J. A. (John Anthony) Cramer.

A geographical and historical description of Asia Minor online

. (page 1 of 31)
Online LibraryJ. A. (John Anthony) CramerA geographical and historical description of Asia Minor → online text (page 1 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|

Digitized by VjOOQIC


Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC *

Digitized byCjOOQlC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC










Nvy d* ad vappdkiff£ *A(raj£ v6pcip ^{cWirocfu

*0£ par TV irp6s vAtov tiriy, ci^* 'EXX^^nroiroi' AMrnif

¥ja\ irorl fuiKurrov v6riO¥ fi6o¥ Alyaioio.

DioNTs. Pb&ibo. v. 799.




Digitized byCjOOQlC



Digitized by VjOOQIC






Migrations and history of the Phrygians— Different
parts of Asia Minor to which the name of Phrygia has
been applied — Greater Phrygia, its boundaries and divi-
sions — Topography — Lycaonia — Sketch of its history —
Description. Page 1 •



Account of the migration of the Gauls into Asia, and their
occupation of a large portion of ancient Phrygia — Their
division into Tectosages, Tolistoboii, and Trocmi — Con-
quest of Galatia by the Romans — Conversion to Chris-
tianity — Description of the province. 79.



Origin of the Leuc66yri or Cappadocians — Sketch of th^r
history under the Assyrian, Median, and Persian em-
pires — Cappadocian dynasty — ^Roman province of Cap-
padocia — ^Its boundaries and geographical features— De-
scription — Armenia Minor— Its several districts and
topography. 105.

Digrtized by VjOOQIC



Origin and early history of the Carians— Princes of Caria —
Brief sketch of the principal events in the annals of the
country, from its first conquest by Croesus to its becom-
ing a part of the Roman empire — Boundaries and geogra-
phy of the province — ^Dorian colonies, and other towns
on the coast — Interior — Islands of Cos and Rhodes. 168.



Origin and history of the Lycians — Boundaries and mari-
time topography — Interior — Milyas and Cabalia, districts
of the ancient Solymi — Cibyra. 240.



Origin of the Pamphylians — ^Description of their coast and

towns — Pisidia — ^Account of its inhabitants — Boundaries

and geographical features of the country — Topography.



Origin and history of the Cilicians — Boundaries and divi-
sion of the province into Trachea or Aspera, and Cam-
pestris — Chain of Taurus and mountain passes — Topo-
graphy. 316.


Origin of its inhabitants — Sketch of its history from the
earliest period to the fall of the eastern empire — ^Natural
history, productions and principal geographical features
of the island — Periplus of the coasts-Interior. 866.

Digitized byCjOOQlC



Migrations and history of the Phrygians — Different parts of Asia
Minor to which the name of Phrygia has been applied-
Greater Pbrygia, its boundaries and divisions — ^Topography —
Lyeaonia — Sketch of its history — Description.

Hebodotus relates that Psammitichus, king of
Egypt, having made an experiment to discover
which was the most ancient nation of the world,
ascertained that the Phrygians surpassed all other
people in priority of existence. (II. 2.) The story
itself is childishly absurd; but the fact that the
Egyptians allowed the highest degree of antiquity
to this nation is important, and deserves attention.
What the Greeks knew of the origin of the Phry-
gians does not accord, however, with the Egyptian
hypothesis. Herodotus has elsewhere reported that
they originally came from Macedonia, where they
lived under the name of Briges, and that when they
crossed over into Asia this was changed to Phryges.
(VII. 73.) This account has been generally followed
by subsequent writers, especially Strabo, (VII. p.
295.) who appears to quote Xanthus and Mene-
crates of Elaea, Artemidorus, and other writers, who
made the origin of nations and cities the object of
their inquiries. (XII. p. 572. XIV. p. 680. Cf. Plin.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC


