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size tin of evaporated milk iold in the retail stores.



Flags.

With the near approach of Decoration Day the attention of commissary patrons
is invited to the stock of flags on hand in all commissaries. This year, more than ever,
should the national colors be displayed in recognition of those who gave their live?
in the great world war.

Electric Irons.

A cable has been received from the New York office stating that two requisitions
for electric flatirons still remain unfilled due to the nonarrival of insulated material
necessary in the manufacture of these irons. Delivery was originally promised
for January but the suppliers state that conditions are absolutely beyond their
control and they are unable to give a definite shipping date.



Cable and Postal Addresses ol The Panama Canal.

The cable address of The Panama Canal, on the Isthmus, is "Pancanal, Panama;" in the United
States, "Pancanal, Washington."

The postal address is, "The Panama Canal. Balboa Heights. Canal Zone," or "The Panamt
Canal. Washington. D- C



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL.

Subscription rates, domestic, SlOOper year; fore : gn, $1.50; address

The Panama Canal Record, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, or

The Panama Canal, Washington, D. C.

Entered as second-class matter. February 6, 1918, at the Post Office

at Cristobal, C. Z., under the Act of March 3, 1879.





Volume XII.



Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 28, 1919.



No. 41,



Price of Mexican Fuel Oil.

Effective May 20, the price of Mexican fuel oil sold to individuals
and companies from tanks of The Panama Canal has been reduced
to $2 per barrel.

Report of Cargo Discharged and Laded by Vessels Entering and Clearing
from Port of Balboa for Week Ending May 24, 1919.





Line or charterer.


Arrived.


Departed.


Cargo —


Name of vessel.


Discharged


Laded.




Pacific Mail S. S. Co....


May 19

Mav22

May 24


May 20

May 23


Tont.
200
474
10


Tont.
155
90




West India Oil Co




Pacific Steam Navigation Co. . .





Report of Cargo Discharged and Laded by Vessels Entering and Clearing
from Port of Cristobal for Week Ending May 25, 1919.



Name of vessel.



Line or charterer.



Arrived.



Departed.



Cargo-



Discharged Laded



Parismina

Ucayali

Panama

Caribbean ....

Imperial

Lake Hurst. . .

Atenas

Orotina

Achilles

Allianca

City of Para . .

Cauca

Jamaica

Acajutla

Caribbean

Palena

ares. . . .

Montevideo

Lake Crescent

Mantaro

Cartago

Salvador



United Fruit Company

Peruvian S. S. Line

Panama Railroad Steamship Line.
Panama Railroad Commissary.. . .

United Fruit Company

Panama Railroad Steamship Line.

United Fruit Company

Panama Railroad Steamship Line.
Panama Railroad Steamship Line.
Panama Railroad Steamship Line.

Pacific Mail Steam Packet Co

Pacific Slcam Navigation Co

Pacific Strain \a\ Nation Co

Pacific Steam Nai igation Co

Panama Railroad Commissary. . . .

United Fruit Company

Fruit Company

Compania Trasatlantica

United Stares Government

Peruvian Steamship Line

United Fruit Company

Pacific Steam Navigation Co. . . .



May 18.



May 19.



May 20.
May 20.
May 21.



May 21.
May 18.
May 18.
May 18.
May 18.
May 18.
May 19.
May 19.
May 24.
May 25.



Tom.
1,592



2\



May 22.
May 22.
May 22.
May 23.
May 23.
May 24.
May 25.
May 25



May 21.
May 21.
May 21 .
May 25.



11,330
1,714
1,096



Tont.

37|
2,033
3,755

20
1,877 J
2,385
(*)

6
(*)
1,592



May 24.



400
615
930
342
985
2,277
4,246



1,306
709 J
887
45



1,003



*In ballast.



Naval Units at Coco Solo.

