J. Andrew (James Andrew) Strahan.

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UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



SCHOOL OF LAW
LIBEIARY



A CONCISE INTRODUCTION



CONVEYANCING.



A CONCISE INTRODUCTION



CONVEYANCING



J. ANDREW STRAHAN, M.A., LL.B.

OP THE MIDDLE TEMPLE, BAHRISTER-AT-LAW ;

Assistant Reader of the Law of Seal and Personal Property in the Inns of Court ;

Author of "4 General Vieio of the Laio of Property" ; and joint Author

of Underhill and Strahan's " Principles of Interpretation

of Wills and Settlements," etc.



Wixilx ix djha^kr on llijrjifitnition of §xik,



WILLIAM BLYTH, B.A.,

Solicitor' of the Supreme Court.



LONDON :

BUTTERWORTH & CO., 12, BELL YARD, W.C.
3Law ipubllsbcrs.

1900.






l.OXDON :
PRINTED BY SHAW AND SONS, FETTER LANE AND CRANE COURT. E.G.



O./Jh



I



^



f



BT. HON. JAMES BEYCE, M.P.,

SOMETIME REGIUS PROFESSOR OF CIVIL LAW OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.



Dear Mr. Bryce,

To you I beg to dedicate this little noork in remembrance of
the time when yon,, then also a reader of the Inns of Court
and a conveyancer of Lincoln's Inn, introduced me, a yoiithful
strident of the law, to the learned Society of the Middle Temple.
I wish to inscribe it to you also as an evidence of my
profound respect for your learning, ability, and character.

I beg to remain, dear Mr. Bryce,

Yours very sincerely,

J. ANDREW STRAHAN.
May, 1900.



a 3



PEEFACE.



This little work is rather an Introduction to
Conveyances than an Introduction to Convey-
ancing. Its object is not so much to teach the
student to draft, as to enable him to understand,
assurances of land. No doubt to draft them
intelligently one must understand the full import
and operation of every phrase ordinarily used in
such instruments, but to this extent every lawyer,
whether a conveyancer or not, should have a
knowledge of conveyancing. This has become the
more necessary of late owing to recent legislation
which has shortened forms of assurance by imply-
ing all sorts of covenants, conditions, and powers,
no reference to which appears on the face of the
deed. It is hoped on this account that the book
may prove useful to every student of law, to what-
ever branch of practice he means ultimately to
devote his chief attention.

The method followed is to take an example of
each of the chief forms of assurance and examine
it clause by clause. It should be noted that the
examples are drawn not to serve as precedents, but
in order to raise the points which most need
explanation.

C. a 4



VIU PREFACE.

The Author has to thank Mr. Blyth (of the firm
of Paines, Blyth, and Huxtable) not merely for the
chapter on Eegistration of Title, but also for kindly
reading the proof sheets of the whole work. His
large experience in practical conveyancing, and
in the training of articled clerks, has enabled him
to give the Author many valuable hints, for which
the latter desires to express his gratitude.

J. A. S.

1, New Square,
Lincoln's Inn,

May, 1900.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.







page


Dedication


... ... ...


V


Preface




vii


Table of Cases ...




xi


Table of Statutes


...


... xvii


Table of Text-books


Cited


XX



PART I.

ASSURANCES OF LAND.

SECTION

I. — Assurances of Freeholds

II. — Assurances op Leaseholds
III. — Assurances op Equitable Interests
IV. — Assurances op Copyholds

V. — Assurances by Deed



3

25
28
35
40



PART II.

ASSURANCES BY WAY OF PURCHASE.

I. — A Modern Deed op Grant 53

II. — Date, Parties, and Recitals 58

III. — Operative Words, Parcels, and Habendum ... 68
IV. — Covenants, Acknowledgment and Undertaking,

AND Execution 83

V. — Indenture of Lease 92

VI. — Assignment op Leases 117



PART III.

ASSURANCES BY WAY OF SETTLEMENT.

