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by rude chipping.



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 69

Thus far we have beer g"nng on ascent aed facts, admitted by all
competent geologis s, but m taking the next step and carrying man back
into the Tertiaries, we enter on new ground, where positive evidence is
scanty and disputed, and where probabilities and theoretical preconcep-
tions are to a grea 1 : extent invoked to supply its want Among English
geologists especially, there sti remains a strong desire to abridge as
much as possible the time of man's existence upon earth. The evidence
furnished by England, which has been almost entirely covered during re-
cent geological times by two or more successive ice-sheets, is compara-
tively weak to carry back the evidence for palaeolithic man, even into
Pre-Glacial times, and some good authorities still contend for all such
remains in this country being Post-Glacial. Others, again, of less weight,
and the general public who have a smattering of science, have a vague
fear that every extension of man's antiquity carries them further away
from the old theological standpoint, and brings them nearer to the proof
that man is the product of evolution from an animal ancestry. The evi-
dence of facts has, however, become too strong to maintain this ground,
and the Quaternary line of defence being broken through, the defenders
of old ideas have fallen back on their next entrenchment, and insist that
man, if not Post-Del uvian, or Post-Glacial, is at any rate Post-Tertiary.

We pass here from the region of facts universally admitted, into that
of probabilities, and statements of facts which although probable in
themselves, and apparently well authenticated, are still disputed by com-
petent authorities. Let us first deal with the probabilities for and against
the existence of Tertiary man. It is objected that an animal so highly
organized and specialized as man, can hardly have come into existence in
geological periods characterized by a fauna, so much nearer the primitive
and generalized type of Mammals, as those of the Pliocene, and still
more of the Miocene and Eocene eras. The answer to this is that such a
highly specialized specimen of the anthropoid type as the Dryopithecus
undoubtedly did exist in the Middle-Miocene. This, which was an
anthropoid ape, as highly organized as the chimpanzee or gorilla, and of
a stature equal to that of man, has been found in that formation in the
South of France and in Germany. Now, looking at man simply as an
animal, the anthropoid ape is just as much a sp'ecialized development of
the primitive quadrumanous type as man. Monkeys and apes are
specialized for life in forests and climbing trees, as man is for life on the
earth and walking, but in their anatomical structure they correspond bone
for bone and muscle for muscle. If their is any truth in evolution they
must have descended, not necessarily one from the other, but both from
a common ancestor.

Again, it is said that man could not have survived for such a succession
of geological periods during which so many other species have died out
and disappeared. But here again the answer is, that many of the animals
which are associated with man as part of the Quaternary fauna, have in



70 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

fact survived unchanged from the Pliocene, and with slight modifications
from the Miocene periods, and that man's larger brain, and consequently
greater intelligence, must have given him a better chance of survival than
in the case of elephants, rhinoceroses, oxen, and horses. If man could
survive, as we know he did, the severe and extreme fluctuations of the
different Glacial, Inter-Glacial, and Post-Glacial periods, what was there
in the milder and more equable conditions of the Pliocene and Miocene
to have prevented his existence ?

The theoretical objections, therefore, to Tertiary man seem to be of the
weakest and vaguest character, while on the other hand, the probabilities
in its favor are so cogent as almost to amount to demonstration. How
could man, early in the Quaternary period, have already found his way to
the remotest regions of the globe, and developed a variety of types and
races, if his first appearance on earth lay within the limits of that period ?
One might as well suppose that elephants, horses, and all the other mam-
mals associated with man in the Quaternary period, sprung suddenly into
life along with him by some act of miraculous creation, in the teeth of all
the accumulated and irresistible evidence which shows them existing in
the upper Tertiary, and traces their ancestry and lines of progressive de-
velopment through the Miocene into the earliest Eocene period.

Having thus cleared the ground of probabilities, I proceed to state the
positive evidence for discoveries of human remains in Tertiary formations,
premising that it is nearly all the result of the last few years, and is rapidly
accumulating ; and that there is no reason to expect that it will ever be
abundant, as the more nearly we approach to the time and place of man's
origin, the narrower must be the area, and the fewer the stations, at which
we can hope to find his traces, and the greater the effect of denudation in
obliterating those traces.

