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leading commodity, followed by manufactures of iron and steel with 31,077 tons,
cotton with 24,921 tons, paper with 13,375 tons, and corn with 12,977 tons. In-
creases occurred in the shipments of mineral oils and corn, while shipments of manu-
factures of iron and steel, cotton, and paper decreased.

From the Pacific to the Atlantic, mineral oils formed the leading commodity in
September, 1932, with shipments totaling 241,209 tons. This item was followed by
sugar with 156,644 tons, canned goods with 120,192 tons, lumber with 110,820 tons,
wheat with 107,653 tons, dried fruit with 32,180 tons, and metals with 30,191 tons.
Substantial increases were recorded in the shipments of sugar, canned goods, and
wheat, while the other items listed decreased. Shipments of Chilean nitrates, nor-
mally one of the most important commodities shipped via the Panama Canal, were
entirely absent from the traffic in September, 1932. This was the first month of
Canal operation, since its opening in August, 1914, in which no shipments of nitrate
were reported. This was a decrease of 262,466 tons, or 20.6 per cent, in the cargo
movement in this direction in comparison with September, 1931, while from the
Atlantic to the Pacific there was a decrease of 145,245 tons, or 30.2 per cent.



At present tolls are collected at rates of $1.20 per net ton for laden vessels and $0.72
per ton for vessels in ballast, computed on the basis of the Panama Canal rules of
measurement, with the provision that tolls shall not exceed $1.25 per ton, nor be less
than $0.75 per ton as determined in accordance with the United States rules for
measurement of net registered tonnage. In order to ascertain the proper tolls charges
it is necessary, therefore, that the net tonnage of vessels transiting the Canal be
determined in accordance with both the Panama Canal and the United States rules
of measurement.

Due to this limiting proviso the tolls actually collected last month on laden vessels
averaged $0,894 per net ton (Panama Canal measurement), and tolls on vessels in
ballast averaged $0,713 per net ton (Panama Canal measurement).

Taking the traffic through the Canal for the month of September, 1932, the follow-
ing tabulation shows a comparison of tolls actually collected under the present method
of assessing tolls with the tolls that would have been collected on the basis of the
Panama Canal rules of measurement at the proposed rates of $1 laden and $0.60
ballast with no added charges for deck loads, together with the pro rata per net ton
(Panama Canal measurement) of tolls actually collected on laden vessels and those in
ballast. The traffic for the month is segregated by flag:



Nationality.


Tolls actually

collected under

present dual

system.


Tolls that would

have been collected

under proposed

rates of $1 laden
and 60c ballast on

basis of Panama
Canal net tonnage.


Difference.


Pro rata of tolls

actually collected per

Panama Canal net

ton.


Increase.


Decrease.




Laden.


Ballast.




$381,471.12

33,985.97

17,615 00

56,757.93

22,243.75

70,091.54

18,834.37

106,495.72

137,886.80

5,643.39

39,060.84

708,179.55


$392,077.60
41,611.00
16,473.00
60,609.40
28,101.00
82,652.20
24,036.60
108,880.60
142,912.40
7,905.40
46,789.20
757,171.00


$10,606.48
7,625.03

3,851.47
5,857.25

12,560.66
5,202.23
2,384.88
5,025.60
2,262.01
7,728.36

48,991.45




$0,905
.781
1.069
882
792
819
.732
.966
.851
.712
.768
.913


$0,715






689




$1,142.00




Dutch


.720






.720


Italian




720
.720


Norwegian




.699




.760






.720


United States




.720


Total


1,598,265.98


1,709,219.40


112,095.42


1,142.00


.894


713


Net increase for all






110,953.42





















October S6, 1932



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



177



The increase on vessels of United States registry would have been distributed with
respect to channels of trade in which the vessels were engaged as follows:



United States intercoastal trade .
United States-Canal Zone trade.
United States-foreign, trade



Total.



$28,680.70

'982.73

21,293.48



48,991.45



Denotes decrease.



RATIO OF CARGO TONNAGE TO NET TONNAGE.



