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order to produce sexual elements (genoblasts), the cell divides into
its several parts ; in the case of the egg-cell, the male polar
globules are thrown off, leaving the female ovum. In the case of
the sperm-cell, the male spermatoblasts, which are supposed to be
analogous to the polar globules, multiply considerably, and their
descendants give rise to the male elements, while the parent cell
atrophies. In order to make a complete cell, which will be
capable of developing into a fetus, the union of these sexual
elements is necessary. According to this view, parthenogenesis is
only an extreme case of asexual reproduction, and in nowise the
development of a female element without impregnation.

The theories of heredity are briefly stated, and the author's
views thus summarized : << The child is like its parents, because
its organization is regulated by not merely similar, but by some
of the same chromatine (nuclear substance) as that of its
parents."

Part II., on the Germ Layers, includes (Chapter IV.), Segmenta-
tion (Chapter V.), Concresence, the law of which is stated on page
125: " The vertebrate primitive axis is formed by the growing
together in the axial line of the future embryo of the two halves
of the ectental line " (Chapter VI.). The Mesoderm and the Coelom,
in which the various theories of that much disputed question, the
origin of the mesoderm, are thoroughly discussed, and the
conclusion drawn that it is derived from the entoderm (Chapter
VII.), General Remarks on the Germ Layers.

Part III., on the Embryo, includes Chapters VIII. to XIII.; on
the Medullary Groove, Notochord, and Neurenteric Canals ;
Division of the Coelom ; Origin of the Blood, Blood-vessels, and
Heart ; Origin of the Urogenital System ; The Archenteron and the
Gill Clefts ; The Germinal Area ; The Embryo, and its Appendages.

Parts III. and IV. are replete with interesting facts, a detailed
review of which, we regret, space will not permit.

In Part V., an excellent account is given of the growth and
development of the fetus, its appendages, organs, and special sys-
tems. This is the largest part of the book, covering over 300 pages.



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PABKES : HYOIBNB AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 181

We can speak none but words of praise for this valuable
contribution to the literature of embryology. The author's state-
ments are clear and concise, and a thoroughly scientific spirit is
manifested throughout the entire treatise.

The drawings from microscopical sections call for special
commendation. Only those who have made such drawings can
appreciate the labor involved.

Many authors have been quoted, and full credit is given in the
remarkable bibliographical reference list, which is appended.

The publishers have done their part well, and the book should
have a wide circulation. E. P. L.



HroiENE AND Public Health. By Louis C. Parkes, M. D., D. P.
H., London University. Fellow of the Sanitary Institute, and
Member of the Board of Examiners ; Lecturer on Public Health at
St George's Hospital Medical School ; Medical OflQcer of Health
and Public Analysis for the parish of Chelsea. Third edition, with
illustrations. Price, $2.75. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston. Son &
Co., 1012 Walnut street. 1892.

The study of the science of hygiene and public health has
progressed in a remarkable degree within the last decade. It has
come to be a necessary part of the equipment of every physician,
whether he is a specialist or a general practitioner of medicine and
surgery, or whether he is simply a laboratory teacher, to be familiar
with the essential subjects treated under this general head. Every
physician, nowadays, is asked questions that come within the
province of the sanitarian and public health scientist, and he must
be ready to give an intelligent answer when this information is
sought. The people are not slow to understand that it is more
important to prevent disease than to cure it, and even those who
are only moderately informed on science in general are apt to have
some information on the prevention of disease, through care of the
person, house sanitation, and good drainage.

This work has passed through two editions within a compara-
tively short time, and now presents itself in an admirable dress,
with some additions and improvements, and a thorough revision.

The subject of Smoke Prevention by Mechanical Appliances, of
Weather Observations, of Cyclonic Systems, and of Epidemic
Influenza, have been newly introduced, while the article on Diph-
theria has been entirely re- written, and other chapters, dealing with
Etiology and Bacteriology, have been brought up to date.

We are pleased to give endorsement to such an admirable work,



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182 REVIEWS.



for it must be so regarded, alike in matter, method, and make-up.
It has a very complete index, which we desire to especially commend.