The first well-authenticated instance is that of St. Prest, near Chartres,
on the Eure, one of the tributaries of the Seine. Here the lowest gravels
of the present river rest on gravels of what Lyell, after personal examina-
tion, considered to be an earlier Pliocene river, and which are charac-
terized by the older forms of elephant and rhinoceros ; the Elephas
Meridionalis, and Rhinoceros Leptorhinus, instead of by the Quaternary
Mammoth and Rhinocerous Tichorinus. In these older gravels have been
found stone implements, and bones of the Elephas Meridionalis with in-
cisions evidently made by a flint knife worked by a human hand. This
was disputed as long as possible, but Quatrefages, a very cautious and
competent authority, states in his latest work, published in 1887, that it
is now established beyond the possibility of doubt. It is contended,
however, by some geologists, that this formation, though always consid-
ered to be Pliocene until human remains were found in it, is in reality a
very low stage of the Quaternary, or a transition bed between it and the
Pliocene. The instance, therefore, cannot be accepted as absolutely con-
clusive for anything more than the existence of man at the earliest com-



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 71

mencement of the Quaternary period, though the evidence all points to
the gravels being really Pliocene. The same uncertainty applies to the
celebrated discovery by the Abb Bourgeois, of flint knives and scrapers
in the Miocene strata of Thenay, near Blois. When these were first pro-
duced, the opinion of the best authorities was very equally divided as to
their being the work of human hands, but subsequent discoveries have
produced specimens as to which it is impossible to entertain any doubt,
especially the flint knife and two small scrapers figured by M. Quatrefages
at p. 92 of his recent work on Races humaines. They present all the
characteristic features by which human design is inferred in other cases,
viz. : the bulb of percussion and repeated chipping by small blows all in
the same direction, round the edge which was intended for use.

The human origin of these implements has been greatly confirmed by
the discovery that the Mincopics of the Andaman Islands manufacture
whet-stones or scrapers almost identical with those of Thenay, and by the
same process of using fire to split the stones into the requisite size and
shape. These Mincopics are not acquainted with the art of chipping
stone into celts or arrow-heads, but use fragments of large shells, of which
they have a great abundance, or of bone or hard wood, and the scrapers
are employed in bringing these to a sharper point or finer edge. The
main objection, therefore, at first raised to the authenticity of these relics
of Miocene man, that they did not afford conclusive proof of design, may
be considered as removed, and the objectors have to fall back on the as-
sumption, either that the implements were fabricated by some exception-
ally intelligent Dryopithecus, or that the Abb6 Bourgeois may have been
deceived by workmen, and mistaken in supposing that flints, which really
came from overlying Quaternary strata, were found in the Miocene de-
posit. This hardly seems probable in the case of such an experienced
observer, and had it been so, the implements might have been expected
to show the usual Quaternary types of celts, knives, and arrow-heads,
fashioned by percussion, whereas the specimens found all bear a distinct
type, being scrapers and borers of small size, and partly fashioned by fire.
The other supposition is based on no evidence, and contrary to all we
know of the limited intelligence of any anthropoid ape. -If it were true
we might at once say that the missing link had been discovered, as a
Dryopithecus, able to do what the Mincopies are now doing, might well
have been the ancestor of man. On the whole, the evidence for these
Miocene implements seem to be very conclusive, and the objections to
have hardly any other ground than the reluctance to admit the great
antiquity of man, which so long opposed itself to the recognition of the
discoveries of M. Boucher de Perthes.

The same class of objection apply to the palaeolithic hatchets found
by M. Ribiero, in beds of the valley of the Tagus, at Olta, in Portugal,
which have always been considered as being of the upper Miocene. It
is thought possible that they may have fallen at some distant period from



72 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

overlying Quaternary gravels, and become mixed up with the upper bed
of the Miocene. The congress of geologists, therefore, who met at Lis-
bon three years ago, thought it wise to suspend their opinion as to the
Tertiary age of M. Ribiero's implements.