I. — Rules of Limitation 123

II. — A Marriage Settlement 144

III. — Strict Settlement Clauses 155

IV. — Personal Settlement Clauses 191



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART IV.



ASSURANCES BY WAY OF MORTGAGE.

SECTION PAGE

I. — Mortgages at Law and in Equity 219

II. — A Modern Mortgage 225

III.— Clauses of a Modern Mortgage 232



PART V.

ASSURANCES BY WILL.

I. — Peculiar Characteristics op Wills 257

II. — A Short Form of Will 266

III.— Clauses of a Will 274

PART VI.

ASSURANCE BY REGISTRATION OF TITLE.



Index.



TABLE OF CASES.



A.

Aldridge v. Feme, 17 Q. B. D. 212

Anderson v. Anderson, L. R. 13 Eq. 381

V. Pignet, 8 App. Cas. 180

Averill, Be, Salsbury i: Buckle, [1898] 1 Ch. 523



PAGE
. 104
. 288
. 178
. 209



B.



Bagot, Re Paton v. Ormerod, [1893] 3 Ch. 348

Bain r\ Fothergill L. R. 7 H. L. 158

Barrow v. Isaacs, [1891] 1 Q. B. 417

Baylis r. Jiggeus, 79 L. T. 78

Baynes and Co. v. Lloyd and Sons, [1895] 1 Q. B. 820
Beckett r. Corporation of Leeds, L. R. 7 Ch. App. 421
Birmingham, etc. Banking Co. v. Ross, 38 Ch. D. 295
Blaiberg and Abraham's Contract, Be, [1899] 2 Ch. 341
Boehm, In the goods of, [1891] P. 247 ...
Bolton r. London School Board, 7 Ch. D. 766
Boyd's Settled Estates, Be, 14 Ch. D. 626
Brett V. Rogers, [1897] 1 Q. B. 525 ...
Bioomfield v. Williams, [1897] 1 Ch. 602
Brown v. Peto, [1900] 1 Q. B. 346
Bryant v. Barmingham, 44 Ch. D. 218 ...

Be, Bryant v. Hickley, [1894] 1 Ch. 324

Budd V. Marshall, 5 C. P. D. 481
Bury V. Milner, [1899] 1 Ch. 563

r. Thompson, [1895] 2 Q. B. 696 ...

Bushell V. Burland, Holt. Rep. 733



287
108
107,109
. 104
. 94
. 76
. 75
. 233
. 260
61, 62
. 201
. 104
. 76
. 251
. 198
. 209
. 104
. 287
. 114
. 32



C.



Cadell V. Palmer, 7 Bli. (x.s.) 202

Carter and Kenderdine, Be, [1897] 1 Ch. 776...

Cartwright, Be, 41 Ch. D. 532

Castlemaine (Lord) v. Craven (Lord), 22 Vin. Abr.

Chadwick v. Doleman, 2 Vern. 528

Chapman and Hobbs, Be, 29 Ch. D. 1007



142
66
94
94

176
177



Xll TABLE OF CASES.

PAGE

Cholmondcley r. Clinton, 2 Meir. 359 235

Christ's Hospiral i: Grainger, 1 Mac. & G. 4G0 289

Clitheroe, lie, 28 Ch. I). 378 163

CoUingwood r. Stanhope, L. R. 4 H. L. 52 ... ... ... ... 176

Coojier and Allen's sale to Harlech, i?e, 4 Ch. D. 802 198

r. Macdonald, 7 Ch. D. 292 207

Cowan r. Truefitt, Limited, [1899] 2 Ch. 309 260

Coward r. Larkman. 60 L. T. 1 287



D.

