J. A. (John A.) Jeançon.

Explanatory text to the Atlas of human anatomy online

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EXPLANATORY TEXT



TO THE



JITLAS OF HUMAN ANATOMY



BY-



]. A. JEANCON, M. D.



OSS]



CINCINNATI, O.



A. E. WILDE & CO., Publishers.



Copyrighted by A. E. WILDE & Co.



j/



CONTENTS.



OSTEOLOGY,

SYNDESMOLOGY,

MYOLOGY,

ANGIOLOGY,

NEUROLOGY,

ENDOSMOLOGY,

EMBRYOLOGY,



1-29

30-35

36-45

46-77

78-127

128-146

147-151



416



OSTEOLOGY.




416






EXPLANATION OF PLATES.



OSTEOLOGY.



PLATES I, II, III.

PLATE I, MALE SKELETON ANTERIOR VIEW.

" II, MALE SKELETON POSTERIOR VIEW.

" III, FEMALE SKELETON ANTERIOR VIEW.



A. Cranium.

B. Vertebral Column.

C. Thorax.

D. Upper Extremity.

E. Lower Extremity.

1. Sphenoid.

2. Occipital.

3. Temporal.

4. Parietal.

5. Frontal.

6. Ethmoid.

7. Lachrymal.

8. Inferior Turbinated.

9. Superior Maxillary.

10. Palate.

11. Malar.

12. Nasal.

13. Inferior Maxillary.

14. Atlas.

15. Axis.

16. Cervical Vertebrae.

17. Dorsal Vertebrae.

18. Lumbar Vertebra?.

19. Sacrum.

20. Coccyx.

21. Seven Superior or True Ribs.

22. Five Inferior or False Ribs.

23. Costal Cartilages.

24. Manubrium \

25. Gladiolus V Sternum.

26. Xiphoid Cartilage )

27. Clavicle.



28. Scapula.




29. Humerus.




30. Ulna.




31. Radius.




32. Scaphoid




33. Semi-lunar




34. Cuneiform




35. Pisiform .


Bones of the


36. Trapezium. [


Carpus.


37. Trapezoid




38. Os Magnum




39. Unciform >




40. Metacarpal Bones.


41. First Row of Phalanges.


42. Second " "


u


43. Third " "


u


44. Sesamoid Bones.




45. Ilium \




46. Pubis V Bones of Pelvis.


47. Ischium )




48. Femur.




49. Patella.




50. Tibia.




51. Fibula.




52. Os Calcis


^


53. Astragalus




54. Scaphoid


Bones


55. Internal Cuneifor


in > of the


56. Middle


1 Tarsus.


57. External "




58. Cuboid


J


59. Metatarsal Bones





OSTEOLOGY.



60.
61.
62.

63.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
/

9-
h.

i.

k.

I

m.

n.

o.

P-

<!
r.

8.

t.
u.

V.

w.

X.

y-



First Row of Phalanges.

Second " "

Third " "

Sesaraoid Bones.
Mastoid Process.
Zygoma.

Superciliary Ridge.
Zygomatic Process 01' Frontal.
Frontal Process of Sphenoid.
Inferior Nasal Spine.



of Ver-
tebrae.



. of Inferior

Coronoid Process V Maxillary

Condyloid Process )

Chin.

Body.

Transverse Processes

Articular Processes

Spinous Process

Anterior Sacral Foramina.

Posterior Sacral Foramina.

Spine ^

Acromion Process I of the

Coracoid Process [ Scapula.

Head

Head ^

Greater Tuberosity I of the

Lesser Tubcrosity [Humerus.

External Condyle J



) of the
\ Radius.



Spi-



of the
r Ilium.



Internal Condyle of the Humerus-

Olecranon Process -\

Coronoid Process I of the

Head f Ulna.

Styloid Process J

Head

Tuberosity

Styloid Process

Crest of the Ilium.