The Commandant of the 15th Naval District invites attention to
the fact that there are two separate and distinct units of the Naval
establishment located at Coco Solo; i. e., "The U. S. Submarine
Base, Coco Solo, Canal Zone," and "The U. S. Naval Air Station,
Coco Solo, Canal Zone." It frequently occurs that supplies, bills,
and correspondence are addressed to the "Commanding Officer,
Coco Solo" or to the "Supply Officer, Coco Solo," which address is
easily confused as there are two commanding officers and two supply
officers at Coco Solo.

Ships Through the Canal, by Months.

Graphical comparison of the traffic through the Canal by months
since its opening is afforded by the chart on the following page, the



472



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



lines of which are extended in proportion to the total number of
ships passing through the Canal in seagoing traffic:



Month and year.



1914



August

September.
October....
November.
December. .



Total.



1915



January . .
February. .

March

April. .. .

May

June

July

August ....
September.

October

November .
December .



Total.



1916



January. . .
February. .

March

April

May

June

July

August. . . .
September.
October —
November.
December. .



Total.



Total to January 1, 1917.
1917

January.

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December



Total.



1918



January. . .
February.

March

April

May. . . ■
June. • ■

July

August. . .
September.
October —
November
December.



Total.



1919



January. .
February.

March

April



Totol

Total to May 1,1919.



Total
vessels.



24
57
84
92
100



357

98
92
137
119
142
143
170
161
100



1,171

2
5
7
80
129
124
149
142
154
158
148
155



1,253



2,781

175
140
153
159
168
175
187
172
190
174
190
165



163
157
193
174
200
165
171
159
177
189
185
166



2,099

171
164
193
176



704



7,03a



Graphical indication.



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD 473

Civil Service Examinations.

The following examinations are announced by the United States Civil Service

ineio lowing details of the examinations for positions for which

Commission B u lie n g |% ^ ^"3,;^ persons on the Isthmus are posted at

l9 Hw^MialO? K'S e ]-tmP; No. 247; form 1312; age. 25 years but not 45
n^^%T^rfr^T%^S^liverceu^^y i J^2^m 9i No. 254; form 1800; age.
^Sficls^tfmale); Bureau of Fisheries;^ $1. 500 a year; July 9, 191ft August 6.

»M^ * o - 245; formi8oo; ** f w

°Teltgraph operator (male and female); $900 to $1,200 a year; No. 256; forms 304 and 11 40; * K «.
"iB^pSSSJilKS^S^; S1.620toS1.920ayear; July 1. 1919; form 1312; age. under

45 years.* _ /_„i_\. *, -inn a vpar- Tulv 9 1919; form 304; age. 18

Clerk, qualified as storeroom supervisor (male); $1,200 a year, juiy v, iviv,

years and over. Tulv 9 1919- form 304; age, under 45 years.

gSKSS?tSff tf®;^ ^ jo K a year; June 18, ,919. July 23. 1919. and

August 20. 1919; form 1312; f^^^S: fema i e . S 95 and S110 a month with laun-

th tNonassembled. Applications will be received at any time until further notice.

Comparative Wind Records at Balboa Heights and Sosa Hill.

The wind movement for the month of April was 54 per cent greater
on Sosa Hill than at Balboa Heights, the average hourly velocity on
Sosa Hill being 14 miles and at Balboa Heights 9.1 miles The
stations are both close to the Pacific entrance to the Canal and half a

"Northwest winds prevailed at both stations. On Sosa Hill the wind
direction was north 5 per cent and northwest 80 per cent of the time,
while at Balboa Heights the direction was north 37 per cent and north-
west 48 per cent of the time.

The maximum wind velocities during the month were 37 miles an
hour from the northwest on the 12th at Sosa Hill, and 31 miles, from
the northwest, on the 26th at Balboa Heights.

The Sosa Hill anemometer is 35 feet above ground and 41)^ leet
above mean sea level, and the Balboa Heights anemometer is 9/ feet
above ground and 231 feet above mean sealevcl.