V. 82. Steph. Byz. v. Bplye^.) It is certain indeed
that there was a people named Briges, or Bryges,
of Thracian origin, living in Macedonia at the
time that Herodotus was writing ; (VI. 45. VII.
185.) and tradition had long fixed the abode of the
Phrygian Midas, who was no doubt a chief of this
people, near mount Bermius in Macedonia. (Herod.
VIII. 138. Cf. Nicand. ap. Athen. XV. p. 683. Bion.
ap. eund. II. p. 45.) Again, the strong affinity which
was allowed to exist between the Phrygians, Ly-
dians, Carians, and Mysians, who were all supposed
to have crossed from Thrace into Asia Minor, serves
to corroborate the hypothesis which regards the
Phrygian migration in particular*: but whilst there
seems no reasonable doubt of the Thracian origin of
this people, it is not so easy to establish the period
at which they settled themselves in Asia. Xanthus
is represented by Strabo as fixing their arrival in
that country somewhat after the Trojan war ; (XIV.
p. 680.) but the geographer justly observes, that,
according to Homer, the Phrygians were already
settled on the banks of the Sangarius before that
era, and were engaged in a war with the Amazons ;
(II. r. 187.) and if mythological accounts are to have

& Brig, or Briga, a word lus and Pelops, Atys and Cotys,

allowed on all hands to be Cel- which again are Thracian. It

tic, is reported by Juba (ap. is not improbable also that the

Hesych. v. Bprye^) to have been Bebryces, (Bt/S/wfc^,) who are

used by the Lydians in the sense spoken of in the poets as the

of a " free man." The name of aboriginal inhabitants of Bi-

Midas seems also to have been thynia, were the same as the

common to the Lydians, since Bryges. The name of the Be-

Midas, according to some ac- recyntii, an ancient Phrygian

counts, was the husband of tribe, may be only another form

Omphale. (Clearch. ap. Athen. for Brigantii.
XII. p. 516.) So also Tanta-

Digitized byCjOOQlC


any weight, the existence of a Midas in Asia Minor,
long before the period alluded to, would prove that
there had been a Phrygiau migration in times to
which authentic history does not extend. (Cf. Conon.
Narrat. ap. Phot. Cod. 186.)

Great as was the ascendency of the Thracian
stock, produced by so many tribes of that vast far
mily pouring in at various times, there must have
entered into the composition of the Phrygian nation
some other elements besides the one which formed
its leading feature. I have already stated in the
introductory section, as well as in the one imme-
diately preceding this, my belief that the Thracian
Bryges found the country, which from them took
the name of Phrygia, occupied by some earlier pos-
sessors, but who were too weak to resist their in-
vaders. What name this people bore cannot now
be ascertained, but there can be little doubt that it
was of Asiatic origin : probably they were Leuco-
Syrians, or Cappadocians. At the time that Hero-
dotus wrote, the Halys was the boundary of those
nations which appeared to claim a European de-
scent, and those which owned Asia for their mother-
country. The Phrygians, who were on the left
bank of the .river, were the last of the Europeans in
point of situation, but in order of time I conceive
they were first, as the direction of the stream of
migration, setting in from the Thracian Bosphorus,
was from west to east. Herodotus, however, has
stated a circumstance which, if true, must be allowed
to overthrow what I am seeking to establish respect-
ing the current of migration. In the muster he
makes of Xerxes' myriads, he states that the Phry-

Digitized byCjOOQlC


gians and Armenians were armed alike ; the latter
being, as he observes, colonists of the former. (VII.

Herodotus is, I conceive, quite singular in this
statement, which is moreover at variance with all
received notions on the subject. The Armenians
are a people of the highest antiquity, and we must
not seek for their primitive stock beyond the upper
valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates : in other words,
they are a purely Asiatic people ; and if there ex-
isted any resemblance between them and the Phry-
gians, I should account for it rather by supposing
that the latter were not altogether Europeans, but
mingled with an indigenous breed of Asia, whose
stock was also common to the Armenians. The
greater part of the Phrygian superstitions, those
especially which related to the worship of Cybele,
or Rhea, and the Corybantes, were supposed by
Strabo, who has entered largely into the account of
those mysteries, to have been imported from Thrace,
with whose religious rites they exhibited a striking
similarity. (X. p. 466 — 474.^) On the other hand,
there are traces of a mythology which is certainly
Asiatic. The worship of Sabazius, or Bacchus,
which became mixed up with the mystic ceremonies
of Rhea and Dindymene, is confessedly of that cha-
racter. Again, that of Men, or Menes, which an-
swers to Lunus in Latin, and which was so widely

