J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon.

An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future online

. (page 179 of 313)
Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 179 of 313)
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ornamental than as useful varietie .

New sorts. Fine plants are frequently
imported from the West Indian islands,
and in this case generally bear their
names. In general, however, these
plants are far inferior, both as to kinds
and condition, to those grown, and to
be procured from nurserymen in this
country. They are generally infested
with the bug, and very uncertain in
thtir time of fruiting, as well as to their
flavor. If these were to be enumerated,
the list of pines known in this coun-
try would amount to upwards of forty
sorts. Specimens of above thirty sorts
are grown in the gardens of Gunter,
at Karl's-court. The globe pine-apple,
a subvariety of the queen, was sent to
Russia, above thirty years ago, by l.od-
dige, and is now rtimpoi ted under the
nameofthe Russian gk>be. iliort.Truru.
v. 2G5.)


4787. The insects which more especially in-
fest the pine are, the brown turtle bug (Coccus
hesperidum, L.) (Jig. 505. a to e). The female
has at first the appearance of a flat scale (a) ;
afterwards, when depositing its eggs, it becomes
fixed and turgid (6) ; these eggs (c) are hatched
under the mother, who soon afterwards dies;
the young insects, seen under a magnifier,
appear like turtles in miniature (d). Only
the males (e), which are few in proportion to
the females, have wings ; these devour nothing,
and having performed the office of impregna-
tion, die.

4788. The white scaly bug (C hesp. var.)
(f to I) bears a considerable resemblance to the
above ; but the scale (f) is somewhat smaller .
the color is white, and the males or flies (I) not so large as those of the brown.

4789. The white mealy crimson-tinged bug (C. hesp. var.) (n and m) differs from the
former in being larger and crimson-colored. Speechly considers it as viviparous. This
and the former species are much the most pernicious. The various modes of destroy-
ing them, and also the other insects which attack the pine, have been already detailed.

Subsect. 2. Grape-Vine. Vitis Vinifera, L. (Jac Ic. i. t. 50.) Pentan.
Monog. L. and Vites, J. Vigne, Fr. ; Weintrauben, Ger. ; and Vigtia, Ital.

4790. The grape-vine is a trailing, deciduous, hardy shrub, with a twisted irregular
stem, and long flexible branches, decumbent, like those of the bramble, or supporting
themselves when near other trees, by means of tendrils, like the pea. The leaves are
large, lobed, entire, or serrated and downy, or smooth ; green in summer, but when ma-
ture, those of varieties, in which the predominating color is red, constantly change to, or
are tinged with some shade of that color ; and those of white, green, or yellow grapes, as
constantly change to a yellow, and are never in the least tinged either with purple, red,
or scarlet. The breadth of the leaves varies from five to seven or ten inches, and the
length of the foot-stalks from four to eight inches. The flowers are produced on the
shoots of the same year, which shoots generally proceed from those of the year preceding .


they are in the form of a raceme, of a greenish-white color, and fragrant odor, appear-
ing in the open air in this country in June ; and the fruit, which is of die berry kind, at-
tains such maturity as the season and situation admit, by the middle or end of Sep-
tember. The berry or grape is generally globular, but often ovate, oval, oblong, or
finger-shaped ; the colors green, white, red, yellow, amber, and black, or a variegation
of two or more of these colors. The skin is smooth, the pulp and juice of a dulcet,
poignant, elevated, generous flavor. Every berry ought to enclose five small heart or
pear shaped stones ; though, as some generally fail, they have seldom more than three,
and some varieties, as they attain a certain age, as the ascalon or sultana raisin, none.
The weight of a berry depends not only on its size but on the thickness of its skin, and
texture of the flesh, the lightest being the thin-skinned and juicy sorts, as the Sweetwater
or muscadine ; and what are considered large berries of these varieties, will weigh from
five to seven pennyweights, and measure from one to two thirds of an inch in girth. A
good-sized bunch of the same sorts may weigh from two to six pounds ; but bunches
have been grown of the Syrian grape, in Syria, weighing forty pounds, and in England
weighing from ten to nineteen pounds. A single vine in a large pot, or grown as a
dwarf standard in the manner practised in the vineyards in the north of France,
ordinarily produces from three to nine bunches ; but by superior management in
gardens in England, the number of bunches is prodigiously increased, and one plant, that
Of the red Hamburgh sort, in the vinery of die royal gardens at Hampton Court, has
produced 2200 bunches, averaging one pound each, or in all nearly a ton. That at
Valentine's, in Essex, has produced 2000 bunches of nearly the same average weight.