Daniell r. Daniel], 3 De G. & Sm. 337 283

Davies r. Huguerin, 1 H. & M. 730 176

Davis r. Leicester Corporation, [1894] 2 Ch. 208 112

Day r. Singleton, [1899] 2 Ch. 320 108

De Mestre r. West, [1891] A. C. 264 159

Dimond r. Bostock, 10 Ch. D. 358 282

Docwra, /Jd-, Docwra r. Faith, 29 Ch. D. 693 199

Doe r. Field, 2 B. & A. 5(54 265

1-. Jackson, Dougl. 175 114

r. Knight, 5 B. /c C. 671 43

c. ra-*singham, 6 B. & C. 305 30

Drew, 7?^-, Drew r. Drew, [1899] 1 Ch. 33G 171

Dwyer r. Rich, Ir. Rep. 6 C. L. 146 76



E.

Earl of Bedford's Case, 7 Rep. 7 129

Ecroyd r. Coulthard, [1897] 2 Ch. 554 77

Kllison r. Thomas, 2 Dr. & Sm. Ill 176

Evans r. Evans, [1892] 2 Ch. 173 134

Eyre Coote, lit; Cooce r. Cadogan, [1899] W. N. 222 164



F.

Fish, //^ [1893] 2 Ch. 413 214

Fletcher r. Ashburner, 1 Bro. C, C. 497 192

r. Fletcher, 9 L. R. Ir. 301 282

Forlies, 7?r, Krrington r. Sempcll, [1899] W. N. G (0 210

Foster r. Hale, 3 Yes. 196 33

FumcBS r. Meek, 27 L. J. Exch. 34 43



G.

Game, Re, Game r. Young, [1897] 1 Ch. 881 19G

Gartside v. Silkstone and Dodworth Coal Co., 21 Ch. 1). 762 ... 156



TABLE OF CASES. XIU

PAGE
General Finance, Mortgage and Discount Co. v. Liberator Permanent

Benefit Building Society, 10 Ch. D. 15 45,46

Goddard's Case, 2 Rep. 4 b 58

Goodier v. Edmunds, [1893] 3 Ch. 455 193

Graham v. Graham, 1 Ves. jun. 272 ... 44

Groom, JSf-, Booty r. Groom, [1897] 2 Ch. 407 283



Hall V. City of London Brewery Co., 2 B. & S, 737 94

Hamilton, Ee, Trench v. Hamilton, [1895] 2 Ch. 370 279

Hampshire v. Wickens, 7 Ch. D. 555 101

Harknessand Allsopp.iZp, [1896] 2 Ch. .358 89

Harman and The Uxbridge and Rickmansworth Rail. Co., He,

49L.T. 130 233

Harrison v. Corporation of Barrow-in-Furness, 63 L. T. 834 ... 108
Hastings (Lord) v. North Eastern Rail. Co., [1898] 2 Ch. 674 ;

C. A., [1899] 1 Ch. 656 100

Hawksland t'. Gatchel, Cro. Eliz. 835 44

Hawksley r. Outram, [1892] 3 Ch. 359 66

Heath r. Crealock, L. R. 10 Ch. 30 46

Hillr. Hill, [1897] 1 Q.B. 483 279

Hoare r. Osborne, L. R. 1 Eq. 585 289

Hodgkinson r. Crowe, L. R. 10 Ch. 622 101,109

Holford, i?e, Holford t'. Holford. [1894] 3 Ch. 30 209

r. Urban District Council, [1898] 2 Ch. 240 112

HoUis' Hospital and Hayne's Contract, Jte, [1899] 2 Ch. 540 ... 143

Honeywood T. Forster, 31 Beav. 1 38

Hood-Barrs v. Heriot (No. 2), [1897] A. C. 177 207

Hope 1'. Hope, [1892] 2 Ch. 336 205

Howe V. Dartmouth, 7 Ves. 137 ; 1 W. & T. L. Cas. 68 196

Humphreys, i?(", Humphreys r, Levett, [1893], 3 Ch, 1 209

I.

Imray r. Oakshette, [1897] 2 Q, B. 218 Ill



Jackson, i?<', Jackson r. Talbot, 21 Ch. D, 786 187

Jenner r. Jenner, L. R. 1 Eq. 361 64

Johnstone v. Crompton & Co., [1899] 2 Ch. 190 94

Judkin, Be, 25 Ch. D. 743 208

K.