^ 'AptMPtoi Be KaTci w€p ^fvya^ pour servir k ThistoiFe de la Re-

Uta^axfi, Urrt^ ^pvyS» air«ucoi. ligion secrete. Dupuis, Origine

c Cf. Heyn. Relig. et Sacr. de tous les Cultes, torn. II. b.

cum furor, peract. Orig. Com- 2. p. 60. Freret, Rech. surles

ment. Soc. R. Gottiug. tom. Cabires, Acad, des Inscr. et B.

VIII. p. 1. St« Croix M^m. Lett. tom. XXVII. p. 10.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


spread throughout Cappadocia, Phrygia, and the
contiguous provinces, is certainly derived from Sy-
ria, or Armenia.

The Greeks concerned themselves but little about
the real origin of nations, or received without dis-
crimination such traditions as reached them on this
head. In many cases their national vanity led them
to assign to people, however distant or barbarous, a
Greek consanguinity, founded solely on a mere ap-
proximation of names, and divested of all historical
evidence, and even probability. We are not to ex-
pect therefore from them any philosophical investi-
gation of the question which is here considered*
They regarded the Phrygians as one only among
the barbarous tribes which occupied Asia Minor
under the dominion of the great king, and their lan-
guage was too rude and uncouth for them to bestow
much pains on analyzing its origin and structure ;
and yet this, I conceive, is the only method by which
we could ascertain at all satisfactorily the elements
of their population. At a later period, when Asia
Minor had been overspread, as it were, with Greek
colonies, and some barbarous words had, by a natu-
ral consequence of these relations, been rendered fa-
miliar to Grecian ears, we find among others some
Phrygian terms preserved by the lexicographers;
but they are too scanty to furnish a basis of in-
quiry ^, without some fiuther aid ; which, consider-
ing the remote period to which it must ascend, is
hardly to be expected *.

d These have been collected torn. III. Leyd. 1809.
by Professor Jablonsky, in his « The remarkable inscrip-

Disquisitio de Lingua Lacao- tions, copied by Col. Leake, on

nica, among his Opiisc. Acad., the tombs of the kings of Phry-


Digitized by VjOOQIC


We must also keep in mind the constant changes
which were taking place almost daily in the popula-
tion of the peninsula, both before and after the siege
of Troy ; a circumstance which renders it impos-
sible that any one language should have flourished
above the rest, where all were exposed to the same
vicissitudes and migrations^. As the Phrygians ap-
pear to have occupied Asia Minor at an earlier pe-
riod, and to have been more widely diffused than
the other tribes, whose origin is referred to Thrace,
their dialect would probably be more worthy of in-
vestigation than the rest ; but as it does not appear
ever to have been a cultivated language, the specu-
lation, however it may amuse the antiquary, could
scarcely be expected to confer much advantage either
on literature or science. The political history of the
Phrygians is neither so brilliant nor interesting as
that of their neighbours the Lydians. What we
gatJier respecting them from ancient writers is, ge-
nerally, that they crossed over from Europe into
Asia under the conduct of their leader Midas, nearly
a hundred years before the Trojan war. (Conon. ap.
Phot. Cod. 186.) That they settled first on the
shores of the Hellespont and around mount Ida,

gia, (Asia Minor, p. 23,) are telligible to Greeks of the ^e
certainly in Archaic Greek 3 and of Xenophon and Plato.
it is extremely probable that ^ We know from Strabo that
the language of the Bryges, im- several Phrygian ti-ibes had dis-
ported from Tlirace or Mace- appeared long before his time :
donia, was what might perhaps the same might be said of the
be called a dialect of the old Pe- Lydians and Mysians. The
lasgic tongue ; but this must Chalybes, too, had shifted their
have been mixed up in process abode in a surprising way, so
of time with the more ancient that Ephorus, and other re-
remnants of Asiatic languages, spectable authors, hardly knew
so as to make a barbarous where to place them. (Strab.
tongue, which would not be in- XIV. p. 678.)