The ratio of cargo to net tonnage, Panama Canal measurement, of vessels transiting
the Panama Canal in September, 1932, is shown in the following tabulation, segregat-
ed by nationality of vessels and direction of transits; laden vessels only are included:



Nationality.


Atlantic

to
Pacific.


Pacific

to

Atlantic.


Total.




.48
40


1.24
1.34
2.04
1.41
1.01
1.25
1.38
1.13
1.73
41
1.50
1.31


.84




94




2.04


Dutch


.26
.08
.44
.06
.59
.89
1.01
.76
.44


.91




.44




.90




.43




.84




1.25




.44




1.22




.91








.48


1.32


.92






Averages, September, 1931


.58


1.35


.99


Averages, September, 1930


.71


1.53


1.07



CLASSIFICATION OF VESSELS.

A further classification of vessels passing through the Canal during the month of
September, 1932, is as follows:





Atlantic to Pacific.


Pacific to Atlantic.


Class.


No.
of

ships.


Panama
Canal net
tonnage.


Tolls.


No.
of

ships.


Panama
Canal net
tonnage.


Tolls.


Cargo-carrying ships:
Tank ships —

Ballast


22
6

52

120

1

1


132,004
36,752

245,567
665,119

554
21


$95,042.88
37,447.50

174,090.20
574,962.60

398.88
15.75


3

20

2
126


17,290
123,328

2,493
645,263


$12,448.80
128,542.50


All others —


1,797.12




573,519.75


Noncargo-carrying ships:




















Total


202


1,080,017


881,957.81


151


788,374


716,308.17


Method of propulsion:

Cargo-carrying vessels —


119
78
3

2


636,450

442,916

76

575


536,550.82

344,916.52

75.84

414.63


92

56

3


479,329

308,969

76


442,640.44




273,583.48




84.25


Other craft (yachts, naval, etc) —












Total


202


1,080,017


881,957.81


151


788,374


716,308.17







Of the 211 steam driven cargo-carrying vessels, 156 were oil burning, 52 coal burning,
and 3 burned either oil or coal.



NONCOMMERCIAL TRAFFIC.



The following statement shows the number of transits and tonnage of vessels trans-
iting the Canal free of tolls during the month of September, 1932. If tolls had been



178



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



October «?, 103 3



assessed against these vessels at commercial rates, the amounts would have been
approximately as indicated:





Atlantic to Pacific.


Pacific to Atlantic.


Class and nationality.


No.
of

transits.


Tonnage.


Tolls.


No.
of

transits.


Tonnage.


Tolls.


U. S. Naval yessels:_








1


3 4,405


$5,506.25


Cargo ships


1


3 3,424


$4,292.50




1


■7,050


3 525 00




1

2
6
1
1

1

o

1


1 10
■1,900
■5,256
■> 3,394
'5,102

■ 1,208

'20,100

^92


7.50

950.00

2,628.00

4,242.50

3,673.44

604.00

25,125.00

69.00














1


■876


438 00


Supply ships






1

1

2


3 4,860

■1,208
3 7,816


6,075.00

604.00
9 770 00


U. S. Army vessels:

Mine planters
















16




41,591.94


7




25,918 25








Colombian Government vessels:

Dredges


1

1


3 400
3 240


300.00
300.00


























18




42, Ml. 94


7




25,918 25







■ Indicates displacement tonnage. a Indicates Panama Canal net tonnage. 3 Indicates United States net tonnage.

The foregoing noncommercial vessels transiting the Canal during the month of
September, 1932, carried cargo as follows: Atlantic to Pacific, 7,676 tons; Pacific to
Atlantic, 1,216 tons; total, 8,892 tons.

LAUNCHES UNDER 20 TONS MEASUREMENT.

The following statement shows the number of launches under 20 tons measurement
(Panama Canal net), transiting the Canal during the month of September, 1932.
These launches, although paying tolls, are excepted from statements concerning com-
mercial traffic:





Number

of
transits.


Panama
Canal net
tonnage.


Tolls.




5
2


12
10


$9.00




7.50






Total


7


22


16.50







STATEMENT OF TERMINAL OPERATIONS.

Details of the business transacted at the Atlantic and Pacific terminals of the
Panama Canal during the month of September, 1932, are shown in the following tabu-
lation:



Local cargo arriving tons.