Anterior Superior

nous Process
Anterior Inferior

nous Process
Posterior Superior Spi-

. nous Process J

Spine of the Ischium.
Acetabulum.
Symphysis Pubis.
Obturator Foramen.
Tuberosity of the Ischium.
Head ^

Trochanter Major I ,

Trochanter Minor >,-,

^ . , , , ft emur.

External Condyle

Internal Condyle J
Tuberosities of the Tibia.
External Malleolus.
Internal Malleolus.



PLATE IV.



THE SKELETON OP AN INFANT.



The nomenclature of this figure
is the same as that of the foregoing,
excepting:
F. Anterior Fontanelle.

24. Center of Ossification of Manu-

brium.

25. Centers nf Ossification of Glad-

iolus.

26. Cartilaginous Ensiform Appen-

dix.

32. Unossilird < 'arpus.
52. Unossifirtl Tar>;i<.

T!MJ Os Frontis ( l'i.u r . ">) consists



of two lateral halves.

The Superior and Inferior Maxil-
laries (Figs. 9 and 13) lack the al-
veoli.

The bodies of the Vertebrae (B )
are all of a size, the Spine being
about as large in the Cervical as in
the Lumbar region.

The Transverse Processes (m ) an
hunlly developed. The Spinous
Processes are absent altogether, and
the whole Vertebral column consist <
of two lateral halves (o).



OSTEOLOGY.



PLATE V.

FIGS. I TO VIII. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FCETAL SKULL.



Fig. i. At the beginning of Second

month.

Fig. ii. End of same.
Fig. in. First half of Third month.
Fig. iv. Second half of same.
Fig. v. At end of Fourth.
Fig. vi. At end of Fifth.
Fig. vn. At end of Seventh.
Fig vin. At end of Ninth month,
i. Sphenoid Bone,
ii. Occipital Bone,
a. Occipital Portion.
6. Condyloid Portion.
c. Basilar Portion,
in. Temporal Bone.

a. Squamous Portion.

b. Mastoid Portion.



iv. Parietal Bone.

v. Frontal Bone

a. Frontal Portion.

6. Orbital Portion.

c. Nasal Portion.

vi. Ethmoid Bone.

vn. Lachrymal Bone.

vn. Superior Maxillary Bone.

ix. Malar Bone.

x. Palate Bone.

xi. Nasal Bone.

xii. Inferior Maxillary Bone.

A. Anterior Fontanelle.

B. Posterior Fontanelle.

C. Posterior Temporal Fontanelle.

D. Anterior Temporal Fontanelle.
20. Tympanic Bone.



AD. FIG. VIII.



9. External Occipital Protuber-
ance.

10. External Occipital Spine.
12. Zygomatic Process of Temporal.

23. Anterior Superior Angle of Par-

ietal.

24. Posterior Superior Angle of

same.

25. Posterior Inferior Angle of

same.

26. Anterior Inferior Angle of same.



32. Superciliary Ridge.

36. Malar or External Angular

Process.
63. Frontal Process of Malar.

69. Body of Inferior Maxillary.

70. Ramus of Lower Jaw.

75. Sigmoid Notch.

76. Condyloid Process.

77. Neck of same.

78. Coronoid Process.

79. Angle of Lower Jaw.



FIG. IX. ADULT SKULL SIDE VIEW.



1. Parietal Bone.

2. Frontal.

3. Occipital.

4. Lambdoid Suture.

5. Coronal Suture.

6. Nasal Eminence.

7. Nasal Bones.

8. Anterior Nares.

9. Anterior Nasal Spine.

10. Upper Teeth.

11. Lower Teeth.



12. Chin. [Jaw.

13. Lower Border of Body of the

14. Angle of Lower Jaw

15. Posterior Border of Ramus.

16. Supraorbital Foramen.

17. 17. Temporal Ridge.

18. Squamous Portion of Temporal.

19. Squamous Suture.

20. Anterior Inferior Angle of Par-

ietal.

21. Zygomatic Surface of Sphenoid.



OSTEOLOGY.



22. External Angular Process of

Frontal.

23. Malar Bone

24. Lachrymal Bone.

25. Orbital Surface of Sphenoid.

26. Orbital Surface of Upper Max-

illary.

