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from the United States and placed at work
in the Atlantic entrance channel. The Car-
denas was originally employed in the Pacific
entrance channel, and began work in May,
1907. All three were named for Isthmian
rivers.



ELECTRIC TRUCKS AT DOCKS.



Change in Schedule of Steamship Services with
New Orleans and New York.

The United Fruit Company has changed
the schedules of its services between New
Orleans and Cristobal. Under the new ar-
rangement the vessels making the direct trip,
in five days, leave New Orleans on Wednesday
at 11 a. m. , and arrive at Colon on Monday at
7 a. m. ; they leave Cristobal on Sunday at
3 p. m. and arrive at New Orleans on Friday
at 7 a. m. The vessels making the trip by
way of Havana leave New Orleans on Satur-
day at 11 a. m., and arrive at Cristobal on
the following Saturday at 1 p. m.; on the
voyage to New Orleans, they leave Cristobal
on Monday at 5 p. m., and arrive at New
Orleans on the following Monday at 5 p. m.

The Panama Railroad Steamship Line,
beginning with the sailing of the Panama
from Cristobal on November 18, will de-
spatch its vessels to New York on Thursday
of each week. This arrangement is to last
during such time as the Canal is closed to
commerce.

A list of the sailings in the near future is
published on the last page of The Canal
Record. Attention is also invited to the
revised schedule of despatches of mail to the
United States, resulting from the changes in
steamship schedules.



Sailing of the "Cristobal."

The steamship Cristobal of the Panama
Railroad Steamship Line will sail for New
York with cargo and passengers on or about
Wednesday, November 24. Following dis-
charge of the cargo she brought from New
York she will be used for a trip to Limon
to bring cattle for the commissary branch of
the Supply Department, after which she will
load at Cristobal for New York.



Save in Cost of Handling Cargo and Eliminate
Many Delays.

During the past three months the receiving
and forwarding agency of the Panama Rail-
road at Colon and Cristobal has been operat-
ing 12 electric trucks on the piers of the Atlan-
tic terminal. They have been very satisfac-
tory, and specifications are being prepared for
12 more trucks, to be ordered in the United
States.

Before the electric trucks were placed in use
the handling of cargo on the terminals was
done entirely by means of two-wheeled push
trucks for pieces of cargo weighing up to 500
pounds, and with locomotive cranes and flat
cars for the unusually large and heavy
pieces. Each truck was handled by a trucker,
and at times as many as 1,200 were in use.
The number used depended on the status of
traffic, and varied from day to day, according
to the work to be done for the ships in the
docks. The average in use was approxi-
mately 500. At 10 cents an hour, the wages
of a trucker amount to 90 cents a day; and
the employment of 500 would come to $450
for the day.

The use of the trucks has greatly reduced
this force. Each truck has been found to take
the place of at least 12 men, or in a day-and-
night shift operation to supplant about 25
men. The cost of operating the truck during
the 24-hour day is approximately S3. 50, of
which $2 is for the operators, one to a shift,
SI is for charging the storage batteries, and
50 cents covers the interest on the investment,
and the wear and tear on the machine. In a
double-shift day, each truck effects a saving
of about S19. The trucks are employed con-
stantly, and the fluctuations in cargo are met
by variations in the employment of two-wheel
trucks. On Wednesday, November 10, the
number of truckers employed was 380. On
Friday, November 12, the number was 290.
On Saturday, November 13, the number
was 243.

The electric trucks handle from 4,000 to
6,600 pounds at a trip, and move at speeds
varying between eight and 12 miles an hour.
Three types are in use at Cristobal. Four of
the 12 use trailers and haul 6,600 pounds at
eight miles an hour. Three are rated to carry
4,000 pounds, and make 10 miles an hour.
Five are rated to carry 4,400 pounds and to
make 12 miles an hour. When pieces weigh-
ing over two tons are to be handled, they are
placed on dollies and a truck is used as a loco-
motive to draw the dollies.

The relatively .great capacity and speed of
the trucks allow them to be used to a large
extent in place of railway cars for handling
cargo between piers. Where cargo is to be
transferred from a vessel at Dock 10, for in-
stance, to one at Pier 8, the goods may be
loaded on trucks, which will make the run of
approximately 2,000 feet to Pier 8 in three or



110



THE CANAL RECORD



TV. IX, No. 13.



four minutes, and handle the cargo more
quickly than it could be handled by train.
This eliminates a great deal of switching, with
the delays incident to waiting for cars and
engines, and saves a great deal of reharidling.
Frequently cargo can be delivered to a truck
in the sling into which it was loaded in the
hold of the ship, hauled to some other point
at the terminal, and swung from the truck
into another vessel in the same sling in which
it was first loaded. When refrigerated goods
for the commissary branch are unloaded, the
trucks can carry them direct to the cold stor-
age plant. They run very satisfactorily on
the streets, and have been equipped with li-
cense tags and regulation warning bells, as
provided for automobile trucks.