Diseases of the Kidneys and Bladder. A Text-book for Students
of Medicine. By W. F. McNutt, M. D., M. R. C. S.. Ed., L. R.
C. P., Ed., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine,
University of California ; Professor of the Diseases of the Kidneys
and Heart, Post-Graduate Department of the University of Cali-
fornia ; Consulting Physician and Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital,
and to the Children's Hospital ; Member of the International Medical
Congress, of the American Medical Association, and of the Cali-
fornia State Medical Society ; President of the California Gyneco-
logical Society ; Ex- Acting Assistant Surgeon United States Navy,
etc. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Co. 1893.

This work begins by giving the anatomy and physiology of
the kidneys, including anomalies of position, form, and number.
In its second section, Diseases of the Kidney are taken up, the first
being nephralgia, or neuralgia of the kidneys. There is scarcely
any organ or section of the body which may not be the seat of this
distressing symptom, for, in most instances, neuralgia is a symptom
of some significance relating to structural or functional disease.
It is especially so in the kidneys, where calcuH furnish the chief
cause for pain in the organ.

Hyperemia, Hematuria, Anemia, Disease of the Renal Blood-
vessels, and, next, the Urine are taken up in their natural order.
The chapter on the Urine is an exceedingly interesting one, and
deserves careful study. Casts of the Uriniferous Tubules, Albu-
men, and Nephritis in its various forms, are then discussed in the
order named.

The author is very clear in his treatment of the subjects
grouped under the general head Nephritis, and has illustrated its
pathology with a few cuts, and these, it seems to us, might have
been increased in number with much profit. Uremia is next taken
up, then Degenerations and New Growths.

Section III. considers Diseases of the Pelvis of the Kidneys,
including the ureters, and finally, in the next chapter, the Surgical
Treatment of the Kidneys is dwelt, upon.

Section IV. considers Diseases of the Bladder, which is a
department of medicine requiring more careful attention by the
general practitioner than it usually receives. He will here find
carefully considered instructions that will aid him in the diagnosis
and treatment of these sometimes very subtle conditions.

In Section V., Diabetes is treated upon, and the volume closes
with an excellent index.



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BWABT : CARDIAC OUTLINES FOB CLINICAL CLERKS, ETC. 183

We oommend it to the careful consideration of the general
practitioner as well as the genito-urinary specialist.



Cardlao Outlines for Clinical Clerks and Practitioners, and
First Principles in the Physical Examination of the Heart,
FOR the Beginner. By William Ewart, M. D., Cantab., F. R.
C. P., Physician to St. George's Hospital; Clinical Lecturer and
Teacher of Practical Medicine in the Medical School ; Physician to
the Belgrave Hospital for Children ; Additional Examiner, in 1891,
for the third M. B. of the University of Cambridge ; late Assistant
Physician and Pathologist to the Brompton Hospital for Consump-
tion and Diseases of the Chest. With sixty-two illustrations. New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 West Twenty-third street. London :
The Knickerbocker Press, 24 Bedford street, Strand. 1892.

The author of this monograph states in his preface that he
indited the work with a three-fold object, namely : To help the
beginner throagh his first difficulties ; to encourage the clinical
clerk in the cultivation of a graphic method as a means to
thoroughness and accuracy ; and to place at the disposal of the
practitioner a way and method of adequately recording important
clinical observations.

A careful examination of the work indicates that Mr. Ewart
has admirably succeeded oh the three lines laid out. The import-
ance of stating clinically the location of the heart in health and
disease cannot be over-estimated, for disease of this important
organ must be early diagnosticated, if its multifarious diseases
are to be relieved. Anatomical accuracy is essential as a begin-
ning to diagnosis.

We oommend this little work to the student of clinical
accuracy, and to practitioners of medicine, as a valuable guide in
their researches and investigations.



Lessons in Physical Diagnosis. By Alfred L. Loomis, M. D.,
LL.D., Professor of the Practice of Medicine and Pathology in the
University of the City of New York. Tenth edition, revised and
enlarged. Octavo ; illustrations, some in color ; 240 pages, extra
muslin ; price, $3.00. New York : William Wood & Co.

The tenth edition of this volume requires but very little
notice at our hands, beyond the mere announcement of the fact
that this distinguished author and teacher has kept his work well
to the fore in the point of progress. It has been thoroughly
revised, and such corrections and additions have been made as
seemed to him necessary to make it fully abreast of the present
moment.



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184 BEVIKWS.

Dr. Loomis says, in a prefatory note, that the section on the
physical action of the heart, and the lesson on the examination of
the urine, have been entirely re-written, and that a new lesson on
clinical microscopy has been added.

