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J. A. (Joel Asaph) Allen.

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November 15, 1893. A cordial invitation is extended to the pro-
fession.



The Southern Surgical and Gynecological Association will hold
its sixth annual meeting at New Orleans, La., on Tuesday, Wed-
nesday, and Thursday, November 14, 15, and 16, 1893, under the
presidency of Dr. Bedford Brown, of Alexandria, Va.

The good quality of work which this Association does, warranto
the expectation that the attendance will, as usual, be very large
this year.

•Kcatlem^ of Metlieine Flofei*.



Dr. H. U. Williams has resigned as curator of the museum, and
Dr. F. S. Metcalfe has been appointed to fill the vacancy.



The Section on Medicine will meet November 14th. The subject
to be discussed will be Stomach Affections and their Treatment.



The next stated meeting of the Academy will be held Tues-
day, December 5, 1893, under the auspices of the Section on
Surgery.



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Thorpe; bureau of education. 239

The Section on Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology did not
meet on October 1 7th, but will meet on Tuesday, October 31, 1893.
Papers will be read by Drs. Bennett and Benedict.



The council has recommended to invite the medical students to
the meetings of the Academy, subject to the approval of the
Academy. The matter will be presented at the December
meeting.



The Section on Surgery will hold its next meeting November 1th.
The following programme has been prepared for the evening :
The Surgery of the Thorax, Dr. John Parmenter ; Thoracic Dis-
eases of Children, Dr. Irving M. Snow ; Thoracic Diseases in the
Adult, Dr. DeLancy Rochester.



S^ooiC J^eviecoA.



Bureau op Education — Circular of Information No. 2, 1892. Ben-
jamin Franklin and the University of Pennsylvania. Edited by
Francis Newton Thorpe, Ph. D., Professor of American Consti-
tutional History in the University of Pennsylvania. Washington
Printing Office. 1893.

In a former number of the Journal was noticed the first num-
ber of the Bureau of Education — a history of the University of
Virginia, founded by Jefferson. We have now before us number
two of the Bureau, a volume of 450 pages, giving a complete his-
tory of the University of Pennsylvania and an interesting sketch
of Franklin, prepared by Professor Francis Newton Thorpe. We
know of no more admirable narrative of the philosopher, philan-
thropist, and friend of education than this review of his life.
Familiar as is the world with the career of Franklin as a states-
man and scientist, his larger public services have somewhat over-
shadowed his labors in the cause of education. The volume before
us reveals him as the inspiration of the best educational influences
and labors in his adopted state. The glory and the pride of
Pennsylvania in her University and in her larger charitable insti-
tutions are closely associated with the name of her greatest citi-
zen. Franklin was the first president of the board of trustees of
the University, and for a half century was an active member. His



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240 REVIEWS.

early suggestion, in 1749, of the need of higher education indi-
cates the scope and breadth of his thought. << The great end and
aim of all learning is to serve mankind, one^s country, friends, and
family.'' His theory of education, and of life, was intensely
utilitarian, and looked rather to social than political results, in
contrast to Jefferson, whose basal theory was political rather
than social. His proposal for founding an Academy in Phila-
delphia was responded to both by citizens and the local govern-
ment.

Out of this beginning grew the Pennsylvania College, and,
finally, the Academy, the College, and the Charity School con-
nected with it, were merged in 1791, under a new charter in the
University of Pennsylvania, which has become one of the most
important educational institutions of the country. A large part
of the volume before us is devoted to a history of its several
departments. Of these one is a University Hospital — a rare, if
not unique, feature in an educational institution, an adjunct of the
medical department. The history of this department reads like
a fascinating romance. It was begotten in the enthusiasm of
three young physicians, who inspired both private and public
wealth to so richly endow the Hospital that with a property now
of over a millon dollars in value, it is one of the noblest and most
beneficent monuments of charity in the world. It is refreshing
to read of the several 150,000 legacies, another of $80,000
and one of 1100,000, some of them from physicians con-
nected dt some time with the department, who have so
embalmed their names in grateful memories. One such legacy
was that of the venerable Dr. George B. Wood, the first president
of the Hospital, who left $G0,000 to its permanent endowment
fund.