Humidity and Hot Weather.

In a general way it is well known that conditions of humidity and
wind movement are important factors in ameliorating or aggravating
the depressing effects of hot weather. The maximum temperature
recorded is, the-efore, not an adequate measure of the temperature
actually felt b> the human both . For example, a temperature of 90
F with high humidity and no wind seems very hot and oppressive
while the same temperature with a low degree of humidity and a fresh
breeze seems relatively cool and refreshing.

For want of a better term the temperature actually felt by the
human body may be called the sensible temperature. The reading
of the wet bulb thermometer is not an exact measure of the sensible
temperature, but it is the best measure available, as it represents the



474



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



temperature of a moist body exposed to the breeze in process of cooling
through the agency of evaporation.

The effects of humidity and wind movement on the sensible tem-
perature may be explained as fellows:

With a high degree of humidity the air is nearly saturated with
invisible vapor, and its capacity for taking up additional moisture
is small ; consequently the rate of evaporaticn is slow and the evaporat-
ing surface is cooled but slightly.

With a lew degree of humidity the capacity of the air for taking
up additional moisture is large, which favors a rapid rate of evaporation
and extensive cooling of the evaporating surface.

Increased wind movement induces a more rapid rate of evaporaticn,
with a resulting increase in its cooling effects, and also tends to cool
the body by the removal of heat by conduction.

Also, it is probable that high humidity has a depressing physiological
effect upon the human body that is not susceptible of exact measure-
ment, but, as stated above, the readings of the wet bulb thermometer
are considered the best measure available of the sensible temperature.

In addition to the above it is well known that nearly all animal and
vegetable substances by reason of their cellular structure absorb
moisture from moist air, but give it up to dry air. They are, therefore,
perpetually expanding and contracting, curling and uncurling. The
moisture of ordinary air is easily absorbed by many substances, such
as sugar, flour, salt, and in very moist weather, objects become so
damp that fungus germs floating in the air take root and mold ensues,
setting up fermentation.

It is very interesting to compare climatic conditions in Panama
with conditions in various sections of the United States on this basis.
Average daily maximum shade temperatures and the computed
maximum daily sensible temperatures (wet bulb) for the month of
July are presented in the following table:



Stations.


Actual aver-
age daily
maximum

temperature
for July.


Computed
average
maximum
sensible tem-
peratures for

July
(Wet bulb).




°F.

87
84
90
89
87

104
86
82
80
94

100
86
64


°F.
79




78.5




77.7




77




73




72




72




70




69




68




66




64




57



It should be noted that maximum shade temperatures only are used
in the above table. No attempt is made to estimate the super-
heating effects on bodies exposed to direct solar radiation.

It will be seen that the average daily maximum July temperatures
are much higher in many sections of the United States than in Panama,
but the maximum sensible temperatures are higher in Panama than
anywhere in the United States, due to the prevailing high humidity.
Midsummer conditions of temperature and humidity in the Gulf
States more closely approach the conditions that prevail in Panama.



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD 475

Dry season sensible temperatures in Panama are about 3° F. lower
than those of the rainy season, due to the lowe- humidity and higher
wind movement that prevails in the dry season. This explains the
less oppressive character of our dry season weather.

The high sensible temperatures and hot, humid atmospheric con-
ditions that prevail in Panama would seem to be productive of fre-
quent cases of sunstroke and heat exhaustion, but such is not the
case. Canal Zone vital statistics covering the past 13 years shows
but 2 deaths from sunstroke, 1 in Panama and 1 in Colon. The
total number of cases of heat exhaustion reported among the entire
population of about 120,000 during this 13-year period was only
21, and none of those cases proved fatal.