We commend the lesson on tlie examination of the urine to
every student and practitioner interested — and who is not ? — as
worthy of the most careful study. It is a subject second to none
in importance, for through the examination of the urine often has
been found the key to many an obscure malady ; but this work
must be done carefully, and not in the usual slipshod manner. Dr.
Loomis is especially strong in reference to the diagnosis of cardiac
diseases, and has long been the accepted authority in this branch
of internal medicine. Here, again, his teachings deserve careful
reading, since they furnish a safe guide in this important field.

The book is handsomely printed, and contains many useful
illustrations.

Napheys^ Modekn Therapeutics. Medical and Surgical, includiag
the Diseases of Women and Children. A compendium of recent
formula and therapeutical directions from the practice of eminent
contemporary physicians, American and foreign. Ninth edition,
revised and enlargfed. Volume II. General Surgery, Gynecology,
and Obstetrics. By Allen J. Smith, M. D., Prof essor of Pathol-
ogy, University of Texas, Galveston ; late Assistant Demonstrator
of Morbid Anatomy and Pathological Histology, and Lecturer on
Urinology, University of Pennsylvania, and J. Aubrey Davis.
M. D., Assistant Demonstrator of Obstetrics, University of Penn-
sylvania ; Assistant Physician to Home for Crippled Children.
Philadelphia. Large octavo volume. Pp. 19-1112. Price, $6.00
Philadelphia : P. Blakiston, Son & Co., 1012 Walnut street. 1893.

The second volume of this important work is constructed on
similar lines to that of Volume I., which we noticed in the issue
of the Journal for December, 1892. It is scarcely within the
province of the reviewer to go beyond the mere statement that this
work is one of the most practical of its kind, and must necessarily
prove useful in a marked degree to the general practitioner of
medicine. This is its appropriate field, in our opinion, for here is
recorded, briefly, such practical therapeutical points as will serve
to aid him in the treatment of disease. Besides the many useful
formulae that the volume contains, there are numerous clinical
memoranda and suggestions which are not usually found in thera-
peutical treatises.

The ninth edition of a work usually bespeaks its popularity,
and we know of none that has become more so in twenty-two years
than Napheys' Modern Therapeutics.



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M^LAUGtlLIN : FBBMENTATION. INFECTION, ETC. 186

Fermentation, Infection, and Immunity. A New Theory of these
Processes, which Unifies their Primary Causation and Places the
Explanation of their Phenomena in Chemistry, Biology, and the
Dynamics of Molecular Physics. By J. W. McLaughlin, M. D.
Pp. 240. Austin, Texas : Eugene Von Boeckman, printer.

This so-called new theory is no new theory at all, but an
elaboration of the old physical theory of Liebig. Dr. McLaughlin,
however, rids the old theory of mach of its crudeness, and presents
the physical theory in a manner which is most intensely interest-
ing reading.

We congratulate the author upon having given the scientist a
Tery interesting description of fermentation, and having made
a very laudable attempt to explain the same by means of mole-
cular physics.

The theory of fermentation, in a nut-shell, as presented by Dr.
McLaughlin, is that yeast {saccharomyces cerevisise, for example,)
has a certain molecular motion as regards wave length and period
of time ; that the sugar with which it comes in contact, and in
which it produces the phenomena known as fermentation, has a
molecular motion which coincides, or nearly coincides, with the
wave length and period of time of the yeast cell. Now, the
constant beating of the yeast cell against the molecule of sugar
caases the sugar molecule to be resolved into its atomic consti-
tuents, and these atoms re-arrange themselves under the formation
of ethyl alcohol, carbon, dioxide, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl
alcohols, succinnic acid, glycerine, etc.

The theory is a grand one, but why, in the fermentation of
dextrose by saccharomyces cerevisise, ethyl acohol should be
formed in by far the largest* quantity, is not explained. Viewed
from the standpoint of chemical possibility, the molecule of
dextrose might just as well re-arrange its atoms into methyl alcohol,
propyl alcohol, and carbon dioxide, as into the products which we
know are produced.

On the other hand, take the unorganized ferments. Do they pro-
dace their specific effect by means of bombardment ? Does dias-
tO0e, for instance, train its dynamite guns upon the starch molecule
and resolve it into its atomic elements ? If such is the case, then
hydrochloric, sulphuric, and other acids must convert the starch
molecule into sugar by a similar process. In regard to the unor-
ganised ferments, we do not know but that they combine with the
molecule upon which they are to act, and that this combination is
again decomposed. Let us not forget the mystery which long sur-



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186 REVIEWS.

roanded the formation of ether from alcohol and sulphuric acid.
*< Contact action " explained, for a great many years, a process
which we know today is simply synthesis and decomposition.