27. Infraorbital Foramen.



28. Zygomatic Process of Temporal.

29. Sigmoid Notch.

30. Condyle of Lower Jaw.

31. Coronoid Process of Lower Jaw.

32. Styloid Process of Temporal.

33. Mastoid Process.

34. Occipital Groove.

35. Masto-occipital Suture.



PLATE VI.

FIGS. I TO XX. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE BONE.

( FIG I. LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF ULNA.
I FIG. II. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF SAME.



a. Cartilaginous Base.

b. Haversian Canals.

c. Their Lamellae.



d. Canaliculi.

e. Bone Corpuscles.



FIG. III. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF COSTAL CARTILAGE.

a. Intercellular Substance. I c. Cells containing Nuclei.

b. Cartilage Cells. I

FIG. IV. SECTION OF CARTILAGE OF EAR.

a. Cartilage Cells. | 6. Fibrous Intercellular Substance.

FIG. V. SECTION OF INTERVERTEBRAL SUBSTANCE.

a. Cartilage Cells. | 6. Fibrous Intercellular Substance.

FIG. VI. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF BONE.

a. 6. Osteoblasts. | c. Opening of Haversian Canal.

FIG. VII. BONE FORMATION.



a. b. Osteoblasts in different stages
of formation.



a. Mononucleated.

b. Polynucleated.



FIG. VIII. LONGITUDNAL SECTION.

Position of Osteoblasts around a vessel in the process of ossification.



FIG. IX. SECTION OF LONG BONE.



1. Marrow Cavity.

2. Periosteum.

''. Compact Tissue.
1. Kpipliysis.



5. Diaphysis.

6. 8. Articular Surfaces showing

Articular Cartilage.

7. Diaphyso-epiphysal Line.



OSTEOLOGY.



FIG. X. SECTION OF CERVICAL VERTEBRA.

a. Outer Compact Tissue, b. Spongy Tissue, c. Inner Compact Tissue.

FIG. XI. SECTION OF LONG BONES, SHOWING COURSE OF NUTRIENT VESSELS.



1. Nutrient Vessel.

2. Descending Branch.



3. Compact Tissue.

4. Medullary Cavity.



FIG. XII. SECTION OF CRANIAL BONE.

a. External Table. b. Diploe. c. Inner or Vitreous Table.

FIG. XIII. FCETAL PELVIS SIDE VIEW.



1. Sacrum and Coccyx.

2. Ilium.

3. Ischium.
4 Pubes.



5. Acetabulum.

6. Obturator Foramen.

7. Antero-posterior Diameter.

8. Pelvic Axis.



FIG. XIV. SAME FRONT VIEW.



1. Sacrum.

2. Coccyx.

3. Ilium.

4. Sacro-sciatic Notch.



5. Pubes.

6. Ischium.

7. Ilio-pectineal Line.

8. Acetabulum.



FIG. XV. OS INNOMINATUM, SEPARATED INTO ITS THREE DIVISIONS.

1. Ilium. 2. Ischium. 3. Pubes.



FIG. XVI. FCETAL STERNUM ANTERIOR SURFACE.



1. Manubrium.

2. Second
3 Th' d



1. First Rib.



1. Head.

2. Tubercle.



Q
Spaces.



4. Fourth Intercostal Space.

5. Costal Cartilage of Seventh Rib.

6. Ensiform Appendage.



FIG. XVII. FCETAL THORAX FRONT VIEW.

FIG. XVIII. SAME SIDE VIEW.

2, 3. Thoracic Line. 4, 4. Dorsal Vertebrae.

FIG. XIX. FCETAL SACRUM AND COCCYX.
FIG. XX. FCETAL RIB SUPERIOR ASPECT.



3. Shaft. Angle.

4. Sternal Extremity.



PLATE VII. FIGS. I TO X.

FIG. I. INFERIOR MAXILLARY BONE OUTER ASPECT.



1. Symphysis.

2. Mental Process.



3. 3. External Oblique Ridge.