Other short-cuts for efficiency in handling
cargo are originated almost every day in meet-
ing the various transfer problems. When the
Panama Railroad vessels from the United
States bring mail the trucks go to the ship's
side aad handle the pouches quickly to the
several cars of the special train. Goods for
the line commissaries are handled from the
ships to cars designated for various towns;
it is not necessary to take them first to the
general warehouse. Local cargo for Colon is
handled, as unloaded, direct to the land end
of the pier, from which it can be taken by the
cartmen with a minimum of delay and confu-
sion. Locally loaded cargo of coconuts and
other native produce is handled from the land
direct to the ship; frequently a wide gang-
plank is laid down and the trucks are run
aboard the ship, to chute their produce down
into the hold. The unloading slings, hawsers,
and other parts of ship's unloading gear are
regularly stored in a room on Pier 8; when a
ship comes in a truck goes to this room, loads
up with the requisite gear, and delivers it at
the ship's side in the time in which a two-
wheeled truck gang could have been assem-
bled at the storage room. In many ways the
trucks allow the substitution of a relatively
few speedy units of large capacity for many
units slow in their movements, interfering
with one another by their very numbers,
and in need of constant supervision and
speeding-up. The saving is not only in cost
but in time, which is very important to ship

operators.

*

New Launch of the "Taboga" Type Ordered.

A 50-foot gasoline launch, capable of
carrying 50 passengers and going well out to
sea, has been ordered from the United States
for use about the harbor of Balboa, and for
auxiliary service in transporting passengers
between Balboa and Taboga Island when re-
quired. This launch will be the exact dupli-
cate of the Taboga which is used in general
harbor service at the Atlantic terminus, and
will cost, like the Taboga, $7,000, delivered
at ship's side in New York. Its machinery
will also be the duplicate of the machinery
in the several pilot boats, and it is the ex-
pectation of the Marine Division that this
duplication will result in economy in the pro-
vision of spare parts and in other details of
operation.

*

Roasting Ears.

Three of the 12 plantations operated by the
Supply Department are supplying green corn
to the commissary branch at present. Their
combined output is from 2,500 to 5,000 ears
a week. The extent of the demand for fresh
table corn, however, is such as to make this
supply, in the words of one of the authorities
in charge, "just a drop in the bucket".



Further Tests of Chain Fender Machines.
Additional testing of the chain fender
machinery in the upper chamber of the west
flight of Gatun Locks was made on Tuesday,
November 16, with the steamship Cristobal of
the Panama Railroad Steamship Line. Pre-
vious tests had been made on October 26 with
the Allianca, and the tests with the Cristobal
were meant to determine the action with a
larger vessel and at the same time to study
the effect of changes made in the machinery
after the tests with the Allianca. During



the trials the Cristobal was laden with most
of the cargo with which she arrived from New
York on November 13. The discharge of
cargo began in the morning of Wednesday,
November 17, at Pier 9, Cristobal.



The order established early in November,
to maintain the surface of Gatun Lake at
85 feet above sealevel throughout this month,
has been amended by establishing the limit
at 85.50 feet.



LABOR FORCE AND QUARTERS IN OCTOBER.



The force report of Wednesday, October 27, shows the actual working force of The
Panama Canal on that date to have been 19,808; of the Panama Railroad, 3,916; and of
contractors, 343, a total effective working force of 24,067. This is an increase of 306 over the
23,761 employed on September 22; a decrease of 1,357 from the force on August 25, which
was 25,424; is 2,838 less than the 26,905 employed on July 21; is 2,830 less than the 26,897
employed on June 23; is 2,367 less than the 26,434 employed on May 26; and 748 less than
the 24,815 employed on April 21. It is, however, 693 more than the 23,374 employed on March
24, and 722 more than the 23,345 employed on February 24. The force employed on January
20, was 24,853, which is 786 more than that employed on October 27.

The gold force on the Isthmus on October 27, composed almost exclusively of white
Americans, was 3,743, an increase of 143 from the 3,600 employed on September 22; an
increase of 147 over the 3,596 employed on August 25; 122 more than the 3,621 on July 21;
150 more than the 3,593 employed on June 23; 128 more than the 3,615 on May 26; and 3S2
more than the 3,361 employed on April 21. The gold force on October 27, numbering 3,743
was distributed as follows: The Panama Canal, 3,270; the Panama Railroad, 363; contractors,
110. Detailed figures of the employment on the Isthmus on October 27 follow:









SILVER EMPLOYES*




>


2
H






Artisans.