Sufficient data are not available upon which to base an exhaustive
study of this subject, but it is thought that, in general, cases of sun-
stroke and heat exhaustion are relatively rare, both in extremely
humid hot climates and in arid hot climates. It is in the moderately
humid warm climates, such as prevail in central and eastern sections
of the United States, that cases of sunstroke and heat exhaustion are
most prevalent. Such cases seem to occur more frequently in large
cities, probably being aggravated by the excessive radiation of heat
from street paving, sidewalks, and masonry walls, and also by the lack
of free air circulation in congested districts; undernourishment and
low vitality of the patients may be contributory causes.

— From a report of the Chief Hydrographer.

Income Tax Installments Due.

Attention is invited to the fact that the second installment of
Federal Income Tax is due June 15, that is, an amount sufficient
to bring the total payments up to one-half of the tax due for the year
1918.

An additional amount sufficient to bring the total payments up
to three-fourths of the tax is due on or before September 15, 1919.

The entire remainder of the tax is due on or before December 15,
1919.

If any payment is not made when due, a penalty of 5 per cent of the
amount due. but unpaid, will be assessed and the entire balance of
the tax will also become due 10 days after demand therefor by the
Collector of Internal Revenue.



June Weather Probabilities.

The following weather conditions may be expected in the Canal
Zone during the month of June, 1919. These predictions are based
on the weather records at Cristobal and Balboa Heights for the last
12 and 14 years, respectively:

Winds — June weather is a continuation of the rainy season conditions of May,
with no material change in any of the meteorological elements. Light variable winds
will prevail with southeast winds predominating on the Atlantic Coast, and north-
west winds over the interior and on the Pacific Coast. The average hourly velocity
will be about 7 miles on the Atlantic Coast and about 6 miles on the Pacific Coast.

Rains — Heavy showers may be expected over the Isthmus. The average monthlv
rainfall at Cristobal is 13.38 inches, and at Balboa Heights, 7.50 inches. The average
number of days with rainfall of 0.01 inch or more is 25 on the Atlantic side and 20
on the Pacific side, while the average number of days with 1 inch or more is 5 and
2, respectively.



476



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



Fogs — No fogs are likely to occur at either Canal entrance. Night and early
morning fogs may be expected quite frequently over the interior. Most of these
will be light, however, and will be dissipated before 8.30 a. m.

Temperature — The average monthly mean temperature is about 80° F. on both
coasts. The mean daily range in temperature is about 14° on the Pacific side
and about 9° on the Atlantic side. No material departure from these averages may
be expected. The extremes of record are 95° and 70°, but this great a range in tempera-
ture seldom occurs.

Relative humidity — The relative humidity will average about 85 per cent on both
coasts; the daily range, however, will be considerably greater on the Pacific side.

Storms — Local rain and thunderstorms may be expected quite frequently during
the month. During these storms, wind velocities of from 30 to 35 miles may be ob-
tained, but they are of too short duration to cause a rough sea. Generally cloudy
weather with smooth to moderate seas may be expected at both Canal entrances.

Tides — The tidal fluctuations on the Atlantic side are too small to affect naviga-
tion. Balboa tide predictions for June are given below. These are taken from "Tide
Tables for 1919," published by the Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C.



Day of-


Time and Height of High
and Low Water.


Day of-


Time and Height of High
and Low Water.


Day of-


Time and Height of
and Low Water


High


W.


Mo.


W.


Mo.


W.


Mo.