4791. The age to ivhich the vine ivill attain in warm climates is so great as not to be
known. It is supposed to equal or even to surpass that of the oak. Pliny speaks of a
vine which had existed six hundred years ; and Bosc says, there are vines in Burgundy
upwards of four hundred years of age. In Italy there are vineyards which have been in a
flourishing state for upwards of three centuries ; and Miller tells us, that a vineyard a
hundred years old is reckoned young. The extent of the branches of the vine, in certain
situations and circumstances, is commensurate with its produce and age. In the hedges
of Italy and woods of America, they are found overtopping the highest elm and poplar
trees ; and in England, one plant trained against a row of houses in Northallerton
(lately dead), covered a space, in 1585, of one hundred and thirty-seven square yards; it
was then above one hundred years old. That at Hampton Court, nearly of the same
age, occupies above one hundred and sixteen square yards ; and that at Valentine's, in
Essex, above one hundred and forty-seven square yards. The size to which the trunk
or stem sometimes attains in foreign countries, is so great as to have afforded planks
fifteen inches broad, furniture, and statues ; and even in this country, the Northallerton
vine above mentioned, in 1785, measured four feet in circumference near the ground ;
and one branch of the Hampton Court vine measures one hundred and fourteen feet
in length. Vine timber is of great durability. It may be remarked, that vines regu-
larly pruned and dressed, can rarely attain similar magnitudes, nor is it desirable that
they should.

4792. The native country of the vine, like most of our acclimated fruits, is generally
considered to be Persia ; and Dr. Sickler (Gesckichte der Obst. Cult. vol. i.) has given a
learned and curious account of its migration to Egypt, Greece, and Sicily. From Sicily
it is supposed to have found its way to Italy, Spain, and France ; and in the latter coun-
try it is believed to have been cultivated in the time of the Antonines, in the second century.
It has been found wild in America, and is now considered as a native, or natu-
ralised in the temperate climates of both hemispheres. In the old world, its culture
forms a branch of rural economy from the 21st to the 51st degree of north latitude, or
from Schiraz in Persia to Coblentz on the Rhine. Some vineyards are to be found even
near Dresden and in Moravia ; and by means of garden-culture, it is made to produce
fruit for the table still farther north ; being grown to a considerable degree of perfection
in the hot-houses of St. Petersburgh and Stockholm.

4793. The introduction of the vine to Britain is supposed by some to have taken place
under the first Roman governors, though, from Tacitus, it appears to have been wanting
in Agricola's time. There is evidence, however, to prove that vineyards were planted here
in the year 280, A. D. (see 312.) ; and Bede, writing in 731, says, there were vineyards
growing in several places. Harte observes, that the religious fraternities of the dark
ages spread out from Italy in all directions, carrying with them the knowledge of agri-
culture and gardening ; there is little doubt, Professor Martyn remarks, that orchards and
vineyards were common appendages to abbeys and monasteries from their first establish-
ment, at least in the southern parts of the island, to the time of the reformation. From
this period they have disappeared, in part, perhaps, from the culture of the vine being little
understood by those to whom the lands of religious houses were sold or granted ; and in
part, because a better article would be introduced from our French provinces in the time
of the Henries, and continued to be imported when we lost these.