Other discoveries, however, of the same nature, seem to be absolutely
conclusive for man's existence, at least as far back as into the Pliocene
era. An Italian geologist, M. Gapellini, has found in the Pliocene strata
of Monte Aperto, near Sienna, bones of the Balaeonotus, a well-known
species of a sort of Pliocene whale, which are scored by incisions obvi-
ously made by a sharp cutting instrument, such as a flint knife guided
by design, and by a human hand. At first it was contended that these
incisions might have been made by the teeth of fishes, but as specimens
multiplied, and were carefully examined, it became evident that no such
explanation was possible. The cuts are in regular curves, and sometimes
almost semi-circular, such as a sweep of the hand could alone have caused,
and they invariably show a clean cut surface on the outer or convex side,
to which the pressure of a sharp edge was applied, with a rough or
abraded surface on the inner side of the cut Microscopic examination
of the cuts confirms this conclusion, and leaves no doubt that they must
have been made by such an instrument as a flint knife, held obliquely
and pressed against the bone while in a fresh state, with considerable
force, just as a savage would do in hacking the flesh off a stranded whale.
Cuts exactly similar can now be made on fresh bone by such flint knives,
and in no other known or conceivable way. It seems, therefore, more
like obstinate prepossession, than scientific scepticism, to deny the exist-
ence of Tertiary man, if it rested only on this single instance.

As regards the evidence from cut bones it is very conclusive, for ex-
perienced observers, with the aid of the microscope, have no difficulty in
distinguishing between cuts which have been made accidentally or by the
teeth of fishes, and those which can only have been made in fresh bone by
a sharp cutting instrument, such as a flint knife. In fact, the best au-
thorities on the subject, such as M. Mortillet, the Curator of the Museum
at St Germain, M. Hamy, and M. Quatrefages, while admitting the au-
thenticity of the cuts submitted to them in a few cases, have rejected it
in numerous others, as in the well-known instance of the grooves on the
bones of a rhinoceros, which Delaunay had found in a Miocene deposit
at Billy.

The only incisions on bones from very early strata, which these experts
have admitted as undoubtedly made by sharp cutting instruments held by
a human hand, are those above mentioned, viz. : on the Elephas Merid-
ionalis of St. Prest, and the Pliocene Balaeonotus of Monte Aperto ; and
in the humerus of a Halitherium from the Upper Miocene of Pouance"
(Maine et Loire). This shows with what caution and scrupulous good
faith the experts have worked, who bear testimony to facts, which if ad-
mitted, are a conclusive demonstration of the existence of Tertiary man.



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 73

But in addition to these instances from cut bones, there are others
equally certain and well-authenticated. In the region of the extinct vol-
canoes of Auvergne, in which the celebrated fossil man of Denise was dis-
covered under a stream of lava, embedded in a volcanic tuff, which how-
ever, was considered to be probably Quaternary, there are older lava
streams overlaying tuffs and gravels, which, from the fossils contained in
them, are undoubtedly Tertiary. From one of these Tertiary gravels at
Puy-Courny, M. Rames, a competent geologist, assisted by MM. Badoche,
Chibret and Grandvaux, obtained at three different points a consider-
able number of flint implements, which, if found in any Quaternary de-
posit, would have been accepted without hesitation as of human origin.
They comprise small and rude specimens of the types found in the lowest
Quaternary gravels, such as celts, knives, and scrapers, and present all
the characters by which artificial are distinguished from natural flints in
those formations, viz: bulbs of percussion, and chippings in a determinate
direction on the sides and points intended for use; while no such chip-
pings appear on other parts of the flint, as must have been the case if they
had been the result of casual blows on natural flints.

M. Quatrefages, by whom the subject is fully discussed, and the ob-
jects figured in his recent work, lays great stress on the fact that while the
beds contain five different sorts of flints, those which present traces of
design are confined exclusively to one description of flint, which is most
easily manufactured, and best adapted for human use. He observes with
much force that a torrent capable of tearing flints from their bed and roll-
ing them on, with collisions violent enough to imitate artificial chipping,
could not have exercised a selection, and confined its operations to one
only, out of five different descriptions of flints. He shows also that the
worked edges exhibit, when closely examined, both intentional chipping
and fine parallel striae, as from repeated use in cutting or scraping, while
nothing of the sort is to be seen on the sides left in the natural state,
though they are often as sharp, or even sharper.