The following statement has its interest : " Upon the young
men of the board was to fall the oversight of the administration
of the hospital."

The Government of the United States is rendering invaluable
service to the interests of education in every department of learn-
ing by this series of educational circulars. They promise to give
a history of the leading institutions of learning which will stimu-
late the best thought and action of their teachers, and, we trust,
that liberality of private wealth which shall place our hospitals
and universities on a basis of independence and usefulness equal
to their needs and worthy the American people.



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CUBBIBR : THE ART OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 241

The Art of Preserving Health. Outlines of Practical Hygiene,
adapted to American conditions. By C. Oilman Currier. M. D.,
Visiting Physician to the New York City Hospitals ; Fellow of the
New York Academy of Medicine ; Member of the New York
Pathological Society ; Member of the American Medical Associa-
tion, etc.. etc. One large octavo volume, 468 pages, illustrated,
$2.75. New York : E. B. Treat, 6 Cooper Union. 1898.

The appearance of medical works on hygiene is one of the
healthy signs of the times. Observing doctors believe that works
of this character are now in demand, that the requisition is to be
an increasing one, and, therefore, the books are to be produced.

The book in question gives evidence that its author felt the
pressure of the demand, and we wish we might add that the book
also shows that its author had something to say about hygiene of
such a nature as to justify its appearance, regardless of any tem-
porary conditions of the book market. The fact is, we turn the
pages of Dr. Currier's outlines of hygiene with the feeling
that here is a case of over-production ; the case of a writer having
a superficial acquaintance with his subject, but innocent of enthu-
siasm, convictions, or knowledge ; right in his feeling that in the
matter of the art of preserving health, the people need enlighten-
ment, and amiable in his desire to stand in the gap and show the
light.

We suspect that if the author had taken that advantage of the
vigorous exercise and the cold baths which he so feebly recom-
mends, and so drearily cautions against, he could and would have
produced a more virile and useful book. It is possible the writer
is prejudiced against both book and its author from what he says
of his relations to the public institutions of his city. The visiting
physician to the New York City hospitals must of necessity have
but a limited portion of his time for the study of hygiene. The
use of titles like the above, high-sounding, unmeaning, and mis-
leading, seems un-American, unhygienic, and unprofessional. The
inability of the author to grasp his subject is shown in his remarks
upon contagious and infectious diseases, pages 401 to 429, in
which the terms contagion, infection, contagious, infectious,
transmissible, and communicable, are so interchanged, synony-
mously used, and abused, as to give the reader a tired feeling
and yet a clear sense of the mental aridity of the author.

It is with a profound sense of relief that one turns from the
amiable inaninities of Currier to the sturdy, virile pan- American
Gihon, and, in a single paragraph, gets a touch of what hygiene is



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242 REVIEWS.

when adapted to American conditions. We would advise those
would-be authors, who feel constrained to comply with the demand
to write books upon hygiene adapted to American conditions, to
read and re-read Gihon's Sanitary Motes and Beams. H. R.



The Diseases of the Nervous System. A Text-book for Physicians
and Students. By Db. Ludwig Hirt, Professor at the University
of Breslau. Translated, with permission of the author, by August
Hoch, M. D., assisted by Frank R. Smith, A. M., (Cantab..) M. D.,
Assistant Physician to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. With an intro-
duclion by William Osier. M. D., F. R. C. P., Professor of Medicine
in the Johns Hopkins University, etc. With 178 illustrations.
Large octavo, pp. xv. — 683. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
1893.

Professor Hirt has been long recognized as one of the ablest
writers on neurology in Germany, and the translation of this work
will do much toward creating a proper appreciation of his ability
by American readers. The year 1893 has been fertile in the produc-
tion of treatises on nervous diseases, and among the best must be
considered the present volume.

The author divides the subject into four divisions, treating
respectively of the Diseases of the Brain and its Meninges, includ-
ing those of the Cranial Nerves ; Diseases of the Spinal Cord ;
Diseases of the General Nervous System ; and Diseases of the Gen-
eral Nervous System with Known Anatomical Basis.