4794. Vineyards have also been planted in modern times, and wine produced, nearly,
if not entirely equal, to that of France. In the Museum Rusticum, it is stated, that at
Arundel Castle in Sussex, the Duke of Norfolk had a vineyard, of which there were in
his Grace's cellar, in 1763, above sixty pipes of excellent Burgundy. Bradley informs
us, that Warner, a gentleman of Rotherhithe, made good wine from his own vineyards.
Switzer mentions several instances, and among others, that of Rocque, of Walham
Green, who made wine for thirty years from a vineyard he had planted in a common field-
garden. Hanbury and Hales confirm these accounts, and cite others ; and Barry, in his
History of Wines, gives an account of a very productive vineyard, formed by the Hon.
Charles Hamilton, at Painshill, in Miller's time, which succeeded for many years, and
produced excellent champagne. It is not yet twenty years since this vineyard was ne-
glected or destroyed. There can be no hesitation, therefore, in agreeing with these
authors, and with Miller, Martyn, and Speechly, that vineyards would succeed in various
parts of England, and produce wine equal to much of that imported from France.
But, in a national point of view, we may conclude with equal safety, that the culture of
the vine, as a branch of rural economy, would not be a profitable concern here, on the
broad general principle, that it cannot be long worth while to grow any thing at home
which we can get cheaper from abroad. The high duties on imported wines may seem
to bear against this opinion ; but this is merely a temporary cause ; for, in the progress
of international commerce, governments gradually discover the advantage ofleaving trade
comparatively free ; and in proportion as this becomes the case, each country will feel its
advantage in pursuing those branches of industry in which nature or habit has ren-
dered it pre-eminent. It may, however, afford much rational satisfaction for indi-
viduals, in favorable situations, to form vineyards, and drink their own wine.

4795. Grapes for the table appear to have been in demand as early as the beginning of
the 16th century ; for Tusser includes " grapes white and red," in his list of fruits, pub-
lished about the year 1560 ; but as far as appears from horticultural literature, the
vine had only been grown as dwarf standards, or trained against walls or buildings, till
the beginning of the 18th century. Stoves for preserving curious exotics had been in-
troduced soon after the middle of the 17th century ; but we find no mention of the ap-
plication of artificial heat to the vine, till 1718, when Lawrence informs us, in his
Fruit- Gardener, published that year, " that the Duke of Rutland, at Belvoir Castle, has
done so much justice to the vine as to have fires constantly burning behind his slope
walls, from Lady-day to Michaelmas ; whereby he is rewarded by the largest grapes,
and even the best Frontignacs, in July." These sloped walls, we are informed, were
afterwards covered with glass. Switzer (Pract. Fruit. G. 2 edit. 1763.) appears to be
the first author who gives a regular plan of a vinery, with directions for forcing the
grape. He advises making fires as early as the middle of December, so as to make the
vines push by the middle of January. Since his time, the art of forcing has made such
rapid progress that no kitchen-garden worth notice is now without a vinery : the fruit is
produced in some vineries during every month of the year ; and in the London markets
is to be had in the highest degree of perfection from March to January. Vines are at
the same time still grown on walls unaided by fire-heat, and in favorable seasons, the
more hardy early sorts attain a tolerable degree of maturity. In the nursery -gardens of
Joseph Kirke at Brompton, a wall upwards of two hundred and twenty yards long, and
ten feet high, is covered with plants of the white muscadine, which have produced regu-
lar crops for many years. On the border to this wall are standard vines of the same
sort, trained to stakes about four feet high, which also bear in proportion, though the
fruit does not ripen quite so early, nor attain an equal degree of flavor with that on the
wall. In propitious seasons these grapes attain a tolerable degree of flavor ; but even
then they are of little value, compared to those grown in vineries and hot-houses.

4796. Use. The uses of the grape in Britain are well known ; in the dessert it ranks
next the pine, and is by some preferred to it. The berries, when green or not likely to
ripen, may be used in tarts or pies ; and the leaves form an elegant garnish to other
table-fruits. Wine is sometimes made in England, by expressing and fermenting the
juice, either alone or with that of other fruits ; and it has even been made from decoc-
tions of the leaves of some sorts. In warmer climates, the grape is not only used in the
dessert, but eaten with bread, either newly gathered or dried as raisins ; and in these
countries, from the fermented juice, a wine or liquor is made superior to all others for
stimulating the stomach, and exhilarating the spirits of man. Some of the most im-
portant consequences in the mythological history of man, are referred to its last-men-
tioned qualities. (See the Histories of Lot, Noah, and Bacchus.) The medical products
of the vine are verjuice, formerly used as the juice of lemons : tartar, a gentle cathartic :
vinegar, used as a condiment ; for extracting the virtues of other medicines ; and for
counteracting the effects of vegetable poisons. Even wine itself is given as a medicine,
in typhus fevers ; in nervous disorders ; in putrid sore throats ; and even in the plague.
" In almost all cases of languor, and great prostration of strength," Martyn observes,

Book I.