4. Mental Foramen.



OSTEOLOGY.



5. Inferior Border of Body.

6. Angle.

7. Coronoid Process.

8. Sigmoid Notch.

9. Condyle.
10. Neck.



11. Inferior Dental Foramen.

12. Sockets of Lateral Incisors.

13. Sockets of Canines.

14. Sockets of Bicuspids.

15. 16, 17. Sockets of three Molars.



FIG II. SAME BONE INNER SURFACE.



1. Symphysis.

2. Genial Tubercles.

3. Depression for Digastricus.

4. Sublingual Fossa.

5. Mylo-hyoidean Ridge.

6. Lower Border of Body.

7. Angle.



8. Alveolar Process'.

9. Inferior Dental Foramen.

10. Condyle.

11. Neck.

12. Sigmoid Notch.

13. Coronoid Process.

14. Posterior Border of Ramus.



FIG. III. SAME BONE INFERIOR DENTAL CANAL, AND ROOTS

OF THE TEETH EXPOSED.



1. Condyle.

2. Coronoid Process.

3. Sigmoid Notch.



4, 5. Inferior Dental Vessels and

Nerves.
6, 6. Their distribution to the

fangs of the Teeth.



FIG. IV. FO3TAL INFERIOR MAXILLARY, SHOWING THE DENTAL SACS

OR TEETH GERMS.



a. Alveolar Border.

6. Lower Border of Jaw.



c." Symphysis and Dental Sacs.
d. Coronoid Process.



FIG. v.



1. Condyloid Process.

2. Coronoid Process.

3. Incisors.

4. Canine.



SAME BONE, SHOWING MILK TEETH.

5. First Milk Molar.

6. Second Milk Molar.

7. Alveoli of Permanent Teeth.



FIG. VI. SAME BONE OF A FCETUS SUPERIOR ASPECT.



1. Symphysis.

2. 2, 2, 2,' 2, 2. Sockets for teeth.

3. Coronoid Process.



4. Sigmoid Notch.

5. Condyle. [Canal.

6. Opening of Inferior Dental



FIG. VII. SAME BONE, FO3TAL, BEFORE THE APPEARANCE OF THE
ALVEOLAR PROCESS.



1. Symphysis.

2. Lower Border of Jaw.

3. Angle.

1. Posterior Bonier of Ramus.



5. Condyle.

6. Sigmoid Notch.

7. Coronoid Process.

8. Alveolar Border.



OSTEOLOGY.



PIG. VIM. UPPER AND LOWER JAWS IN POSITION, SHOWING THEIR MODES
OF ARTICULATION, AND POSITION OF TEETH.



1. Superior Border of Nasal Bone.

2. Superior Border of Nasal Pro-

3. Frontal Bone. [cess.

4. Margin of Spheno-maxillary

Fissure.

5. Nasal Bone. [lary.

6. Nasal Process of Upper Maxil-

7. Infraorbital Foramen.

8. Anterior Nares.

9. Anterior Nasal Spine.
10. Malar Bone.



11. Frontal Process of same.

12. Zygomatic Process.

13. Condyle of Lower Jaw.

14. Sigmoid Notch.

15. Posterior Border of Ramus.

16. Lower Border of Body.

17. Symphysis.

18. 19. Incisors.

20. Canine.

21, 22. Bicuspids.
23, 24, 25. Molars.



FIG. IX. UPPER JAW INFERIOR ASPECT.



1. Nasal Process.

2. Anterior Nasal Spine.

3. Infraorbital Foramen.

4. Malar Bone.

5. Zygomatic Process.

6. Anterior Palatine Foramen.

7. Hard Palate.

8. Horizontal Plate of Palate Bone.



9. Posterior Nasal Spine.
10, 11. Incisors.

12. Canine.

13, 14. Bicuspids.
15, 16, 17. Molars.

18. Posterior Dental Foramen.

19. Hamular Process.



FIG. X. MALAR BONE ORBITAL PROCESS, SUPERIOR SURFACE.