Keech v. Hall, 1 Doug. 21 93

Kemeys-Tynte, i2(?, [1892] 2 Ch. 211 170



XIV



TABLE OF CASES.



Kennedy r. De Trafford, [1897] A. C.
Knight V. Davis, 3 M. & K. 3."jS ...
r. Knight, 3 Beav. 173 ...



180



PAGE

. 247

. 278
. 279



L.

Lacon r. Laceby, [1897] W. N. 46 (3) 107

Lambert, Ih\ Stanton i: Lambert, 33 Ch. D. 620 205

LanceHeld r. Iggulden, L. K. 10 Ch. App. 136 286

Lander and BayleyV Contract, J}c, [1892] 3 Ch. 41 95, 101

Lapworth r. Thomps^on, L. R. 3 C. r. 149 104

Life Interest, etc. Securities Corporation r. Hand-in-Hand Insurance

Society, [1898] 2 Ch. 230 246

Line r. Stephens, 5 Biug. N. C. 183 94

Lister c. Lane, [1893] 2 Q. B. 212 105

Lloyd's Bank, Limited, r. Bullock, [1896] 2 Ch. 192 44

London Freehold and Leasehold Property Co. v. Baron Suffield, [1897]

2Ch. 608 44

London and Westminster Loan Co. c. London and North Western

Rail. Co., [1893] 2 Q.B. 49 97

Lord Barnard's Case, 2 Vern. 738 ... ... ... 169

Castlemaine v. Lord Craven, 22 Vin. Abr. ... ... ... 94

Ila-stings r. North Eastern Rail. Co., [1898] 2 Ch. 674 ; C. A.

[1899] 1 Ch. 6.56 100

Lovett r. Lovctt, [1898] 1 Ch. 82 46

Low f. Bouverie, [1891] 3 Cb. 82 45

Lowther r. Bentinck, L.' R. 19 Eq. 167 183

Lumley, L'c, Eu: parte IIood-Barrs, [1896] 2 Ch. 690 ... 205, 206



M.



Manchester Bonded Warehouse Co. r. Carr, 5 C. P.

Manning v. Purcell, 7 D. M. & G. 55

Marsh r. Lee, 2 Vent. 337 ; 1 W.& T

Marshall r. Taylor, [1895] 1 Ch. 641

Mervin, Ilr, Mervin r. Crossman, [1891] 3 Ch. 197
Micklethwait r. Newlay Bridge Co., 33 Ch. D. 133

Millett V. Duvey, 31 Beav. 470

Mitchcl V. Iteynolds, 1 P. Wms. 181 ; 1 Sm. L. C.

Mitcheirs Trusts, Ih; 9 Ch. I). 9

Morgan, lir, Morgan r. Morgan, [1893] 2 Ch. 222
Morley r. Itennoldson, [1895] 1 Ch. 449

Mosc-ley r. Motteux, 10 M k. W. 533

MosH, II,, Kingsbury r. Walter, [1899] 2 Ch. 314
Mostyn r. West Mostyn Coal and Iron Co., 1 C. P.

•Monle r. Garrett, L. R. 7 Ex. 101

Mundy and Roper's Contract, Jlr, [1899] 1 Ch. 275
Murray r. Earl of Stair, 2 B. i: C. 82



507



14;-



... 105
... 275
... 2.52
76
142,284
... 77
... 249
... 66
... 64
... 285
... 288
... 62
282, 283
... 94
... 119
... 106
... 45



TABLE OF CASES.



XV



N.



National Bank of England r. Jackson, 33 Cli. D. 1
Nutt V. Easton, [1899] 1 Ch, 873



PAGE
. 42

. 247



0.

Onward Building Society r. Smithson, [1893] 1 Ch. 1
Oppenheim V. Henry, 10 Hare, 441



4G

284



Page V. Midland Rail. Co., [1894] 1 Ch. 11 ...

Pawson r. Brown, 13 Ch. D. 202

Pelton Brothers v. Harrison, 20 Q. B. IJ. 120 ...