Local cargo shipped tons .

Transit cargo arriving tons.

Transit cargo clearing tons.

Cargo received for transshipment tons .

Cargo transshipped tons .

"Canal Zone for Orders" cargo:

Number of receipts issued

Number of releases issued

Tons received

Tons withdrawn

Packages received

Packages withdrawn



Vessels supplied with bunker coal:

Commercial, other than Panama Railroad Company

Coal supplied to above vessels:

Commercial, other than Panama Railroad Company tons.



Cristobal.



28,762
4,442
1,341,098
1,340,923
20,763
20,796



113

(173

803

692

7,629

5,045



11
2,067



Balboa.



34,292

1,009

1,347,975

1,340,976

1,381

4,203



45

206

433

459

1,535

1,985



Total.

63,054

5,451

2,689,073

2,681,899

22,144

24,999



158
879
1.236
1,151
9,164
7,030



11

2,067



October 26, 1932



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



179



Cristobal.



Balboa.



Total.



Coal issued, miscellaneous:

Panama Canal departments tons .

Panama Railroad Company tons.

U. S. Army, including vessels tons.

Individuals and companies tons .

Transferred to Navy tons.

Total sales and issues tons.

Coal on hand, September 1, 1932 tons .

Coal on hand, October 1, 1932 tons.

Coal received from Navy tons.

Fuel oil issued from Panama Canal tanks:

Panama Canal departments bbls .

Panama Railroad Company bbls

U. S. Army and Navy bbls.

Individuals and companies bbls .

Total sales and issues bbls.

Fuel oil on hand, October 1, 1932 bbls.

Diesel oil borrowed from Union Oil Co bbls.

Diesel oil issued during September, 1932 bbls .

Diesel oil on hand, October 1, 1932 bbls.

Miscellaneous transfers bbls .

Gasoline and kerosene pumped for The Panama Canal bbls

Gasoline pumped for individuals and companies bbls .

Oil pumped for individuals and companies:

Receipts bbls .

Issues bbls.

Oil pumped for U. S. Navy bbls

Total fuel oil, gasoline, and kerosene handled bbls.

Admeasurement of vessels:

U. S. equivalent certificates issued

Measured for Panama Canal net tonnage

Remeasured for Panama Canal net tonnage

Panama Canal net tonnage corrected

U. S. equivalent tonnage corrected

Services of harbor equipment:

Tugs, total operating hours

Launches, total operating hours

Revenue from tug service, pilotage, etc:

Tug revenue

Pilotage

Seamen

Launch service

Wharfage

Ships measured

Miscellaneous



Clearances issued. . . .
Bills of health issued .



57

7

28

100

7



63

7
28
101

7



37,229
34,963



37,229

34,963

7



3,274.07

16,292.01

628.26



11,141.95
519.95
247.44
104 05



14,416.02

16,811.96

875.70

104.05



20,194.34



12,013.39



32,207.73



38,555.26

210.21

210.21

2,914.35

526 15

12,088.19

1,586.82



79,139.38



1,657.92
24,881.81

2,114.01
20,361.45
14,023.16



117,694.64

210.21

1,868.13

27,796.16

2,640.16

32,449.64

15,609.98



68,662.74

143,872.96

1,878.00



173,989.50
63,273.80
59,515.50



242,652.24

206,146.76

61,393.50



249,019.41



346,948.73



595,968.14



175J

872



127^
1,003|



303 J
1,875'



$5,935.00

12,302.00

9,392.00

1,357.00

10,064.09

110.00

343.00



$3,867.50
6,002.00
7,016.00
1,928.50
4,418.86



108.00



$9,802.50
18,304 00
16,408.00
3,285.50
14,482.95
110.00
451 .00



193
201



211
212



404
413



ALL VESSELS ENTERING AND CLEARING PORT.





Port of Cristobal.


Port of Balboa.




No.

of

ships.


Registered

gross
tonnage.


Registered

net
tonnage.


No.

of

ships.


Registered

gross
tonnage.


Registered

net
tonnage.