1. Superior Angle.

2. Anterior Angle.

3. Anterior Superior Border.

4. Orbital Surface.



5. Superior Maxillary Border.

6. Border of Spheno-maxillary

Fissure.

7. Sphenoidal Surface.



PLATE VIII.



FIG. I. LEFT PALATE BONE EXTERNAL ASPECT.



1. Rough surface for Superior

Maxillary.

2. Its Anterior Border.

3. Smooth Zygomatic Surface.

4. Sphenoid Process.

5. Orbital Process.



6. External facet of Zygomatic Sur-

7. Spheno-palatine Notch. [face.

8. Posterior Palatine Canal.

9. Tuberosity.

10. Posterior border joining Inter-
nal Pterygoid Plate.



FIG. II. SAME BONE INTERNAL SURFACE.



1. Sphenoidal Surface of Orbital

Process. [cess.

2. Ethmoidal Surface of same Pro



3. Sphenoidal Process.

4. Spheno-palatine Notch.

5. Superior Turbinated Crest.



8



OSTEOLOCV.



6. Middle Meatus.

7. Inferior Turbinated Crest.

8. Inferior Meatus.

9. Tuberosity.



10. Internal Border of Horizontal

Plate.

1 1 . Anterior portion of Vertical

Plate.



FIG. III. SAME BONE ANTERIOR BORDER.



1. Ethmoidal Surface of Orbital

Process.

2. Maxillary Surface of same.

3. Spheno-palatine Notch.

4. Sphenoidal Process.



5, 6. Internal Surface. [ Plate.

7. Upper Surface of Horizontal

8. Internal Border of same.

9. Tuberosity. [Portion.
10. External Surface of Vertical



FIG. IV. SAME BONE POSTERIOR BORDER.



1. Sphenoidal Surface of Orbital

Process.

2. Orbital Surface of same.

3. Zygomatic Surface of same.

4. Sphenoidal Process.

5. Spheno-palatine Notch.

6. Internal Surface of Vertical Plate.

7. Superior Surface of Horizontal

Plate.



8. Internal Border of same.

9. Articular Groove for Internal

Pterygoid Plate.

10. Groove for Internal Pterygoid

Muscle.

11. Groove for External Pterygoid

Plate.

12. External Portion of Vertical

Plate.



FIG. V. SAME BONE SUPERIOR ASPECT.



1. Orbital Process.

2. Sphenoidal Process.

3. Spheno-palatine Notch.

4. Posterior Border of Vertical Plate.

5. Superior Surface of Horizontal

Plate.



6. Its Posterior Border.

7. Its Internal Border.

8. Its Anterior Border.

9. Anterior Spine of Vertical Plate.
10. Posterior Nasal Spine.



FIG. VI. SAME BONE INFERIOR ASPECT.



1. Inferior Surface of Horizontal

2. Its Posterior Border. [Plate.

3. Its Anterior Border.
1. Its Internal Border.

5. Orbital Process.



6. Sphenoidal Process.

7. Posterior Palatine Canal.

8. Accessory Palatine Canal.

9. Tuberosity.

10. Posterior Nasal Spine.



FIG. VII. SAME BONE MATURE FfETUS INTERNAL SURFACE.



1. Rphenoidal Process.
-. < M-bital Pro'cess.
:;. Spheno-palatine Foramen.
1. Tuberosity.



5. Anterior Border of Vertical

Plate.

6. Internal Border of Horizontal

Plate.



OSTEOLOGY.



FIG. VIII. LEFT INFERIOR TURBINATED BONE INTERNAL SURFACE.

5. Inferior Free Border.



1. Superior Maxillary Border.

2. Lachrymal Process.

3. Ethmoidal Process.

4. Palatine Border.



6. Anterior Extremity.

7. Posterior Extremity.



FIG IX. SAME BONE OUTER SURFACE.

5. Palatine Border.

6. Posterior Extremity.

7. Anterior Extremity.

8. Inferior Border.



1. Maxillary Border.

2. Lachrymal Process.

3. Ethmoidal Process. [Antrum.

4. Portion Covering the orifice of the



FIG. X. VOMER RIGHT SIDE.