Peppiu V. Bickford, 3 Ves. 570

Perkins, Be, Poyser v. Beyfus, [1898] 2 Ch. 182

Pierson v. Garnet, 2 Bro. C. C. 38

Pledge V. Carr, [1895] 1 Ch. 51...

Pocock and Prankerd's Contract, Be, [1896] 1 Ch, 302

Pollard's Settlement, Be, [189G] 2 Ch. 552

Power 'V. Hayne, L. R. 8 Eq. 262

Pride v. Bubb, L. R. 7 Ch. 64

Prince Rupert's Case, Paradine r. Jane, Aleyn, 26 ..

Proudfoot V. Hart, 25 Q. B. D. 42

Piyor V. Petre, [1894] 2 Ch. 11

Prytherch, Be, Prytherch v. Williams, 42 Ch. D. 590



64
160
206
171
119
176
253
124
207
284

89
105
105

77
176



E.

Rabbett v. Squire, 4 De G. & J. 406 ...

Rex V. Kempe, Ld. Raym. 49

Robertson v. Broadbent, 8 App. Cas. 812
Rochefoucauld r. Bowstead, [1897] 1 Ch. 196 ,

Rogers v. Mutch, 10 Ch. D. 25

V. Rice, [1892] 2 Ch. 170

Rooke V. Lord Kensington, 2 K. & J. 753



287
129
280

33
283
110

64



Sacheverell r. Frogatt, 2 Saund. 367

Salt r. Marquess of Northampton, [1892] A. C. 1
Sandbach and Edmundson, Be, [1891] 1 Ch. 99

Sandilands, In re, L. R. 6 C. P. 411

Sharp V. Milligan, 23 Beav. 419

Shelley's Case, 1 Rep. 104 a, Tud. Convey. Cas.

Simpson r. Hartopp, 1 Sm. L. C.

Smith V. Adkius, L. R. 14 Eq. 402



220



101
222

... 87
...42,88
... 105
131,263
... 98
... 43



SVl



TABLE OF CASES.



Snow r. Boycott, [1892] 3 Ch. 110

Somerset, Be, Somerset r. Earl Poulett, [1894] 1 Ch
Spencer's Case, 5 Rep. 16 ; 1 Sm. L. C. 72

Standing r. Bowring, 31 Ch. D. 282

Stephen Sweet, In the goods of, [1891] P. 400

Stoddart r. Saville, [1894] 1 Ch. 480

Stogden v. Lee, [1891] 1 Q. B. 661

Stronghill r. Buck, 14 Q. B. 781

Surman r. Wharton, [1891] 1 Q. B. 491
Sutton r. Sutton, 22 Ch. D. 511



231



PAGE
157
203
116

88
288
210
206

46
205
235



T.

Tarn r. Turner, 39 Ch. D. 457

Treloar r. Bigge, L. R. 9 Ex. 151
Tullett V. Armstrong, 1 Beav. 1

Tyler, Re, Tyler v. Tyler, [1891] 3 Ch. 252



241

108
206
289



V.

Van Grutten r. Foxwell, [1897] A. C.

Viner v. Francis, 2 Cox, 190

Viney v. Chaplin, 2 De G. & J. 468 .



658



133

283
89



w.

Watkins r. Nash, L. R. 20 Eq. 262

Weckes' Settlement, Re, [1897] 1 Ch. 289

West V. Williams, [1899] 1 Ch. 132

Wheeler's Settlement TriLsts, Re, Briggs r. Ryan

717

Whiston, Re, [1894] 1 Ch. 661

Whitby r. Mitchell, 44 Ch. D. 85

White's Charifer., In re, [1898] 1 Ch. 659
Whitley Partners, Limited, Re, 32 Ch. I). 387
Wickham i: Hawker, 7 :M. & W. 63, 76

Wilkinson r. Collyer, 13 Q. B. D. 1

Williams and Duchess of Newcastle, Re, [1897] 2 Ch

r. Pinckney, 77 L. T. 700

Withers r. Withers, Ambl. 151

Withrington r. Bunks, Sel. Ch. Cas. 30
Worlcy r. Frampton. 5 Ilare, 560



[1899]



2 Ch.



144



46,



43

181
252

206
80

136
76
90
88

104

84

64,78

.33,38

249

113



Y.