The author is very methodic in the treatment of his various
subjects and divisions, and herein lies^ne of the strong points of
the book. Instead of beginning with the physiology or histology
of the cortex, he commences peripherad, and discusses, first, the
diseases of the inner surface of the dura mater, then those of the
soft membranes of the brain, following with the various affections
of the cranial nerves, beginning with the olfactory and termina-
ting with the hypoglossal. Under the disorders of the vagus nerve
are discussed gastralgia, nervous dyspepsia, and esophagismus.
The author gives preference to arsenic in the treatment of these
disorders.

Basedow's disease, or exophthalmic goitre, is 'also considered
among the disorders of the vagus, contrary to the views of the
majority of observers. No tangible reasons are given for this,
neither does he state clearly his objections to it being considered
a disease of the sympathetic. His mode of treatment is similar
to that of most neurologists^ — namely, systematic galvanic treat-



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HXRT : THE DISEASES OF THE NBBYOUS SYSTEM. 248

ment, the cathode being applied to the lower angle of the jaw,
over the vagus and sympathetic nerves, while the anode is held
over the lower cervical vertebrsB. This certainly has given the
most brilliant results in this puzzling affection. Whether the
vagus is thus benefited or the sympathetic, the author will not
state. The chapters on the brain are profusely illustrated, show«
ing the anatomy and the relative positions of the exterior and
interior of the bram, with remarks on the physiology and histology
of the various parts.

Regarding the use of electricity in these affections, the author
states that it must be absolutely admitted that it is possible to act
upon the brain with the galvanic current. This view is in contradic-
tion to the ideas of some who claim that the electricity will pass
through tissues offering the least resistance, as the scalp.

Regarding the treatment of hemiplegia after cerebral hemor^
rhage, the author deprecates the administration of internal medi*
cines, and advises the long continued use of galvanism. These
cases, he says, ''which have been benefited, are numerous enough and
they would undoubtedly be met with more frequently if a fair trial
were given it more often than is unfortunately the case." It is
quite the fashion among general practitioners to disparage these
unfortunates from using systematic electricity, or else, perhaps, to
advise them to buy the cheap faradic '' music-boxes " and begin
home treatment.

The chapter on Brain Tumor is nicely written, and full of good
common sense, which feature, by the way, crops out in nearly every
chapter of the book. For instance, he eays that the existence of
local symptoms does not always facilitate the diagnosis as much
as one might suppose, because they may be due, indirectly, to the
general symptoms, is a point well worth remembering ; and, no
doubt, some cases of brain tumor, with clearly definable ante-
operation lesions, have disgusted both surgeon and neurologist by
their absence in the exact position. The author does not take
kindly to the affections known as anemia and hyperemia of the
cord, regarding the special symptoms of each as altogether too
hypothetical. The chapters on Chorea are well written, and
deserve careful reading. As to the relation between chorea and
rheumatism, the writer believes that there is some obscure associa*
tion. He says :

We have to deal with a common noxious agent, an infection which,
if chiefly localized in the brain, gives rise to choreic movements, while,



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244 REVIEWS.

if it affects the joints, it causes acute rheumatism in them, and, if
affecting the heart, produces endocarditis and myocarditis.

He also states that the possibility that chorea has some con^
nection with epilepsy cannot, a priori^ be thrown aside. Then
epilepsy mast be considered an infections disease, a premise which
will hardly be accepted by many neurologists. In the treatment
of chorea, the author prefers Fowler's solution of arsenic, generally
obtaining a beneficial result in from fifty to sixty days.

Multiple sclerosis, locomotor ataxia, dementia paralytica^
syphilis of the nervous system, and the toxic paralyses are discussed
nnder Diseases of the General Nervous System. The chapters are
interesting to read, and contain some old information in very
attractive language.

On the whole, it is worthy of careful perusal from preface ta
index, and coupled with well-printed, good paper, reflects credit
on the author and on the Appletons. W. C. K.



A Manual of Bacteriology. By George M. Sternberg, M. D.,^
Deputy Surgeon-Greneral. U. S. Army ; Director of the Hoagland
Laboratory (Brooklyn, L. I.) ; Honorary Member of the Epidem-
iological Society of London, of the Royal Academy of Medicine of
Rome, of the Academy of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, of the Amer-
ican Academy of Medicine, etc. Illustrated by heliotype and
chromo- lithographic plates and 268 enfrravings. New York : Wil-^
liam Wood & Company. 1892.