1. Superior Border.

2. Posterior Border.

3. Anterior Border.



4. Inferior Border.

5. Anterior Extremity.



FIG. XI. VOMER SUPERIOR AND ANTERIOR BORDERS.



1. Groove and Alae for Rostrum.

2. Groove of Anterior Border.



3. Anterior Extremity.



FIG. XII. RIGHT NASAL BONE EXTERNAL SURFACE.



. Superior Border.
2. Inferior Border.

FIG. XIII.

1. Superior Border.

2. Inferior Border.

3. External Border.



3. External Border.

4. Internal Border.



SAME BONE INNER ASPECT.

4. Internal Surface.

5. Internal Border.



1. Anterior Border.

2. Inferior Border.



FIG. XIV. FCETAL VOMER.

3. Posterior Border.

4. Superior Border.



FIG. XV. ETHMOID

1. Crista Galli.

2. Cribriform Plate.

3. Slit for Nasal Nerve.

4. Anterior Ethmoidal Foramen.

5. Posterior Ethmoidal Foramen.

6. Infundibulum. [Frontal.

7. 7. Part of Lateral Mass joining



SUPERIOR SURFACE.



8. Os Planum.

9. Plate and Cells covered by Nasal

Process of Upper Maxillary.

10. Posterior part of Lateral Mass.

11. Posterior Border of Cribriform

Plate.

12. Perpendicular Plate.



FIG. XVI.

1. Vertical Plate.



SAME BONE INFERIOR SURFACE.

3. Middle Turbinated Bone.



2, 2. Grooves between Lateral Masses
and Vertical Plate.



4. Inferior Orifice of Infundibulum.

5. Maxillary Process.



10



OSTEOLOGY.



6. Palate Process.

7. Posterior Portion of Lateral

Masses.



8. Plates and Cells covered by Na-

sal Process.

9. Posterior part of Middle Turbinal.



FIG. XVII. SAME BONE ANTERIOR SURFACE.



1. Crista Galli.

2. Eminences on the same.

3. Vertical Plate.

4. Groove between it and Lateral

Masses.

5. Lateral Masses and Orifice of

Infundibulum.



6. Plate and Cells joining the

7. Os Planum. [Lachrymal.

8. Inferior Border of Same.

9. Plates joining the Middle Tur,

binal.

10. Anterior Border of Lateral
Masses.



FIG. XVIII. SAME BONE POSTERIOR SURFACE.



1. Crista Galli.

2. Its eminences.

3. Vertical Plate. [ Masses.

4. Groove between it and Lateral

5. Posterior part of Lateral Mass.



6. Posterior Extremity of Superior

Meatus.

7. Posterior Extremity of Middle

Turbinal.

8. Posterior Ethmoidal Cells.



FIG. XIX. SAME BONE LEFT SIDE VIEW.



1. Crista Galli.

2. Its eminences.

3. Anterior Ethmoidal Cell.

4. Os Planum.

5. Superior Border of Os Planum.

6. Its Inferior Border.

7. Portion of same Border joining

Palate.

8. Posterior Border of Os Planum.



9. Its Anterior Border.

10. Infundibulum.

11. Anterior Ethmoidal Cells.

12. Inferior Border of Vertical

Plate.

13. Its Posterior Border.

14. Middle Turbinated Bone.

15. Its Posterior Extremity.

16. Superior Meatus.



FIG. XX. SAME BONE LONGITUDINAL SECTION LEFT SIDE VIEW.



1. Crista Galli.

2. Its eminences.

3. Perpendicular Plate.

4. Its Anterior Border.

5. Its Inferior Border joining Car-

tilage of Septum.

6. Articular Surface for Vomer.



7. Posterior Border.

8. Slit for Nasal Nerve.

9. Inferior Orifices of Olfactory

Foramina.