Digitized by VjOOQIC


whence they gradually extended themselves to the
shores of the Ascanian lake and the valley of the
Sangarius. It is probable that the Doliones, Myg-
dones, and Bebryces^ who held wiginally the coasts
of Mysia and Bithynia» were Phrygians. The Myg-
dones were contiguous to the Bryges in Macedonian
Thrace, and they are often classed with the Phry*
gians by the poets. (Cf. Strab. XII. p. 575.) Driven
afterwards from the Hellespont and the coast of the
Propontis by the Teucri, Mysi, and Bithyni, the
Phrygians took up a more central position in what
may be called the great bason of Asia Minor. Still
preserving the line of the Sangarius, they occupied
to the south-west of that great river the upper val-
leys of the Macestus and Rhyndacus, towards the
Mysian Olympus, and those of the Hermus and
Hyllus on the side of Lydia. On the west they
ranged along Catacecaumene and ancient Maeonia,
till they reached the Meander. The head of that
river, with its tributary streams, was included within
their territory. To the south they held the northern
slope of mount Cadmus, which with its continua^
tion, a branch of Taurus, formed their frontier on
the side of Caria, Milyas, and Pisidia, as far as the
borders of Cilicia. In this direction are to be found
the Lycaonians, who, though a distinct and peculiar
people, will, for the sake of convenience, be included
within the present section. To the east of the San-
garius the ancient Phrygians spread along the borders
of Paphlagonia till they met the great river Halys,
which divided them from Pontus, and further south,
from Cappadocia and Isauria. This extensive country
was very unequal in its climate and fertility. That
which lay in the plains and valleys, watered by ri-

B 4

Digitized by VjOOQIC


vers, exceeded in richness and beauty almost every
other part of the peninsula ; (Herod. V. 49.) but
many a tract was rendered bleak and desolate by vast
ranges of mountains, or uninhabitable from exten^
sive lakes and fens impregnated with salt, or scorch-
ing deserts destitute of trees and vegetation. The
Phrygians appear at first to have been under the do-
minion of kings, but whether these were absolute
over the whole country, or each was the chief of a
petty canton, is not certain. I should rather ima-
gine the latter to have been the case, since we hear
of Midaeum and Grordium, near the Sangarius, as
royal towns, corresponding with the well known
names of Midas and Gordius ; (Strab. XII. p. 568.)
and again, Celaenae, seated in a very opposite direc-
tion, near the source of the Meander, appears to
have been the chief city of a Phrygian principality,
(Athen. X. p. 415.) The first Phrygian prince
whose actions come, within the sphere of authenti-
cated history, is Midas, the son of Grordius, who, as
Herodotus relates, was the first barbarian who made
offerings to the god of Delphi. He dedicated his
throne of justice, the workmanship of which, as the
historian affirms, was worthy of admiration. (1. 14.)
At this period the Phrygians were independent, but
under the reign of Crcesus the Lydian we hear of
their being subject to that sovereign. (I. 28.) His-
tory has not acquainted us with the particulars of
this conquest ; but it seems to have cost the Lydians
but little trouble, and the conqueror was probably
content with exacting from the Phrygian chief an
avowal of his inferiority, in the shape of a tribute
or tax ; for the tragic tale of the Phrygian Adras-
tus affords evidence that the ancient dynasty of that