Laborers.


3

s

-a
O


Department or
Division.


1


|




§


!


c


P.


111


a


o


d


c


Operation and Main-


429
4i0
110

88
298
1,885
146
16 t

56
4


1
"*2

" i


3
54
365
36
55
11
62


27
202
527

50
162

.;,

114


66
454
603
106
195
IIS
5


!1
101

26
140
154

47
601






7
310
273

45
197
128

44


9
399
162

1


2
2


19
10
•1
34
4
7


553
2,061
2,083

477
1.D71
2,264

1,74'J
164
422
66


180
265
181
166
88
334
825
53
83
2




Terminal Constr'ctn

Building Division. .


26


84
3


2,326

J..'-!


Municipal Eng


81

20
127


IS
1
14


7651 12
i) . . .


2.059




161


6


2.574






32


59


103


17
1

1,098


1
1


79
10

1,093


55
49


1

23


78


505




19


618


1,1 7.S








3,592


2,22^


122


1,634


11,S10


2,177
IS
165
31
81
203
180
419

363

110










818
528
SOS

<i
396
123
339

40


"42


4
3
67


6

3
70


li
2

71


13
9


250


1




171


25


1


1.30S

545

1 ,838

23
80 2
125
3,553
233


1.470




7


17


113


639




7


1.919




3

1

124

4

19J


3

1

40

7


4


13




6




32


408


5


IS










1S7
34


11


68C


108
1,281

925

+ 356


24

164

144

+ 21


493
49


465
5


9


11
5


3,916








6,664


743

765
-22


1,482

1.53C

-54


2,72<,

2,971
-2,


1.80C

1,242
+ 55t


1,750

2.103
-353


3,322

3.717
-395


66 121


20,324

20.161
+ 163


3,743

3.60C
+ 143


24,067




6.416
+241


16!

+2;


53
13
+


121
-1


23,761
+306



A summary of the
1915, is given below:



United States currency*

QUARTERS.

occupation of Government quarters on the Isthmus on October 31,





Gold.


Europeans.


West Indians.




Men


Women


Clui-
dren


Men


Women


Chil-
dren


Men


Women


Chit,
dren.




893
956

62
21S
308

28

20

221

1.031


249
424

41
110
79

i :

3
172
38 7


354

136
90
14

6

22 1
405


145'


8


IS


1.4S2>
2U
194
315s
41,8
431'
111
1

1,631'


476
19

34
38
104
278
19
856
189


638








1

S

124

3


1


1


Si








5
2


16
7


147




323




34




64

8 A


3


5


67S




390










Total


3,732


1,429


1,503


■!2')


19


■; i


5,519


1.513


2.31



(1) Includes Taboga Island. Naos Island, and Palo Seco. (2) Includes 13 Asiatics. (3) Includes 18 Ameri-
;roes. 60 Colombians and Panamanians, and two Panamanians on the gold roll. (4) Includes Miraflores.
(5) Includes 30 P (6) Includes Empire. Las Cascadas. and Bas Obispo. (7) Includes 13 Panamani-

ans. (8) Includes Colon Beach and Colon Hospital. (9) Includes 20 East Indians, 18 colored American citi-
zens, and 148 Panamanians.



November 17, 1915.



THE CANAL RECORD



111



FROM MANILA TO NEW YORK.

Vessel Choosing Panima Canal Instead of Suez
Found It Closed.

One of the vessels which was held up at the
Pacific end of the Canal by the suspe
of traffic resulting from the slides at Culebra
was on the way from Manila to New York.
The distance from Manila to New York by
the Panama Canal, sailing by Yokohama and
the Great Circle to San Francisco, is 11,585
miles; by way of Guam and Honolulu it is



11,675 miles. By way of the Suez Canal the
distance is 11,601 miles. It is thus seen that
there is little choice among the routes as far
as distance alone is concerned, and the ship's
coming this way instead of by the Suez Canal
was due less to this consideration than to con-
ditions affecting the particular vessel at this
time. When the ship arrived at Balboa the
Canal was closed. It was accordingly neces-
sary for the remainder of the voyage to be made
by way of the Strait of Magellan. This meant



an additional run of approximately 11,130
miles. This is almost as much as the regular
voyage from Manila to New York by either
of the canals.