10. Middle Turbinated Bone.

11. Superior Meatus. [ Mass.

12. Posterior part of Left Lateral



FIG. XXI. SAMi: I'.oNK- l.oNClTrniNAL SECTION RIGHT SIDE.



1, 1.



Bristles passed through Ante-
rior Ethmoidal Cells and
Middle Turbinal.



2, '2. Bristles passed into Posterior
Kthnioidal Cells through the
Superior Meatus.



OSTEOLOGY.



11



3. Posterior Ethmoidal Foramen.

4. Plate in front of Superior Tur-

binal.

5. Anterior Ethmoidal Foramen.

6. Olfactory orifices of Cribriform

Plate.



7. Superior Turbinated.

8. Superior Meatus.

9. Middle Turbinated.

10. Its Posterior Extremity. [Mass.

11. Posterior part of Right Lateral

12. 13. Plates of Anterior Cells.



FIG. XXII. SAME BONE LEFT SIDE OS PLANUM REMOVED TO SHOW

ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR CELLS.



1. Crista Galli.

2. Its eminences.

3. 3, 3. Anterior Ethmoidal Cells.

4. 4, 4. Posterior Ethmoidal Cells.

5. Septum separating Anterior and

Posterior Cells.



6. Anterior extremity of Middle

Turbinal.

7. Inferior Border of same.

8. Superior Meatus.

9. Plate of Anterior Cells.
10. Plate of Posterior Cells.



FIG. XXIII. FCETAL INFERIOR TURBINATED BONE ANTERIOR ASPECT.



1. Process projecting from Superior

Border. [ Surface.

2. Anterior Extremity and Internal



3. Process projecting downwards

from Superior Border.

4. Concave External Surface.



PLATE IX. FIGS. I TO V.



FIG. I. FRONTAL BONE OUTER SURFACE.



1. Remains of Frontal Suture.

2. Nasal Eminence.

3. Nasal Notch.

4. Nasal Spine.

5. Frontal Eminence.

6. Superciliary Ridge.

FIG. II.



7. Orbital Arch.

8. Supra-orbital Notch or Foramen.

9. Internal Angular Process.

10. External Angular Process.

11. Temporal Ridge.

12. Superior Border.



FRONTAL BONE

1. Groove for superior longitudinal 8.

Sinus. [ Ethmoid.

2. Frontal crest, for articulation with 9.

3. Foramen Ca3cum. 10.

4. Nasal Spine. 11.

5. Openings of Frontal Sinuses.

6. Anterior Fossa of Skull. 12.

7. Cerebral Surface of the Orbital 13.

Plates.



INNER SURFACE.



Expanded base of the Nasal

Spine.

External Angular Process.
Orbital Arch.
Surface articulating with the

Great Wing of the Sphenoid.
Inferior Border.
Superior Border.



FIG. III. FRONTAL BONE HORIZONTAL PORTION EXTERNAL SURFACE.

1. Median line.

2. Frontal Eminence.

3. Openings of Frontal Sinuses.



4. Superior Border seen through

Ethmoidal Notch.

5. Frontal Eminence.



12



OSTEOLOGY.



6. Superciliary Ridge.

7. Orbital Arch.

8. Superior part of the Orbit.

9. Orbital Plate.

10. Internal Angular Process.
11." External Angular Process.



12. Inferior Border divided by the

Ethmoidal Notch.

13. Surface articulating with Great

Wing of Sphenoid.

14. Ethmoidal Cells.

15. Lachrymal Fossa.

16. Ethmoidal Notch.



FIG. IV. FRONTAL BONE ANTERIOR SURFACE. ANTERIOR TABLE RE-
MOVED TO SHOW THE CAVITIES, SEPTUM, AND INFERIOR
OPENINGS OF THE FRONTAL .SINUSES.



1. Median Line of the bone.

2. Frontal Sinuses, their openings

communicating with the Na-
sal Fossae, and their prolonga-
tions backward to the level
of the orbital region.
3 Septum.



4. Nasal Notch.

5. Nasal Spine.

6. Internal Angular Process.

7. External Angular Process.

8. Orbital arch and Supra-orbital

Foramen.

