues for a long departure from the original type,
involving development through a long series of ages. We know from the
Egyptian monuments that a period of 5000 years has been insufficient to
produce any perceptible change in the type of the Negro and Copt, the
Semite, and other races of Africa and Western Asia.

It is remarkable, however, that while this diversity of race type is thus
early found, there is almost perfect identity among the early palaeolithic
implements found in regions the most distant frcxn one another. Rude
stone hatchets, knives, and scrapers, are of the same form and fabricated
in the same way, whether they come from the gravels of the Delaware,
the Thames, the Tagus, the Godavery, or the Yang-tse-Kiang ; from the
caves of Devonshire, the deserts of Mongolia, or the plains of Patagonia
and South Africa. The only apparent exception is afforded by the stone
implements found in the auriferous gravels of California, which consist
mainly of rude stone mortars and pestles, resembling those used for
pounding acorns by modern tribes of Digger Indians, inhabiting the same
districts. This uniformity of industrial type over such wide spaces shows
that the peopling of the earth by migration must have been effected while
the human race was still in that uniform state of rudimentary intelligence,
which had not got beyond the first stage of supplementing natural stones



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