Ships entering.
All vessels, including those transiting Canal. .
Vessels entering port but not transiting Canal .
Vessels transiting Canal and handling passen-
gers and cargo at terminal ports


392
50

93


2,571,860
277,584

702,270


1,562,680
160,922

421,741


371
5

86


2,355,146
38,573

633,062


1,447,372
22,677

382,869


Ships clearing.
All vessels, including those transiting Canal..
Vessels clearing port but not transiting Canal .
Vessels transiting Canal and handling passen-
gers and cargo at terminal ports


395
50

93


2,574,875
269,420

702,270


1,565,894
156,369

421,741


367
7

86


2,345,420
38,650

641,265


1,436,286
22,712

385,974



180



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



October 26, 1932







MOVEMENT OF


PASSENGERS.












At Cristobal.


At Balboa.


Total.




First-
class.


Others.


Total.


First-
class.


Others.


Total.


First-
class.


Others.


Total.


Disembarking:

From Atlantic ports
From Pacific ports


1,127
89


574
76


1,701
165


157
146


189
254


346
400


1,284
235


763
330


2,047
565


Total disembarking.


1,216


650


1,866


303


443


746


1,519


1,093


2,612


Embarking:

For Atlantic ports

For Pacific ports


949
81


374
81


1,323
162


95
140


239
207


334

347


1,044
221


613
288


1,657
509


Total embarking. . . .


1,030


455


1,485


235


446


681


1,265


901


2,166


Remaining on board:

From Atlantic to Pacific


1,528


2,448


3,976








1,528

982

615

15


2,448

1,064

85

60


3,976


From Pacific to Atlantic


982


1,064


2.046


2,046


From Atlantic to Atlan-


615


85


700


700


From Pacific to Pacific


15


60


75


75












Total remaining on


2,143


2,533


4,676


997


1,124


2,121


3,140


3,657


6,797






Total arriving on Canal Zone .

Total departing from Canal

Zone


3,359
3,173


3,183
2,988


6,542
6,161


1,300
1,232


1,567
1,570


2,867
2,802


4,659
4,405


4,750

4,558


9,409
8,963



Note. — In passengers "remaining on board," those from the Atlantic to Pacific and Pacific to Atlantic are
reported only at port of arrival from the sea, and not again at the other terminus of the Canal.

PASSENGER-CARRYING VESSELS THROUGH CANAL.





Total
commercial

vessels.


Passenger-
carrying

vessels.


Per cent
of total
transits.


Number of

passengers

carried.


Atlantic to Pacific


202
151


74
57


36.6
37.7


4,484




2,545






Total


353


131


37.1


7,029



In addition to the foregoing, 47 passenger-carrying vessels called at the port of
Cristobal and 4 at Balboa without transiting the Canal, making a total of 182 passen-
ger-carrying vessels calling at Canal ports during the month.

AIRCRAFT ENTERING AND CLEARING.

During the month of September, 1932, 39 commercial airplanes entered and cleared
at Cristobal, and 1 entered and cleared at Balboa.

COMMISSARY SALES TO VESSELS.

The following is a statement of commissary sales to vessels during the month of
September, 1932, together with the total sales in the corresponding month in 1931
and 1930.





Ice.


Groceries.


Cold
storage.


Laundry.


Miscel-
laneous.


Total.


Sales at Cristobal to:


$758.93
99.80


$3,568.17

1,267.43

324.10


$7,660.58

2,301.92

102.82


$29.65

85.81

566.86


$3,059.98

514.85

6.49


$15,077.31




4,269.81


P. R. R. vessels


1,000.27








Total sales, September, 1932.


858.73


5,159.70


10,065.32


682.32


3,581.32


20,347.39


Total sales, September, 1931.


1,352.68


7,457.71


16,426.87


1,133 44


5,078.83


31,449.53


Total sales, September, 1930.


2,322.33


12,651.79


25,887.66


1,070.77


6,925.23


48,857.78


Sales at Balboa to:


380.27
339.05


1,703.08
1,671.03


3,851.38

9,483.67

3.54


256.82
128.05


2,133.00
1,850.38


8,324.55




13,472.18


P. R. R. vessels


3.54














Total sales, September, 1932.