9. Temporal Ridge.



FIG. V. FRONTAL BONES AT BIRTH DEVELOPED BY TWO LATERAL
HALVES NATURAL SIZE.



PLATE X. PIGS. I TO VI.

FIG. I. RIGHT PARIETAL BONE EXTERNAL SURFACE NATURAL SIZE.



1. Parietal Eminence.

2. Temporal Ridge.

3. Parietal Foramen.

4. Superior or Parietal Border.

5. Inferior or Temporal Border.

6. Anterior or Frontal Border.



7. Posterior or Occipital Border.

8. Anterior Superior Angle.

9. Anterior Inferior Angle.

10. Posterior Inferior Angle.

11. Posterior Superior Angle.



FIG. II. PARIETAL BONE INTERNAL OR CEREBRAL SURFACE.

8. Inferior Border.

9. Anterior Border.

10. Posterior Border.

11. Anterior Superior Angle.

12. Anterior Inferior Angle.

13. Posterior Superior Angle.

14. Posterior Inferior Angle.



1. Parietal Fossa.

2. Groove for Middle Meningeal Ar-

3. Grooves for its branches.

4. Parietal Foramen. [ Sinus.

5. Groove for Superior Longitudinal

6. Groove for Lateral Sinus.

7. Superior Border.



FIG. III. OCCIPITAL BONE OUTER SURFACE NATURAL SIZE.



1. Smooth Surface for Occipito-

Frontalis.

2. External Occipital Protuberance.



3. External Occipital Crest.

4. Foramen Magnum.

5. Basilar Process Inferior Angle.



OSTEOLOGY.



13



6. Superior Curved Line.

7. Rough surface for Muscular At-

tachment.

8. Inferior Curved Line.

9. Same as No. 7.

10. Posterior Condyloid Fossa.

11. Posterior Condyloid Foramen



(not constant.)

12. 12. Condyles.

13. Superior Border.

14. Lateral Angle.

15. Inferior Border.

16. Jugular Process.

17. Superior Angle.



PIG. IV. OCCIPITAL BONE INTERNAL SURFACE.



1. Groove for Superior Longitudinal

Sinus.

2. Internal Occipital Protuberance.

3. Internal Occipital Crest.

4. Foramen Magnum.

5. Basilar Process; anterior surface

articulating with body of
Sphenoid.

6. Superior Occipital Fossa, for Cere-

brum, [side.

7. Groove for Lateral Sinus of left

8. Groove for Lateral Sinus of right

side. [ bellum.

9. Inferior Occipital Fossa, for Cere-



10. Groove for Lateral Sinus.

11. Jugular Process.

12. Groove for Petrosal Sinus.

13. Fossa and Anterior Condyloid

Foramen.

14. Condyle.

15. Posterior Condyloid Foramen.

16. Superior Border.

17. Inferior Border.

18. Superior Angle.

19. Lateral Angle.

20. Borders of the Basilar process

articulating with petrous por-
tion of Temporal Bone.



FIGS. V AND VI. PCBTAL PARIETAL AND OCCIPITAL.



PLATE XI.



FIGS. I TO VII. SPHENOID BONE.



FIG. I. SPHENOID SUPERIOR SURFACE.



1. Grooves for Olfactory Nerves.

2. Optic Groove.

3. 3. Optic Foramen.

4. Superior Surface of Lesser Wing.

5. Apex of same.

6. Anterior Clinoid Process.

7. Border of Ala Minor.

8. Pituitary Fossa.

9. Support of Posterior Clinoid

Process.

10. Posterior Clinoid Process.

11. Basilar Groove.

12. Sphenoidal Fissure.

13. Superior Surface of Ala Major.



14. Cavernous Groove.

15. Foramen Rotundum.

16. Foramen Ovale.

17. Foramen Spinosum.

18. Posterior surface of body for

Occipital.


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Online LibraryJ. A. (John A.) JeançonExplanatory text to the Atlas of human anatomy → online text (page 1 of 11)