" wine is a more grateful and efficacious cordial than can be furnished from the whole
class of aromatics."

4797. Varieties. These are exceedingly numerous ; partly from the antiquity of the
vine, it having, as Professor Martyn remarks, been cultivated from the time of Noah ;
partly from the influence of soils and climates in changing the qualities of grapes, there
being hardlv two vineyards in France or Italy where the sorts, though originally the
same, remain long precisely alike ; but chiefly, as far as respects this country at least,
from the facility with which new sorts are procured from seed. Tusser, in 1560, men-
tions only " white and red" grapes. Parkinson, who was more of a horticulturist,
gives, in 1627, a list of twenty-three sorts, including the white muscadine, " very great,
sweet, and firm ; some of the bunches have weighed six pounds, and some of the berries
half an ounce." Ray, in 1688, enumerates twelve sorts as then most in request. Rea,
in 1702, gives most of those in Ray's list, and adds five more sorts, recommending the
red, white, and the d'Arbois, or royal muscadine, the Frontignacs, and the blood-red,
as the fittest sorts for England. The best vines, he says, were then on the walls of the
physic-garden at Oxford.

4798. Switzer, in 1717, says, " It is to Lord Capel and Sir William Temple that we are owing that col-
lection of good grapes now so plenty in England; the latter," he says, " brought over the Chasselas,
I>arsley, and Frontignac ; and also the Amboyna, Burgundy, black muscat, and grizzly Frontignac ; all
highly approved, and distributed amongst the nurserymen, as well as the nobility and gentry. The best
grape's," he tells us, " were grown at Twickenham, Isleworth, and Richmond." Speechly, from 1760 to
1790, excelled in the culture of the vine at Welbeck.

4799. The most valuable modem additions to the varieties of grapes in this country have been procured
bv sowing the seeds of sorts ripened in this country. That excellent grape, the red Hamburgh, was raised
from seed, about a century ago, by Warner, of Rotherhithe, already mentioned. Miller in the same way
produced the variety of the black cluster, which bears his name. Speechly produced various new sorts,
which have now a place in the catalogues of nurserymen. Williams of Pitmaston, Braddick of Thames
Ditton, and, above all, the President of the Horticultural Society, have raised several excellent varieties
of the sweetwater, Chasselas, and Hamburgh grapes. The great attention paid to natural history* by such
as go abroad, has also contributed to the number of grapes. New sorts have been sent from Spain, Italy,
and the East Indies, and many from France ; so that the lists of some British nurserymen exceed two
hundred and fifty names. In France, during the consulship, in 1801, the celebrated chemist, Chaptal,
wheu minister of the interior, ordered a specimen of every known variety of the grape to be collected
from the different departments where the vine is grown, and planted in the nursery of the Luxemburg
garden, with a view to ascertain their respective merits. Though this assortment was never completed,
the number collected amounted to upwards of three hundred distinct varieties.