Americans can point with pride to the work of Sternberg in the
field of experimental bacteriology, and especially can they feel proud
that the Surgeon-General of the United States Army is the author
of such an excellent book as this one. It fairly outrivals anything
attempted in the English language, and is exceled by no work
claiming to be a treatise in any language.

The author divides the contents into four parts. The first part
deals with the Classification, Morphology, and General Bacterio^
logical Technology. After reviewing briefly the history of bac-
teriology from the time of Leeuwenhoeck to the present, the
author mentions the various attempts at classification, adapting
that of Baumgarten with slight modifications. The chapters foU
lowing treat of Staining Methods, the Culture Media, the Various
Sterilizing Ovens, the Action of the Germs in Liquid and Solid
Media, the Cultivation of Anerobic Bacteria, Experiments upon
Animals, and the Various Steps in Photographing Bacteria. The
author has had considerable experience in photomicrography, and



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HEBON : COMMUNIGABILITT OF CONSUMPTION. 245

bis advice in regard to the methods employed is very valuable.
Perhaps the only fault to find in this chapter is that he advises
the foreign instruments, especially zuiss. American lenses,
-equal if not superior to the foreign make, can be obtained at less
cost and with the certainty that they are as represented. The photo-
micrographs of bacteria following the last chapter are superb.

Part second treats of the General Biological Characters, includ-
ing an account of the Action of Antiseptics and Germicides. The
substances eminently antiseptic and the proportions in which
they are efficient are : mercurii iodide, 1 to 40,000 ; silver iodide,
1 to 33,000 ; hydrogen peroxide, 1 to 20,000 ; mercuric chloride,
1 to 14,300 ; silver nitrate, 1 to 12,500.

In part third is discussed the Pathogenic Bacteria. In regard
to the Klebs-LOffler bacillus of diphtheria, the examination of cover-
glass specimens and cultures should be made in every suspected case*
Among the most favorable media for carrying these bacilli from an
infected source to the throats of previously healthy children is
mentioned — milks. Hence, the great caution which should be ob-
served by the health authorities regarding the milk supply of cities.

Part fourth is devoted to the Non-Pathogenic Bacteria. In all,
some 489 species of bacteria are described in this work, of which
158 species are considered as pathogenic, and 331 non-pathogenic*
The bibliography is very complete ; 2,582 references to the litera-
ture on this subject are given. A complete index adds much to
the value of the book.

In a work like this, no review can do ample justice ; a careful
perusal of its pages is necessary to form any judgment of its
worth and excellence. Every physician who tries to keep abreast
of the progress of medicine should have Sternberg's Bacteriology
in his library, and make frequent consultations with it.

The author is fortunate in having William Wood & Company
for his publishers, for no cleaner work of typography has been
seen in many days. The plates are beautiful, and the illustrations
are exceedingly well executed. W. C. K.



Evidences of the Communicabilitt of Consumption. By G. A.
Heron, M. D. (Glas.), Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians
of London ; Physician to the City of London Hospital for Diseases
of the Chest. London: Longmans, Green & Co., and New York,
15 £. Sixteenth street. 1890.

The great work of the medical profession, just now, is to

acquire the conviction that tuberculosis is an infectious disease,



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24d RETIBWS.

and then the greater work of oommanicating this conyiction to the
public may begin.

We are glad to welcome this book, and to urge that it be read
by every doctor in the land. It gives, in a simple, direct, and
pleasing style, what its well-cbosen title leads one to expect —
Evidences of the Commanicability of Consumption. The author
is fortunate in his conception of the needs of the profession, and
happy in his method of meeting that need by philosophical, logi-
cal argument, of which we need a little, and by an array of clinical
facts and observations, of which we must have a vast amount.
Theoretically, the findings and demonstrations of our laboratories
should have produced the instant conviction as to the infectious-
ness of tuberculosis, and we should have been controlled and guided
by tjbis conviction for the last ten years ; but medicine is an art
and never will be entirely scientific, and the rank and file of our
busy practitioners — the doctors at this moment in charge of our
millions of cases of tuberculosis — will come to regard and treat
these cases as producers of a deadly infection, not from the proc-
lamations from headquarters — the laboratories — but from observa-
tions and reports from the field — the bedside. It is the good for-
tune of our author to see this, and to make a valuable addition to
this much-needed array of clinical facts.