Another point in the theory, which appears very weak to us,
is the action of one specific form of yeast upon sugars which are
physically and chemically different. For example, why should
saccharomyces cerevisiSB produce the same products from dextrose
and levulose, two sugars physically different, or from maltose, a
sugar different, both chemically and physically, from the two just
mentioned ?

The theory advanced, while very plausible, fails to explain
many peculiarities met with in actual practice. J. A. M.



Diseases of the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys. By N. §. Davis, Jr.,
A. M.. M. D., Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine,
Chicago Medical College : Physician to Mercy Hospital, etc , etc.
Philadelphia and London : F. A. Davis & Co., Publishers. 1892.

The author states in the preface that this volume comprises a
part of the topics of his lectures before the students of the Chicago
Medical College, and this presumably is the reason for their appear-
ance in book form. The various affections of- these organs are
treated carefully and logically, but contain nothing new or origi-
nal, and nothing that cannot be found in any good book on prac-
tice. The author treats the various forms of disease of these
organs very carefully and conscientiously, giving formulas and
special directions wherever convenient. The binding is similar to
the other volumes of the ready reference series. W. C. K.



Manual of Chemistry. A Guide to tectures and Laboratory Work
for Beginners in Chemistry. A Text-Book Specially Adapted for
Students of Medicine and Pharmacy. By W. Simon, Ph. D., M. D.,
Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology in the College of Physicians
and Surgeons ; Professor of Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry in
the Maryland College of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Md. Fourth edition,
thoroughly revised, with forty-four illustrations and seven colored
plates, representing fifty-six chemical reactions. Pp. vii. — 493.
Philadelphia : Lea Brothers & Co. 1898.

This work is by no means a new one to the profession, and its
popularity is evidenced by the call for a fourth edition in a com-
paratively short time. The author has brought it down to the
present status of chemical science. The colored plates used for
the purpose of illustrating the different precipitates is a great aid
to the student, and highly commendable.

This work is written in a clear, concise style, and imparts to



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BOOKS BBCBIVBD. 187

the student who will study it carefully, an excellent outline of the
science.

The typography and make-up of the book is in the usual good
taste which is characteristic of this firm. J. A. M.



BOOKS RECEIVED.

A Manual of Medical Treatment or Clinical Therapeutics. By I.
Burney Yeo, M. D., F. R. C. P., Professor of Therapeutics in King's
College, London. In two 12mo volumes, containing 1275 pages,
with illustrations. Complete work, cloth, $5.50. Philadelphia : Lea
Brothers & Co. 1893.

• The Throat and Nose, and Their Diseases. By Lennox Browne,
F. R. C. S. E , Senior Physician to the Central London Throat and Ear
Hospital. Fourth and enlarged edition. In one imperial octavo
volume of about 760 pages, with 120 illustrations in color, and 236
engravings on wood. Cloth, $6.50. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers &
Co. 1893.

A Manual of Diseases of the Ear. By George P. Field, M. R. C. S. ,
Aural Surgeon and Lecturer on Aural Surgery, St. Mary's Hospital
Medical School, London. In one octavo volume of 391 pages, with
seventy-three engravings and twenty-one colored plates. Cloth, $3.75.
Philadelphia : Lea Brothers & Co. 1893.

Annual of the Universal Medical Sciences. A Yearly Report of the
Progress of the General Sanitary Sciences throughout the World.
Edited by Charles E. Sajous, M. D., and seventy associate editors,
assisted by over two hundred corresponding editors, collaborators,
and correspondents. Illustrated with chromo-lithographs, engravings,
and maps. Five volumes. The F. A. Davis Company, Publishers,
Philadelphia, New York. Chicago, and London. Australian Agency :
Melbourne, Victoria. 1893.

The Art of Preserving Health by Preventing Disease. Outlines of
Practical Hygiene, adapted to American Conditions. By C. Oilman
Currier, M. D., Visiting Physician to the New York City Hospitals;
Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine ; Member of the New
York Pathological Society ; Member of the American Medical Associa-
tion, etc., etc. One large octavo volume, 468 pages, illustrated, $2.76.
New York : E. B. Treat, 5 Cooper Union. 1898.