4800. A classification of the numerous varieties of the vine has not yet been made, either in France or
England. Bosc, the inspector of government-nurseries in France, was employed to compare and class
those collected at the Luxemburg ; but in 1809 he had only succeeded in describing and figuring fifty dis-
tinct sorts. The groundwork of his classification was, the color, form, and size of the fruit ; the surface,
margin, texture, color, and position of the leaves ; and the redness, greenness, or variegation of the
foot-stalks. From these eleven characteristics combined, he forms 156 classes, in which, he says, may be
placed all the possible varieties of grapes. Bosc, aware of the great variety of considerations of another
order, which augment the number of characteristics, such as grapes which are in other respects alike,
yet differ in their time of ripening, in the time they will hang without alteration on the plant, in the
quantity produced on a plant, quality of the pulp, &c. acknowledges, that, after four years' labor, he could
offer no useful result. In the catalogue of the Luxemburg collection, published by Hervey in 1802, the
arrangement is, 1. vines with black oval fruits , 37 sorts; 2. black round fruits, 98 sorts; 3. white oval
fruits, 44 sorts ; 4. white round fruits, 73 sorts ; 5. grey or violet oval fruits, 5 sorts ; and 6. grey or violet
round fruits, 10 sorts : in all, 267 sorts. The most elaborate descriptions of the varieties of the vine
which have yet appeared are contained in a Spanish work, Ensayo sobre las variedades de lavidco-
mun, que vegctan en Andalusia, Sec. by D. Simon Roxas Clemente, librarian to the botanic garden at
Madrid. This author founds his varieties on the character of the stem, shoots, leaves, flowers, bunches,
and berries. He describes 120 varieties, comprising them in two sections, downy and smooth-leaved. Each
section is arranged in tribes or clusters of subvarieties,- bearing one common name, and distinguished by
a common character in some of the parts of the fundamental characteristics above named, and into isolated
varieties, which he describes singly. He enumerates thirty-six authors who have written on the vine,
since Columella, by whose names he has distinguished many of his tribes ; the others by their local ap-
pellations. The table of grape-vines here given is, we acknowledge, very imperfect, but it contains all
the information which we have been able to embody from the best authors, and especially from Speechly
and Forsyth. More than triple the names it contains might have been inserted ; but," without being
accompanied by any descriptive particulars, they could be of no real use.

4801. Estimate of sorts. As it is generally a puzzling consideration for inexperienced persons to make
a selection from the ample semi-descriptive catalogues of authors and long lists of names kept by nursery-
men, we shall here submit a few selections suitable to common cases. "

Vines to plant against a common garden-
nail of south exposure, or against the
nails of a house. The July black,
white muscadine, white and black
sweetwater, small and large black and
white cluster, black esperione, &c.

To plant a vinery for early forcing.
Take the preceding sorts.

To plant a vinery for a full crop of good
grapes of vurious flavors. Take a
white and red, or black muscadine,
a white and red muscat, a white and
a red Frontignac, a black or red mus-
cadel, a white raisin-grape, a white
and red Hamburgh, a Sitwell's and
red sweetwater, a white and red

There are here 26 grapes of 14 distinct
flavors ; an equal number of both co-
lors ; large showy bunches and berries,
as those of the Nice ; and small high-
flavored ones, as those of the Fron-
the whole placed in the order

in which they will ripen. The foliage
in autumn will be alternately tinged
with red and yellow ; and, supposing
the muscadines to be placed next the
end at which the flue enters, they will
ripen nearly a month earlier than anv
of the others : the Muscats, Frontig"-
nacs, and Muscadels being hot-house
grapes, will have a sufficient heat to
ripen them ; and the three last sorts,
being somewhat more tardy, will come
in succession.

To plant a vinery for a late crop. Take
the black Damascus, black Frontignac,
black Hamburgh, red Syracuse, black
and white raisin, black "and white St.
Peter's, black prince, &c.

To plant a hot-house in n-hich pines are
gronm . one plant under each rafter.
Take the white and red muscat, black
muscadel, red or black Hamburgh, red
Syracuse, red and white raisin, black

Damascus : and for early sorts, Sitwell's
sweetwater, royal muscadine, white

To plant vines to rvn up the rafters of
green-housLS, or plant-stoves. Choose
such sorts as have small leaves and
short foot-stalks.

Hardy small leaved sorts for the rafters of
a green-house. White andblacksweet-
water, black cluster, black musca-
dine, parsley-leaved muscadine, black

Small-leaved sorts, requiring more heat,
and Jit for the rafters of a riant-stove.
Black Morocco, blue Frontignac, blue
tokay, claret, white Teneriffe, white
morillon, &c.

Small-fruited sorts for planting in poU
or boxes. Black and white Corinth,
black and white cluster, red and griialy
Frontignac, white and red Burgundy,


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Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 179 of 313)