Yates V. Aston, 4 Q. B. 182



234



TABLE OF STATUTES.



PAGE

52 Hen. 3, cc. 1—21. (Statute of Marlebridge) 97

13 Edw. 1, c. 1. (Westminster 2nd ; De Donis) 22, 74, 182

ISEdw, 1, c. 1. (Quia Emptores) 21,98

21 Hen. 8, c. 24. (Leaseholds ; Remedy) 26

27 Hen. 8J c. 10, (Statute of Uses) 9—17,28—31,138,170,179,257

c. 16. (Statute of Enrolments) 1(5

32 Hen. 8, c. 1. (Statute of Wills) 257, 258

34 & 25 Hen. 8, c. 5. (Second Statute of Wills) 257

43 Eliz. c. 4. (Charities) 289

29 Car. 2, c. 3. (Statute of Frauds) ... ... 26, 32, 34, 38

2Will.&M.sess.l,c. 5. (Distress for Rent) 98

10 & 11 Will. 3, c. 16. (Posthumous Children) 136

c. 35. (Yorkshire Registry Act) 72

8 Anne, c. 14. (Rent) 9S

4 Geo. 2,0.28. (Rent-seek) 98

8 Geo. 2, c. 6. (Yorkshire Registry Act) 72

39 & 40 Geo. 3, c, 16. (Thellusson Act ; Accumulations) 168

3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 27. (Real Property Limitation Act, 1833) ... 103

c. 74. (Fines and Recoveries Act, 1833) 23, 24, 33, 37,

38,89

c. 105, (Dower Act) 171

c, 106. (Inheritance Act) 53

7Will.4&l Vict. c. 26. (Wills Act) 41,258,260,265

4 & 5 Vict. c. 21. 18

8 & 9 Vict. c. 18. (Lands Clauses Act), s. 132 73

c. 106. (Real Property Act, 1845) 18—20, 25, 27, 48, 72,

264
c, 112. (Satisfied Terms) 173



15 & 16 Vict, c, 76. (Common Law Procedure)

22 & 23 Vict, c. 35. (Law of Property)

23 & 24 Vict. c. 154. (Deasey's Act)

33 & 34 Vict. 0. 93. (Married Women's Property Act, 1870)

36 & 37 Vict. c. 50. (Places of Worship Sites Act)

c. 66. (Judicature Act, 1873)

37 & 38 Vict. c. 37. (Appointments)

c. 57. (Real Property Limitation Act, 1874)

c. 78. (Vendor and Purchaser Act, 1874) .

38 & 39 Vict, c, 87. (Land Transfer Act, 1875) ...



110, 236

41, 180

127

89

47

157

179

103, 235

62,92

... 293



40 & 41 Vict. c. 33. (Contingent Remainders) ... 136, 140, 141



Xviii TABLE OF STATUTES.

PAGE
44 A: 45 Vict. c. 41. (Conveyancing Act, 1881)—

8.2 r,;^

s. G 75

g. 7 ... 68—71, 120, 158, 199, 237, 239, 248

8.8 88,89

8.9 85—87

8.13 93

8.14 110,111

8.15 242

8. Ifi 252

8.17 2.53

s. 18 245, 250

8. 19 238, 243, 246

s. 20 246

8.21 246,247

8.23 249

8.24 243,244

8.26 228

s. 30 224

fi. 39 207

8.40 90

8.42 186—189

8.43 208—212

ss. 44, 45 99

8.49 73

8. 51 80, 175

8.53 90

ss. 54, 55, 50 ... ... ... ... ... 67

s. 60 236

8.61 234

s. 63 78

s. 65 177

45 & 46 Vict. c. 38. (Settled Land Act, 1882)—

Generally 161—170

8.2 123,167,186

8.6 165

6.11 169,190

s. 20 39

8.21 203

8.37 165

8.38 167

88.39,50,51 16G

8.57 165

s. 58 124

8.60 l'.)7

c. 39. (Conveyancing Act, 1882)—

s. 7 89

8.11 177

8. 12 242



TABLE OF STATUTES.