A Chapter on Cholera, for Lay Readers. History, Symptoms,
Prevention, and Treatment of the Disease. By Walter Vought, Ph.B.,
M. D.. Medical Director and PhyAcian-in-Charge of the Fire Island
Quarantine Station. Port of New York ; Fellow of the New York
Academy of Medicine, etc. Illustrated with colored plates and wood
engravings. In one small 12mo volume, 110 pages. Price, 75 cents
net. Philadelphia: The F. A. Davis Co., Publishers, 1914 and 1916
Cherry street.

The Pharmacopeia of the United States of America. Seventh
decennial revision (1890). By authority of the National Convention
for Revising the Pharmacopeia, held at Washington, A. D. 1890.
Official for January 1. 1894. Published by the Committee on Revision.
Octavo pp. 1. — 602. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, Printers
and Binders. P. Blakiston, Son & Co.. Agents. 1893.



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188 LITERARY NOTES.

A Treatise on Ophthalmology, for the General Practitioner. By
Adolph Alt, M. D. Second edition. Revised and enlarged, with 140
illustrations, 8vo, pp. xvi. - 830. St. Louis : J. H. Chambers & Co.
1898.

Transactions of the Texas State Medical Association. Twenty-fifth
Annual Session, held at Galveston. May 2, 8, 4, and 5. 1893. £dited
by H. A. West, M. D. , Secretary. Octavo volume, pp. 448. Galveston :
Knapp Brothers, Printers and Publishers. 1898.

Transactions of the Association of American Physicians. Eighth
Session, held at Washington. D. C, May 80-81, and June 1, 1898.
Volume VIII. Edited by I. Minis Hays, M. D.. Recorder. Philadel-
phia : William J. Dornan. Printer. 1893.



The Magazine of the Future. — The July Cosmopolitan marked
the most radical step ever taken in periodical literature. With
that issne, the magazine, unchanged in form, in fact one of the
best numbers of the Cosmopolitan ever issued, was put on sale at
twelve and one-half cents per copy — 11.60 a year. The cutting in
half of a price already deemed Ioav for an illustrated magazine, is
' the result of an intention long since formed, to give to the public
an illustrated monthly of the very highest class at such a price as
must bring it within the reach of all persons of intellectual tastes^
however limited their incomes. There are more than 10,000,000
readers in the United States, and less than 800,000 magazines are
printed to supply their demands. More than four years have
been spent in reaching the organization necessary for the produc-
tion of the Cosmopolitan at this price, a figure hitherto undreamed
of by the reading world. Each department of the work has been
slowly perfected, until, with the January number of this year,
160,000 copies of the magazine were prepared upon presses and
machinery of the most improved form, built with a view to
producing the finest results at the very minimum of expense — the
only establishment in the world, it is believed, devoted exclusively
to the printing of an illustrated monthly magazine. To establish
a magazine upon such a basis at the outset was impossible. Only
the rapid growth of the Cosmopolitan's editions, almost unprece-
dented in magazine records, has produced, th^ conditions which
make this departure from established prices possible. The Cosmo-
politan promises to make the year 1893 the most brilliant in its
history. No other year has seen such an array of distinguished
names as will appear on its title page during 1890. De Maupas-
sant, Mark Twain, George Ebers, Yaldez, Spielhagen, Francoit^



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LITSBABT NOTES. 189

Copp^e, FlammarioD, and Paul Ileyse, are some of the authors
whose work will appear for the first time this year in the pages of
the Cosmopolitan. Among the artists whose work will decorate
its pages for the first time daring 1893 are Laarens, Toassaint,
Vierge, Roohegrosse, and Sohwabe. William Dean Howells will
be a regular contributor during 1893-94.



Thb Secretary of the State Board of Health, Dr. Lewis Balch, has
prepared a manual for the use of members of local boards of health,
health officers, and all others interested in health matters. The
book is exactly what it purports to be a — practical working manual.
It defines the powers of the State and local boards, it contains
directions to the local health officer, it gives examples of problems
which may arise and their solution, it offers suggestions for the
prevention of disease, and it includes directions to be followed in
times of danger from epidemics of contagious diseases which
formulate the best method of stamping these out which experience
has devised. It solves many legal questions in the most plain and



Online LibraryJ. A. (Joel Asaph) AllenBuffalo medical journal → online text (page 19 of 78)