Digitized by VjOOQIC


country still held dominion, as the vassals of Croe*
sus. (1. 35.) Adrastus is said to have been the son
of Gordius, who was himself the son of Midas. The
latter was probably the grandson of the Midas who
dedicated his throne to the shrine of Delphi, and is
called son of Gordius; so that we have a regular
alternation of monarchs bearing those two names
from father to son, for seven generations 8^. The
first Gordius is probably the one who is indebted
for a place in history to the puzzle which he in-
vented ; but which, if it had not fallen into the way
of Alexander, would probably never have given rise
to the proverbial expression of " the Grordian knot."
(Arrian. Exp. Alex. II. 8.) According to Arrian's
account, Gordius himself was a man of humble birth
and means, but Midas, his son, was created king in
compliance with an oracle. After the overthrow of
the Lydian monarchy by Cyrus, Phrygia was an-
nexed to the Persian empire, and under the division
made by Darius formed part of the Hellespontine
or Bithynian satrapy. (Herod. III. 91.) In the par-
tition of Alexander's dominion, it fell at first into
the hands of Antigonus, then of the Seleucidae, and
after the defeat of Antiochus was ceded to Eumenes,
king of Pergamum, but finally reverted to the Ro-
mans. (Polyb. XXII. 27. 10. Liv. XXXVII. 56.)
At that time Phrygia had sustained a considerable
diminution of territorial extent, owing to the migra-
tion of a large body of Gauls into Asia, where they
settled in the very centre of the province ; and hav-
ing succeeded in appropriating to themselves a con-
siderable tract of country, formed a new province

e These two Dames are so to have been appellatives, rather
common that they would seem than proper names.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


and people, named Galatia and Galatae, or Gallo-

The Phrygians are generally stigmatized by the
ancients as a slavish nation, destitute of courage or
energy, and possessing but little skill in any thing
save music and dancing. (Athen. I. p. 27. Virg. JEn.
XII. 99. Eur. Ale. 678. Or. 1447. Athen. XIV. p.

Phrygia, considered with respect to the territory
once occupied by the people from whom it obtained
its appellation, was divided into the Great and Less.
The latter, which was also called the Hellespontine
Phrygia, still retained that name, even when the
Phrygians had long retired from that part of Asia
Minor to make way for the Mysians, Teucrians,
and Dardanians ; and it would be hazardous to pro-
nounce how much of what has been included under
Mysia and Troas belonged to what was evidently
only a political division. (Strab. XII. p. 563, 571.
Arrian. Exp. Alex. 1. 13. Diod. Sic. XVIII. 3. Po-
lyb. Exc. Legat. XXII. 27. 10.)

The present section will be devoted to the consi-
deration of the Greater Phrygia, such as we find it
defined by the authors above cited, and according to
the limits we have laid down in tracing the progress
of the Phrygian settlements throughout the penin-
sula. Following Strabo as our guide, we shall make
a threefold division of this part of our subject, name-
ly, into Phrygia Epictetus, Major, properly so called,
and Parorius. It will be right to mention, that
besides this ancient classification, we find in the
Lower Empire Uie province divided into Phrygia
Pacatiana, and Phrygia Salutaris.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



The name of Epictetus^ or '' the Acquired/' was
given to that portion of the province which was an-
nexed by the Romans to the kingdom of Pergamum.
It would appear from Strabo that the Attalic princes
were themselves the authors of that appellation;
(XII. p. 56s.) and it is also evident from his ac-
count that it included not only some districts of the
Hellespontine, but others also which must have be-
longed to the Greater Phrygia. (XII. p. 571.) It
would be vain to attempt any accuracy of demarca-
tion, when this geographer has himself apologized
for the imperfection of his divisions. We must
content ourselves with tracing out those places he
has assigned to Phrygia Epictetus, and comparing
his account with such information as may be collect-
ed from modem travellers of the actual state of this
part of Asia Minor. This district was obtained prin-
ci]>ally from the territories of Prusias, king of Bithy-
nia, (Strab. XII. p. 563.) consequently we should ex-

Online LibraryJ. A. (John Anthony) CramerA geographical and historical description of Asia Minor → online text (page 1 of 31)