XIX



45 & 46 Vict. c. 75.



46 & 47 Vict. c. 52.

47 & 48 Vict. c. 18.



50 & 51 Vict. c. 73.

51 & 52 Vict. c. 42.

c. 59.

53 & 54 Vict. c. 69.

C.71.

54 & 55 Vict. c. 39.

c. 73.

55 & 56 Vict. c. 13.



c. 58.

56 & 57 Vict. c. 21.

c. 53.



C.63.

57 & 58 Vict. c. 46.

58 & 59 Vict. c. 25.

59 & 60 Vict. c. 35.

60 & 61 Vict. c. 65.



PAGE
(Married Women's Property Act, 1882) —

8.1 20.5,206

s. 2 89,206

8.5 89

8.13 ... 206

s. 19 212

s. 23 205

(Bankruptcy Act, 1883) 66, 240

(Settled Land Act, 1884)—

8. 6 199

8. 7 167, 199, 200

(Copyhold Act, 1887) 224

(County Courts Act, 1888) 241

(Trustee Act, 1888), s. 8 215

(Settled Land Act, 1890) ... 16.5,167,186,197

(Bankruptcy Act, 1890) 24

(Stamp Act, 1891) 65

(Mortmain and Charitable Uses Act, 1891) 258, 288
(Conveyancing Act, 1892) —

s. 2

s. 3

s. 4



(Accumulations Act, 1892)
(Voluntary Conveyances Act, 1893)
(Trustee Act, 1893)—

8. 1

ss. 4, 5
s. 8

8.9

s. 10

8. 13
8.16
8.17

83. 20—22, 24

s. 25

s. 29

s. 45
(Married Women's Property Act, 1893)

(Copyhold Act, 1894)

(Mortgagees' Legal Costs Act, 1895)
(.Judicial Trustees Act, 1896)...
(Land Transfer Act, 1897)—

8. 1

s. 2

Genei'ally



110,111
... 108
... 110
... Ill
168, 169
... 66

200, 202
... 201
... 202
... 203
212,214
... 198
... 199
... 67
... 214
... 212
... 242
... 216
... 206
... 36
... 243
213, 216

224,262

197,277

293—300



TABLE OF TEXT-BOOKS CITED.



Blackstone's Commentaries -

Challis' Real Property -

Coke's Littleton ...

Hood and Challis' Convey-
ancing and Settled Land
Acts . - . .

Littleton's Tenures

Shep. Touchstone -

Strahan's Law of Property -

Sugden on Powers

Tudor's Leading Cases in Law
of Property and Convey-
ancing ....

Underhill and Strahan's In-
terpretation of Wills and
Settlements ...

White and Tudor's Leading
Cases in J^quity



15th ed. (1809). By Edward Christian.

2nd ed. (1892).

17th ed. (1817). By Hargrave and Butler.

5th ed. (1898), By Challis and Stirling.
Translation as in Coke's Littleton (supra).
Edition of 1820. By Preston.
2nd ed. (1897).
8th ed. (ISGl).

4th ed. (1898). By Carson and Bompas.

(1900).

7th ed (1897). By Snow.



PART I.
ASSURANCES OF LAND.

PAGE

Section I. — Assurances of Freeholds- - - 3

Section II. — Assurances of Leaseholds - - 25

Section III. — Assurances of Equitable Interests - 28

Section IV. — Assurances of Copyholds - - 35

Section V. — Assurances by Deed - - - 40



( 3 )



SECTION I.



ASSURANCES OF FREEHOLDS.



p.