It only remains to add that these specimens were submitted by M.
Rames to two Congresses of French geologists, the first at Blois, when
doubts were expressed in some quarters; the second one, last year, at
Grenoble, when the Congress decided that the existence of Tertiary man
was in this case fully established.

Italy supplies the next instance, and it is a very remarkable one, for
here competent geologists have found, not merely implements or cut bones
showing human design, but man himself, including skeletons of several
individuals. The discovery was made on the flank of the hill of Castel-
nedolo, near Brescia, in a bed which is identified by its fossils as belong-
ing to the Lower Pliocene. The excavations were made with the utmost
care, in undisturbed strata, by M. Ragazzoni, a scientific man of good
reputation, assisted by M. Germani, and the results confirmed by M.
Sergi, a well-known geologist, who visited the spot and inquired minutely



74 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

into all the circumstances. According to their united statement some
human bones were found in this deposit by M. Ragazzoni as far back as
1860. This led to further excavations, made at different times, and with
all the precautions pointed out by experience. The deposit was removed
in successive horizontal layers, and nowhere was the least trace found of
the beds having been mixed or disturbed. At a considerable depth in it,
were found the bones of four individuals, a man, a woman, and two
children, which presented the same appearance of fossilization as the
bones of extinct animals found in the same deposit The female skeleton
was almost entire, and the fragments of the skull were sufficiently perfect
to admit of their being pieced together so as to show almost its whole
form.

This preservation of the entire skeleton might lead to the conjecture
that it had come there as the result of a subsequent burial, but this sup-
position is negatived by the undisturbed nature of the beds, and by the
fact that the other bones were found scattered in the same stratum, at con-
siderable distances from the perfect skeleton. M. Quatrefages sums up
the evidence by saying, " that there exists no serious reason for doubting
the discovery of M. Ragazzoni, and that if made in a Quaternary deposit,
no one would have thought of contesting its accuracy. Nothing, there-
fore, can be opposed to it but theoretical a priori objections, similar to
those which so long repelled the existence of Quaternary man; objections
which have long since been refuted, and shown to be absolutely incon-
sistent with a multitude of established facts."

If we accept this conclusion this remarkable consequence follows:
that man, so far back as the Early Pliocene period, was perfectly human,
for the skull and bones present no marked peculiarity, or approximation
to an animal type. The skull is of fair capacity, and very much what
might be expected of a female of the Canstadt race. But if this be so, it
necessarily puts back the origin of the human species to a vastly more re-
mote antiquity, which can hardly be less than that of the Early or Mid-
dle Miocene, in which the remains of the great anthropoid Dryopithecus
have been found.

A skull very similar to the above has also been found in Italy, in a
lacustrine deposit at Olmo, near Arezzo, on the flank of the Apennines;
but although it was found at a depth of nearly fifty feet from the surface,
and some feet lower than a layer of clay containing a tooth of the
Elephas Meridionalis, a species which in Northern Europe scarcely sur-
vived the Pliocene period, the whole formation is considered, from other
remains found in it, as probably belonging to an early Quaternary age,
and therefore not affording satisfactory evidence of Tertiary man. It can
only be quoted as affording some corroboration of the discoveries of
Capellini and Ragazzoni, by showing that man has existed in Italy for
an immense period, and is found in deposits between which and the
Pliocene there is no abrupt line of demarcation.



PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. 75

This completes the evidence from the Old World. Turning to the
New World, we find, both in North and South America, numerous proofs
of the existence of man from a very remote antiquity, but there is some
difficulty in arriving at definite conclusions as to their Tertiary date, from
the fact that the succession of geological periods does not exactly corres-
pond on the two sides of the Atlantic. America has been said to be, in
some respects, a whole period behind Europe and Asia in this succession.
Thus the mastodon, which in the Old World is a characteristic Miocene
and Pliocene species, and did not survive into the Quarternary, is found
in America in the latest drifts, and even in peat masses associated with
neolithic flint arrows, and not impossibly [survived into the Historical
period. The bear family, on the other hand, which is so conspicuous in
the old formations of Europe, is not found in America until the Quaternary.
The extinct fauna also of South America is, like the present, that of a dis-
tinct zoological province from either North America or Europe, so that
we cannot assume that the Zenglodon and other huge ancestral types of
armadillos and ant-eaters, were necessarily of an age corresponding to our
Tertiary.