The region including the Philippines, Aus-
tralia, and Xew Zealand, and Japan is almost
antipodal to the Atlantic ports of the United
States and Europe. The lines of equal dis-
tance by Suez and by Panama from Xew York
and Liverpool are shown in the accompany-
ing map.




MAP SHOWING LINES OF E 2UAL DISTANCE FROM NEW YORK AND LIVERPOOL BY SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS.



112



THE CANAL RECORD



Vol. IX, No. 13.



QUARANTINE ACTIVITIES.

Immigration Exceeded Emigration in October. —
Smallest Number of Inspections This Year.
Immigration to the Isthmus from foreign
ports during the month of October, 1915, ex-
ceeded emigration to foreign ports during
the month by 206 persons, according to the
count kept by the quarantine officials of the
ports of Cristobal-Colon and Balboa-Panama.
This makes the net emigration since July 1,
1913, a period of two years and four months,
amount to 26,928. This is at the rate of
961.7 per month, or 31.6 per day. During
approximately the same period the Canal
force diminished from 42,262 on June 25, 1913,
to 24,067 on October 27, 1915, a decrease of '
18,195, which is at the rate of 649.8 per month,
or 21.3 per day.

The total number of passengers and crews
examined at the ports during September was
14,476, the least for any month in this year
since February. A comparison with the pre-
ceding months since the beginning of the year
is afforded by this tabulation:



Number of persons embarked for
foreign ports:

Cabin 1,592

Steerage 1,490



Month.



January. . .
February. .

March

April

May

June

July

August. . . .
September.
October....



Total 46.586 120.279



4,300
6,014
3,605
5,391
4,969
4,974
4.900
4.606
3.940



Crews.



10.232
9,332
12,155
11.032
11,772
12,756
14,136
14.814
13,514
10,536



Total.



14.119
13,632
18.169
14.637
17,163
17,725
19.110
19,714
18.120
14.476



166,865



The total number inspected in October
was slightly less than three-fourths of the
total number in August. August was the
second month in quantity of traffic through the
Canal, being exceeded only by July, and the
great falling off in numbers in October is
attributed to the closing of the Canal on
September 18, and its remaining closed
throughout October. The total number of
vessels inspected during October was 168, as
compared with 234 in September, and 221 in
August.

The examination of 166,865 persons in the
10-month period is at the average rate of
16,686.5 persons per month, or 548.9 per day.
\. A summary of the quarantine activities
on the Isthmus during October is given in
this consolidated report for the ports of
Balboa-Panama and Cristobal-Colon:
Number of vessels inspected and passed 156
Number of vessels held in quarantine . . 12



Total

Number of vessels fumigated on arrival
Number of vessels fumigated on de-
parture



Total

Number of crew examined 10,536

Number of passengers examined 3,940



Total 14,476

Number of supplementary inspections 1,243
Number of persons vaccinated at ports
of arrival because of compulsory vac-
cination law 430

Number of persons vaccinated at ports
of departure or en route because of
compulsory vaccination law 386



Total

Number of persons held in quarantine
at the detention houses to complete
period of incubation of yellow fever
and plague

Number o! persons held in quarantine
on board vessels to complete period
of incubation of yellow fever and
plague 1,746



816



270



Total

Number of persons landed from foreign
ports:

Cabin 2,262

Steerage 1,026



3.0S2



Total

Number of persons arriving from coast

towns on small launches and sailing

craft 1,637

Number of persons sailing for coast

towns on small launches and sailing

craft 1,108

Apparent increase for month from coast

towns 329

Apparent increase for month from

foreign ports:

Cabin 670

Steerage (decrease) 464



Total

Number of immigrants recommended

for deportation

Number of bills of health issued or viseed.

Number of inspections of docks

Mumper of inspections of vessels at docks.
Number of persons landed. .. . 4,925
Less number for Pacific ports. . 525



206



Total 4,400

Total number of persons sailing. . . . 4,190

Total apparent increase for month 210

The immigration report for Colon, which
is the port receiving the majority of passen-
gers, classifies the immigrants during Oc-
tober, by places of origin, as follows:

From Cabin Steerage

Europe.



Venezuela


864

108

5

107

33
108

50


36

236

1

107






















1,322


836



2.158

Of the 2,158, the men numbered 1,143;
women, 567; children, 246; and- 202 were
not classified.



Religious and School Facilities at Pedro Miguel
Silver Settlement.