4.GE


PAGE


Conveyancing


3


Bargain and sale -


U


Subject-matter of conveyancing


3


Effect of statute on these -


14


English law and Jmtory


4


Inrolment of bargains and sales


15


Hereditaments, corporeal and




Not necessary if of chattel




i7icorporeal


4


interest - - - -


16


Livery of seisin and deed of




Conveyance by lease and release


17


grant - . . .


5


Legislative alterations -


17


Feoffments ... -


6


Corporeal hereditaments to lie




Essential part of a feoffment -


7


in grant - - . -


18


Uses of land - - - .


8


Deed noiv svfficieiit and neces-




Statute of Uses


9


sary . . . .


18


Requirements for operation of




Other forms of conveyances


19


statute ....


10


Release


19


(1) An iiidividual


10


Surrender ....


19


(2) Must he seised


10


Partition . . . .


19


(3) To the use -


11


Exchange . . . .


20


(4) Of another individual -


11


Different kinds of fees


20


(5) Or corporation


12


Conditional fees


21


(6) For any interest -


12


Statute De donis condition-




(7) In possession or expect-




alibus ... -


22


ancy - . . .


13


Fees tail . . . .


23


Effect of operation of statute -


13


Fines and recoveries :




Modes of raising uses


14


Operation of - - -


23


Covenant to stand seised -


14


Abolition of - - -


23



When it is desired to transfer a right of property from Convey-
one person to another it is generally expedient, in order to ^°°^°S-
prevent future doubts arising as to the precise nature of
the transaction, and it is often necessary in law to effect
the desired transfer, that the whole transaction should be
set out in a written instrument. When the transaction is
so set out the written instrument is called an assurance
of the right in question. The knowledge of the law of
property, and the skill in applying it, needful for the
proper preparation of assurances, constitute the science
and art of conveyancing.

The proprietary rights with which conveyancing is Subject-
• 1 , . . . , , 11 matter of con-

mamly concerned are proprietary rights over land, veyancing.

B 2



PART I. — ASSURANCES OF LAND.

Sect. 1. Proprietary rights over goods and other kinds of per-
sonalty also come, sometimes, within the province of
conveyancing, more especially in connection with settle-
ments and mortgages ; but when they do, it is customary
to use, in transferring them, the same forms of assurance
which are necessary to transfer interests in land. In this
respect conveyancing has gone in the opposite direction
from the general law in regard to property, in which the
tendency has long been to approximate the law of realty
to the law of personalty. It is true that conveyancing
has taken a long step in the same direction recently,
under the Land Transfer Acts, 1875 and 1897, by which
interests in land are, after registration, to be transferred
much in the same way as stocks and shares are trans-
ferred now. These Acts, however, have little operation as
yet, but if they ever become generally applied, convey-
ancing of the simpler kind will have to a great extent
ceased to exist.



English law
and history.



Confining ourselves, then, for the present to the transfer
of proprietary rights over land, and to the transfer of them
from one living person to another — transfer by will can
be more conveniently treated of separately — it is necessary,
in order to understand modern assurances, to go back
practically to the beginning of English law. It is the
same with every portion of the law of property in land.
The legal land system of England, though it has often,
especially of late, been deliberately altered and amended
by the Legislature, is still in its essentials not the result of
conscious legislation but of the whole history of the nation.
Like the constitution of England, it has not been made ; it
has grown. That is why it is at once the most intricate,
technical and characteristic part of English law.



lioredita- Looking, then, to the law of ijroijerty as it was in very

inents cor- . i i j j

{wreal'and early times, and confining ourselves, for the present, to land
incorporeal, ]^^,\^\ j^ what is now called freehold tenure, but what was
then practically the only teimre, we find that proprietary



ASSURANCES OF FREEHOLDS. 9

riglits over land to be then recognised by the cominoii Sect. 1.
law, had to be held in estates for life or in fee. When
so held they were called Jiereditaments, though that word,
properly speaking, applies only to estates in fee which
are heritable interests, and not to estates for the life
of the owner, which, of course, come to an end on the



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