s


I


5:3S 11:48 5:53
16.4 -0.2 16.4


w


II


2:10 8:29
12.9 3:3


2:20 8:54
13.8 2.0


S


21


2:58
2.6


8:57
14.2


3:35
2.9


9:21
13.1


M


1


0:12 6:30 12:37 6:4S
-1.0 16.0 0.5 15.S


Th


12


2:50 9:07
13.3 2.9


2:58 9:33
14.2 1.5


s


22


3:57
2.9


9:57
14 2


4:40
2.8


10:30
13.0


Tu


3


1:00 7:21 1:30 7:37
0.0 15.5 1.4 14.2


F


13


3:29 9:46
13.7 2:5


3:35 10:10
14.4 1.1




23


5:02
3.0


11:04
14.3


5:46
2.5


11:43
13.3


W


4


1:52 8:12 2:27 8:30
1.0 14.7 2.3 13.7


S


H


4:08 10:23
14.0 2.2


4:12 10:42
14.6 0.8


Tu


24


6:10

2.7


12:12
14.8


6:51
1.8




Th


5


2:48 9:06 3:29 9:28
2.1 13.9 3.1 12.8


s


15


4:46 11:00
14.3 2.0


4:49 11:22
14.6 0.8


W


25


0:51
14.0


7:15
2.2


1:14
15.5


7:51
0.9


F


6


3:47 10:04 4:31 10:31
3.0 13.3 3.5 12.1


M


■16


5:24 11:38
14 4 2.0


5:28 11:58
14.5 1.0


Th


26


1:51
14.8


8:15
1.5


2:10
16.1


8:47
0.0


S


7


4:47 11:04 5:32 11:36
3.7 13.0 3.7 12.0


Tu


17


0:02 12:15
14.5 2.0


6:08 ....
14.3


F


27


2:47
15.6


9:09
0.7


3:04
16.6


9:38
-0.8


S


8


5:47 12:03 6:30
4.0 12.9 3.5


W


18


0:36 6:40 12:57 6:5:
1.3 14.5 2.3 14.1


S


28


3 :41
16.2


9:59
0.2


3:57
6 9


10:24
-1.2


M


9


0:36 6:44 12:55 7:24
12.1 4.0 13.2 3.1


Th


19


1:17 7:21
1.7 14.4


1:43 7:3
2.6 13.


S


29


4 :33
16.5


10:47
-0.2


4:48
16.9


11:09
-1.2


Tu


IO


1:27 7:37 1:39 8:11
12.5 3.7 13.5 2.6


F


20


2 :4 8 :06
2 2 14.3


2:37 8:2
2.8 18.4


M


30


5:24
16.6


11:32



5:38
16.5


11:53
-0.7



The tides are placed in the order of their occurrence; the times of high and low tides are shown on
the upper lines. The figures in boldfaced type are hours and elevations between noon and midnight;
ante meridian figures are given in the ordinary Iightfaced type. The time is Cosmopolitan Standard
for the meridian 75° W.

The elevations of the water are shown on the second line for each day; a comparison of consecutive
heights will indicate whether it is high or low water. Heights are reckoned from mean low water
springs, which is 8.3 below mean sea level and is the datum of soundings on the Coast and Geodetic
Survey charts for this region. The depth of water may accordingly be estimated by adding the tabu-
lar height of the tide to the soundings, unless a minus (-) sign is before the height, in which case it
is to be subtracted. The annual inequality or variation in the mean sea level is included in the
predictions.



Official Circulars.



Transfer of Army Men to The Panama
Canal.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Office,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 22, 191Q.
Heads of Departments and Divisions:

The following letter of the 21st instant, from
the Commanding General, Panama Canal De-
partment, Ancon, C. Z., relative to the discharge
of enlisted men to take positions in The Panama
Canal and Panama Railroad service, is quoted
for your information:

"A number of applications have recently come
to these headquarters from your office and from
some of the subordinate offices of The Panama



Canal and the Panama Railroad, and some have
also been written by Canal Zone officials direct to
the enlisted men themselves, in regard to the
discharge of such men to take employment in the
service of the Panama Railroad or The Panama
Canal. When the services of such men can be
spared, I am glad to take favorable action in
regard to their discharge in order to enable The
Panama Canal and the Panama Railroad to
secure good men. At the present time, however,
the number of men in the different organizations
of the Army here, both in the line and the staff
departments, has been so reduced that it is not
in the interests of the service to discharge men
befor - the expiration of their enlistment, except
in very urgent cases, where they have relatives
so dependent upon the soldier for support that
suffering will ensue if he is not released from the



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



477



military service. This condition has been made
known to the War Department and request has
been made for additional men to be sent here,
but so far with little result."