719.32


3,374.11


13,338.59


384.87


3,983.38


21,800.27


Total sales, September, 1931.


610.43


6,549.76


19,841.22


586.26


5,884.32


33,471.99


Total sales. September, 1930.


623.92


1,832.55


19,395.51


1,209.37


10,660.30


33,721.65



October 26, 1932



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



181



The aggregate sales to commercial vessels during the month was $23,401.86; to
Government vessels, $17,741.99; and Panama Railroad vessels, $1,003.81, making the
total sales to all vessels, $42,147.66. The figures are subject to minor change on final
audit.

LOCK OPERATIONS.

The following tabulation shows the number of lockages, and the number of vessels
passing through the locks during the month of September, 1932, as compared with the
corresponding month in 1931 and 1930:



Locks.



Number of lockages.



Commercial.



North. South. Total.



Noncommercial.



North. South. Total



Comparative
grand totals.



Sept., Sept., Sept.,
1930. 1931. 1932.



Gatun

Pedro Miguel
Miraflores. . . .

Gatun. ......

Pedro Miguel
Miraflores



146
147
148



190
193
193



336
340
341



457
473
471



402
415
414



352
367
370



Number of vessels put through locks.



149
151
152



202


351


22


31


53


530


453


202


353


28


39


67


522


459


202


354


45


56


101


519


456



404
420
455



' Includes tolls paying craft under 20 tons measurement.

CLASSIFICATION OF NONCOMMERCIAL VESSELS.



Gatun.



Pedro
Miguel.



Miraflores.



Army and Navy vessels

Panama Canal equipment

Launches under 20 tons measurement
Colombian Government vessels



The total consumption of water for lockages, loss in leakage and maintenance, was
as follows in September, 1932, as compared with the preceding month and the corre-
sponding month in 1931:



Gatun.



Pedro
Miguel.



Miraflores.



Maintenance

Total, September, 1932
Total, August, 1932...
Total, September, 1931



Cubic feet.
1,455,200,000
30,000,000
20,590,000



Cubic feet.
1,185,310,000
50,000,000



1,505,790,000



1,235,310,000



1,375,910,000



1,064,510,000



1,692,640,000



1,336,100,000



Cubic feet.

1,169,510,000
40,000,000
23,120,000



1,232,630,000



1,137,980,000



1,324,790,000



HYDROGRAPHY.

The hydrographic conditions in the Canal Zone and vicinity during the month of
September, 1932, are shown in comparative form in the following tabulation:



September.



1931.



1932.



September— Years of record.



Maximum. Minimum. Mean



Discharge of Chagres River at Alhajuela

Maximum momentary discharge for the month

Gatun Lake watershed, total yield

Gatun Lake watershed, net yield

Draft of Gatun Lake for lockages and power . .



C. f. s.
4,212
21,500
10,016
9,406
2,703



C. f. s.
2,809
6,748
6,605
6,026
2,645



C.f.s.
4,790

'63,200
11,946
11,238
'2,917



C. /. s.
1,830



C.f.8.

3,213



6,507
5,945
'2,038



8,776
8,195
'2,610



■ September 6-7, 1887. ' Ten-year record (1921-1930, inclusive).

The monthly mean discharge of the Chagres River at Alhajuela for September,
1932, was 2,809 c. f. s., which is 14 per cent below the 31-year average of 3,213. The
maximum mean discharge on record for September is 4,790 c. f. s. in 1917, and the
minimum, 1,830 c. f. s. in 1911. The maximum momentary discharge for the month
was 6,748 c. f. s. at elevation 95.96 feet on the 20th, and the minimum was 2,040 c. f. s.
at elevation 92.56 feet on the 18th. The maximum momentary discharge on record



182



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



October 26, 1932



for September (1879-1932, inclusive) is 63,200 c. f. s. at elevation 109.95 feet on
September 6-7, 1887, the minimum (1907-1932, inclusive) is 1,130 c. f. s. at elevation
92.45 feet on September 12, 1911. There were no rises of 5 feet or more at Alha-
juela during the month.