Several applications for the assignment of
lots in the vicinity of the new quarters for
silver employes south of Pedro Miguel, for
the erection of church and mission buildings,
are in the hands of the Governor. He has
appointed a committee, consisting of the
General Inspector of the Health Department,
chairman, the Chief Quartermaster, the
Municipal Engineer, and the Land Agent,
to consider and report on the presumable
extent to which religious and school facilities
will be necessary or desirable in connection
with the settlement. The same rules will
govern the assignments as have been followed
in other settlements. These rules were set
forth in a circular letter on May 16, 1914, as
follows:

Culebra, C. Z., May 16, 1914.

To all concerned — It is desired to assign lots to such
churches and religious organizations as desire them in
such settlements as suitable areas are available, in
general accordance with the following terms:



Lots will be leased under revocable license at a
nominal rental.

Such lots may be used for the erection of church
buildings by the different churches and religious so-
cieties, and for the errection of quarters for the priest,
or for the minister or pastor and his family.

This revocable license will not permit the sub-
leasing or the u^e r f the lot by any other tnan I he person
or the persons named in it.

The church or the church society will be expected to
bear all expenses connected with the construction of
the buildings on the lots and the use thereof, including
payment for electric light, water, etc. The lessee will
be expected to conform to all administrative and sani-
tary rules and legulations.

***********

Geo. W. Goethals,

Governor.
The committee will hold its first meeting
on Wednesday, November 24, at 2 p. m., in
the old Administration Building at Ancon.
Those who have made applications for lots
for church or mission use are invited to be
present at the meeting to state their require-
ments, and the Superintendent of Schools will
submit his views as to the need of space for
school purposes.



Proposed Construction of New Quarters.

In the proposed building program for the
next fiscal year, which will begin July 1, 1916,
are included items covering the construc-
tion of 581 additional apartments for family
quarters for gold employes, and 432 apart-
ments for silver employes. The proposed
distribution of the gold quarters, subject to
the appropriation of funds for the construc-
tion, is as follows:

At Balboa, 79 four-family houses, and 100
one-family, type- 17 cottages.

At Cristobal, 25 one-family cottages, and
19 four-family houses.

At Pedro Miguel, 16 one-family cottages,
and 12 four-family houses.

The proposed distribution of the new silver
quarters is to erect 21 houses at Paraiso and
15 at La Boca, each house containing 12
apartments.

All of these quarters are to be of frame con-
struction, except four four-family houses at
Balboa, which will be of concrete.



Applications for Family Quarters.
Applications for married quarters were on
file on October 31, 1915, as follows:





Stations.


Number of
applications.












127 (15)












807 (148)



Note — The figures in parentheses show the numbers
of applicants already occupying regular or nonhousa-
keeping family quarters at stations other than those at
which applications are filed.







Deceased


Employes.






Name


Check
No.


Native of


Isthmian
Residence


Employed by


Dale of
death


Bent, Michael (Michael Best)..


S3311
90265
60442
36423
36524
83419
42 76






P. R. R :.

P. R. R

Marine Div

O. & M. Dept...
O. & M. Dept. ..

Health Dept

Building Div....


Nov. 5, 1915.


Jamaica

Jamaica


New Gatun


Nov. 9, 1915.




Nov. 5, 1915.




Oct. 31, 1915.






Oct. 30, 1915.


Jamaica


Ancon


Nov. 2, 1915.


Stanton, Charles J


U. S. A


Nov. 4, 1915.



Total 3,288



The estates of the abovenamed deceased employes of The Panama Canal or the Panama
Railroad Company are now ih process of settlement, and any claims against the estates or
any information which might lead to the finding of heirs or to the recovery of property,
bank deposits, postal savings or postal money order deposits, or any other moneys due them,
should be presented at once to the Administrator of Estates, Room 320, Administration
Building, Balboa Heights, C. Z. All claims should be itemized, sworn to before a notary
public, or other public officer having a seal, and submitted in duplicate. The names will be
published but once.



November 17, 1915.



THE CANAL RECORD



113



OFFICIAL CIRCULARS.



Baggage Tariff — Ancon, Balboa, and Panama.

The Panama Canal,
Executive Department,
Balboa Heights, C. Z., November 10, 1915.
Circular No. 706:

The following tariff of rates for the transferand trans-
portation of baggage, other than over the Panama Rail-
road, between the several points hereinafter named,
will be in force and effect from and after its publication
in The Canal Record:

trunks.
Fromany point in Panama to entrance to Balboa docks —
75 cents each.

From any point in Ancon or Balboa to entrance to
Balboa docks — 50 cents each.

From street car terminus, Balboa, to entrance of old
Balboa dock — 15 cents each.

HAND BAG3AG3 AND PARCELS.



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