With this reservation I proceed to state some of the leading instances
which have been referred to by American geologists as establishing the
existence of Tertiary man on that continent

The most important case is that of the skulls and stone implements
which have been found in the auriferous gravels of California, the evidence
for which, and for other ancient remains in North America, has been
very carefully summed up by the distinguished naturalist, Mr. Alfred
Wallace, in an article in the Nineteenth Century of November, 1887.
These gravels are the result of an enormous denudation of the Sierra Ne-
vada, which has filled up all the great valleys on its Pacific slope with
thick deposits of debris, forming in some cases detached hills, and even
mountains, of considerable height. While this was going on, there were
repeated volcanic eruptions in the higher range, giving rise to beds of
lava, tuff, and ashes, which are frequently interstratified with the gravels;
and finally, the close of the volcanic period was marked by a great flow
of basaltic lava, which spread in a nearly level capping over the whole
surface of the country. This, and the subjacent beds of gravel and tuffs,
has since been cut down by the action of the present rivers, to a depth of
sometimes 1 500 or of 2000 feet, leaving a series of isolated, tabular hills com-
posed, on the upper part, of a horizontal layer of basalt, varying from 50
to 200 feet in thickness, and in the lower part, of 800 to 1 500 feet of gravels,
lava-beds, and tuffs. Thus what was once a single lava stream, or suc-
cession of lava streams, is now a series of detached hills, the tops of which
form parts of one gently inclined plane, sloping from the mountains to-
wards the plains, and now, in some cases, 1000 feet or more above the
adjacent valleys.

The present rivers have in some places cut down the lavas and gravels



j6 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

to the beds of ancient rivers, which flowed in different courses from the
existing ones, and it is in the beds of these ancient rivers that the princi-
pal accumulations of gold are found. Hence an enormous amount of
the oldest gravels has been excavated in working for gold, and in some of
these workings human remains have been found, associated with animal
remains, which are all of extinct species, entirely distinct from those that
now inhabit any part of the North American continent Some of the
genera, such as Hipparion, Auchenia, and Elotherium, would, if found
elsewhere, undoubtedly be taken to denote a Pliocene, if not a Miocene
formation. The vegetable remains also indicate a totally different flora
from that now prevailing in California, and which Professors Lesqueraux
and Whitney the latter the geologist of the State, and well-known from
his Report on the Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada consider to be
of Pliocene age, with some affinities to Miocene. Numerous stone im-
plements have been found associated with this extinct fauna and flora in
nine different countries, and human bones in five widely-separated locali-
ties. The two most remarkable instances of the latter are

1. The Tuolumne skull. A fragment brought up from a shaft in Table
Mountain, at a depth of 180 feet below the surface, beneath a bed of
three feet of consolidated volcanic tuff, with fossil leaves and branches,
over which is a deposit of 70 feet of clay and gravel.

2. The Calaveras skull. This was found in 1866, under four beds of
lava, and in the fourth bed of gravel from the surface, embedded in a
rounded mass of earthy and stony matter containing bones. The ce-
mented gravel was removed with great difficulty, and disclosed a human
skull, nearly entire, with several bones of the human foot and other parts
wedged into the cavity of the skull, the whole being in a fossilized con-
dition, like that of the animal bones in similar formations. Human
bones have been found in two other instances one by an educated ob-
server, under a bed eight feet thick of lava; and more recently a discov-
ery has been announced of rude stone implements in Tertiary gravels of
Stone Creek, Colorada, associated with shells which are considered by
conchologists to be no later than of the older Pliocene.

The Calaveras case is, however, the typical one, owing to its having



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