Particularly practical are Heron's remarks upon the wide
prevalence of tuberculosis among the domestic birds, fowls, and
animals, whose eggs, milk, or flesh we use for food. We deem it
to be the highest duty of those who can, to call and to focus pro-
fessional attention to the enormous quantity of tuberculous food
we are consuming year by year. The public may be trusted to
deal with the situation wisely, if the public ever gets the facts.

The serious, earnest spirit of our author is shown in the fol-
lowing from his chapter on prophylaxis :

It has been said that if the evidence stated in the preceding pages
is true, at least two very grave conclusions are forced upon us, because
they are its logical consequences. One of these very f^^ave conclusions
is, that every man, woman, and child who is tubercular should at once
be removed from all possibility of contact, direct and indirect, with the
healthy community. The other very grave conclusion is, that all tuber-
cular beasts should be slaughtered, and their carcasses destroyed. I
believe these are both logical consequences of the evidence.

The shock we will get from plain speech like this will show us
how far we are from the conviction of the infectiousness of tuber-
culosis. H. R.



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MAI8CH : A MANUAL OF ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA. 247

A Manual of Organic Materia Medica ; being a Guide to Materia
Medica of the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms. For the use of
Students, Druggists, Pharmacists, and Physicians. By John M.
Maisch, Ph. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Botany in the
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. New (fifth) edition, thoroughly
revised. In one very handsome 12mo volume of 544 pages, with 270
engravings. Cloth, $3.00. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co. 1892.

This work has already received favor at the bands of the profes-
sion, as indicated by the fact that it has passed to its fifth edition.
In its present form, it differs from that of the preceding edition
mainly in the fact that the recent observations and investigations
on the various articles of materia medica, so far as they come
within the scope of this work, have been incorporated, and that the
pronnnciation of the systematic names of plants and animals ha»
been indicated by marks of accent. The text, also, has been care-
fully revised, with the view of rendering the characterization of
the directions and all other constituents even more precise and
valuable for critical research. A number of the new illustrations,,
too, have been prepared for an elucidation of structural descrip-
tions, and the pharmacopeial directions have been more conspicu-
ously distinguished by the smaller out, and smaller type for those
articles which are not recognized by the Pharmacopeia, or which^
at present, are scarcely ever met with in commerce.

This famous teacher states the foregoing, in substance, in
his preface to this edition, and we need only call attention to these
facts to bring the book sufificiently to the notice of the profession.
Sadly enough, the distinguished author has only lately passed from
earth, after having rounded up a life of great usefulness in the
pursuit of his special field of observation and teaching.



Transactions of the Medical Society op the State of New York
FOR THE YEAR 1893. Edited by Frederic C. Curtis, M. D., Sec-
retary. Standard octavo, pp. 640. Published by the Society.
Philadelphia : William J. Dornan, Printer. 1893.

This handsome volume appears with its customary promptness^
and is replete with scientific papers and discussions. The first
sixty-six pages of the book are taken up with preliminary matter
pertaining to the organization of the Society and the minutes of
the meeting. We desire to call particular attention to the careful
manner in which these minutes are prepared. We are not aware
that any State medical society publishes so accurately, in every
detail, all the business that is transacted at its meetings.



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248 BEVIEWS.

President Pilcher's address is a scholarly paper that deserves
careful reading by every member of the society, and especially by the
president and ex-presidents of the American Medical Association.

This volume contains a few useful illustrations, but not as
many as we should like to see in a work of this character. We
think it would be of decided advantage to authors if they would
make greater efforts to illustrate their papers for society transac-
tions. The fact is, these works become text-books, and should be
so regarded by every man who publishes a paper in them.

We especially commend the action of the society in formulat-
ing elaborate exhaustive discussions on important subjects, and we



Online LibraryJ. A. (Joel Asaph) AllenBuffalo medical journal → online text (page 25 of 78)