Chester Harding,

Governor.



Supplies from Army Commissaries.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Office,
Balboa Heights, C. Z. May 21, 1919.
To all concerned — Attention is invited to the
following Section No. 1247 of Army Regulations,
prohibiting the sale or barter of supplies pur-
chased or drawn from the Army commis

"Post commanders will regulate sales and
delivery of supplies. Selling (except by the post
exchange) or bartering of supplies purchased or
drawn from the Quartermaster is forbidden."

Employees of The Panama Canal and Panama
Railroad Company are cautioned against being
parties to violations of the foregoing regulations.
Any employee found guilty of such practice
should be reported to this office for disciplinary
action.

Chester Harding,

Governor.



Inspector for Silver Roll Employees.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Office,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 23, 1919.
All concerned — Effective June 1. 191 9, Mr. L. L.
Gilkey is hereby appointed Inspector in the Exe-
cutive Office. His duty will be to investigate,
for the information and consideration of the
Governor, such general or specific matters affect-
ing the welfare of silver employees as the Gov-
ernor may direct.

Chester Harding,

Governor.



Appointment.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Officf,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 22, 1919.
Circular No. 661-77 (Supplementing Circular
No. 661-62):

Under authority vested in me as Governor of
the Canal Zone, I hereby continue the appoint-
ment of Mr. James \V. Blackburn as Assistant
District Attorney of the Canal Zone to and
including May 31, 1919, after which date he will
resume his office as Magistrate for the subdivision
of Balboa, relieving Mr. Daniel J. Genac who
will resume his former position as Land Inspector.
Chester Harding.

Governor.



Grass Cutting.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Office,
Balboa Heights, C. Z.. May 10, 1919.
Heads of Departments and Divisions:

Effective May 10, 1919. the Health Depart-
ment will perform all of its own grass cutting
(except that done by mowing machine) which
has heretofore been done by the Supply Depart-
ment in accordance with Circular 183-F-4, of
December 1, 19fl.

Chester Harding.

Governor.



Checking Baggage When Sailing.

Tin-; Panama Canal.
Executive Office,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 22. 1919

To all concerned — The attention of this office
has been called to the fact that the passenger
trainsat Panama and Balboa on sailing days have,
on several recent occasions, been delayed on



account of the failure of employees entering on
leave to arrive on time at the railroad station
to check their baggage. Employees going on
leave should arrive at the raihoad station at least
one hour before train tirre, in order to allow
sufficient time to check their baggage and in this
way avoid delay and inconvenience to the rail-
road, and also prevent the likelihood of their
baggage being left behind.

C. A. McIlvaine,
Executive Secretary.



Prices on Scrap Steel.

The Panama Canal,
Supply Department,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., May 21 , 1919.
Heads of Departments and Divisions:

The selling price of scrap steel to departments
of The Panama Canal is shown in my circular to
heads of departments and divisions, under date
of May 17,asS6.50. This is in error, and it is re-
quested that my circular of May 17 be considered
as canceled. The following prices will be allowed
for scrap steel turned in by the various depart-
ments and divisions:
Kind of scrap — steel.

Credit to be allowed divisions, net ton.. $5 .00
Selling prices —

To departments of Panama Canal, net

ton $5.50

To employees and individuals and com-
panies, net ton 20 .00

R. K. Morris,
Chief Quartermaster.



Acting Superintendent of Cattle Industry.

The Panama Canal,
Supply Department,

Cristobal, C. Z., May 21, 1919.
To all concerned — -Effective May 24, 1919, and
during the absence of the undersigned, on leave,
Air. J. H. K. Humphrey will act as Superintend-
ent of- the Cattle Industry Division.

W. B. Brown,
Approved: Superintendent.



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