Gatun Lake varied in elevation during September from a minimum of 85.45 feet
on the 6th and 22d to a maximum of 86.06 feet on the 30th, averaged 85.64 feet, and
ended the month at elevation 86.04 feet. The total yield on the Gatun Lake water-
shed was 6,605 c. f. s., which is 25 per cent below the 19-year average of 8,776 c. f. s.
The maximum total yield on record for September is 11,946 c. f. s. in 1917, and the
minimum is 6,507 c. f. s. in 1930.

Miraflores Lake varied between elevations 54.50 feet on the 22d and 53.30 feet on
the 1st and 30th, averaged 53.84 feet, and ended the month at elevation 53.51 feet.

SEISMOLOGY.

Three seismic disturbances were recorded during the month, all within 250 miles-
The N-S and E-W drums and clocks of the Wood-Anderson seismographs were
returned to the manufacturer for repairs and adjustments. The N-S and E-W Bosch-
Omori 100-kg. instruments only are now in operation.

ELECTRICAL DIVISION.

The gross generator output of the Gatun hydroelectric station for the month was
5,541,900 kilowatt hours, and the computed water consumption was 4,194,184,534
cubic feet. Continuous service was maintained at this station throughout the month.
The Miraflores Diesel-electric station had a gross generator output of 8,600 kilowatt
hours, and the fuel oil consumption was 28.33 barrels. Diesel engines were in service
three times during the month, twice for peak load purposes caused by operations of
dry dock pumps, and once for test purposes.

The installation and placing in operation of the supervisory control dispatching
equipment was completed at the Gatun hydroelectric station and the Miraflores
substation during the month. Installation of supervisory control equipment and
placing same in operation was completed during the month at Summit, Cristobal, and
Balboa substations. This completes the installation of remote control for these
stations. Operation has been successful.

In addition to the usual operating and maintenance work performed, electrical
additions or repairs were made on 16 vessels during the month. There were 382
work orders issued during the month, as compared with 457 issued during the previous
month.

MECHANICAL DIVISION.

Marine work at the Cristobal and Balboa shops during the month of September,
1932, is summarized as follows:





Ships repaired (including those in dry dock).




Remaining

from previous

month.


Entered
during month.


Completed
during month.


At Cristobal:

Commercial


4
7
4

2
5
2


11
5
2

1
10


12

6




5


At Balboa:


9




4




6






Total


24


36


42








Vessels in dry dock.


At Cristobal:




1
4
1

1
3


1




1


4




1


At Balboa:


1
1


2




2






Total


3


10


10







Repairs on the United States submarine S-48 were completed during the month;
repairs to the U. S. S. Memphis and U. S. S. Overton were carried forward. Work on
the S. S. Coya was completed during the month.



October 20, 1932



THE PANAMA CANAL RECORD



183



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING DIVISION.

In connection with the installation of oil lines to the coaling dock at Cristobal, there
were laid 1,875 feet of 16-inch W. I. screw pipe, 4,890 feet of 16-inch W. I. victaulic
pipe, 1,950 feet of 10-inch screw pipe, 1,775 feet of 6-inch G. I. pipe, ten 16-inch
valves, 2 expansion couplings, and 5 braces on 10-inch risers; also there were painted
2,300 feet of 16-inch pipe and 2,300 feet of 10-inch pipe. Work on this project is 75
per cent complete. In connection with the installation of water line from the west
side of the Canal to Bruja Point, with branch to Palo Seco, there were laid 3,340 feet
of 6-inch pipe and 1,780 feet of 3-inch pipe.

In connection with the Thatcher Highway, which was opened to the public on Sep-
tember 1, 200 lineal feet of 6-inch sewer pipe were laid and 10J square yards of side-
walk were constructed in connection with the erection of rest room at the west ferry
slip.

Work on a number of improvement projects in the Canal Zone and in the cities of
Colon and Panama was carried on. The usual work was performed on streets, roads,
walks, and the water and sewer systems. The amount of water pumped during the
month totaled 697,087,750 gallons.

DREDGING DIVISION.

The general movement of East Culebra slide extension continued throughout the
month, shoaling the channel to within 10 feet of the center line on September 21,
and again on September 26. Additional breaks also occurred behind the previous
back break line, precipitating material into the sliding area. The movement of



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