J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon.

An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future online

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Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 184 of 313)
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kept there. The plants were procured from Genoa, with stems generally from four to six feet in height ;
they were planted in large boxes, and were set out during summer to decorate the walks near the house in
themanner still practised at Versailles and the Tuilleries. About the middle of the eighteenth century,
when a taste for botany and forcing exotic fruits became general, that for superb orange-trees began to
decline ; many of these large trees have decayed through neglect ; and those which are now to be found
in the greater number of green-houses, are generally dwarf plants bearing few fruit, and those of small
size. In some places, however, are still to be found large and flourishing trees. Those at Smorgony in
Glamorganshire, are the largest in Britain; they are planted in the floor of an immense conservatory,
and bear abundantly. It is said that the plants were procured from a wreck on the coast in that quarter,
in the time of Henry VII.

4887. At Xuneham, near Oxford, are some very fine trees, planted under a moveable case, sheltered by
a north wall. In summer, the case is removed, and the ground turfed over, so that the whole resembles
a native orange-grove. At Wormleybury, Hertfordshire, and Shipley Hall, in Derbyshire, are very
fine large orange and lemon trees grown in" borders and in boxes. {Hort. Trans, vol ii. 295. and iv. 306.)

4888. At the Wilderness, Knit, (Marquis Camden's,) are three trees in boxes, not surpassed by any
trees so grown in Europe. C. Bingham, at Isleworth, possesses a very fine collection ; and various others
might be enumerated.

4889. At Woodhall, near Hamilton, trees of all the species of citrus are trained against the back wall of
forcing-houses, in the manner of peaches, and produce large crops of fruit.

4890. In the south of Devonshire, and particularly at Saltcombe, one of the warmest spots in
England, may be seen, in a few gardens, orange-trees that have withstood the winter m the open air
upwards of a hundred years. The fruit is as large and fine as any from Portugal. Trees raised from
seed, and inoculated on the spot, are found to bear the cold

better than trees imported.

4891. Use. As a dessert-fruit, the orange is well known.
The varieties imported, which are most esteemed for this
purpose, are the China, Portugal, and Maltese. It is also
used in confectionary, both ripe, and when green and' not
larger than a pea : it forms various liquors and conserves,
either alone or with sugars, wines, or spirits ; and either the
pulp or skin, or both, are used for these purposes. In cook-
ing, it is used to aromatise a number of dishes. The juice
of the Seville orange is used in medicine, in febrile and in-
flammatory disorders ; and that of the other sorts possesses
the same qualities in a lesser degree. The acid of oranges,
Dr. Cullen says, unites with the bile, takes oft" its bitterness,
and may prove useful in obviating disorders arising from its
redundancy and acridity. In perfumery, the orange is used
to form various perfumes and pomades": and the flower dis-
tilled, produces orange-water, used in cooking, medicine,
and as a perfume.

4892. Varieties. These are very numerous in the eastern
countries, and even in Italy and France. About forty sorts
are cultivated in the neighborhood of Paris, and about
thirty in the London nurseries, of which we shall give a list
The two principal varieties are the sweet or China orange,
the orange douce of the French, and porto-gallo or pom a de
sino of the Italians ; and the bitter or Seville, the bigarade
of the French, and arancio volgaro of the Italians. The Mi'tese orange, distinguised bv its red pulp is
also a noted and much -esteemed sort The box-leaved, willow-leaved, ai>d some others, are cultivated
more as curious varieties than for their fruit.



Part III,

Common orange



Bergamot large

Bergamot small




Fine- leaved




Bloody Maltese

Narrow leaved



Seville or bitter orange,
(./'>- 511.) chiefly used lb
making marmalade


Striped common

Striped curled-leaTed

Striped gold

Striped silver

Striped tricolor

Striped willow-leaved


Sweet China





Clove, or mandarin, (C. No.
bilit, H. K.) (But. Rep- 608.
and 21 1.), distinguished from
the common orange by its

curious form, and by the
pulp adhering so loosely to
the rind as to be separable
from it by the slightest effort,
and leaving in many places
a considerable opening be-
tween them. It is the most
delicate of the orange tribe,
whence its name by the Chi-
nese of mandarin, or noble
orange Probably only a va-
riety, though named as a si>e-

4893. The Citron is the C. Medica, L. {Gcer. fru. 2.
t. 121. f. 2.); the citron of the French; the citronier of
the Germans; and cedraie of the Italians. {Jig. 512.)
In its wild state the tree grows to the height of about
eight feet, erect and prickly, with long reclining branches.
The leaves are ovate, oblong, alternate, subserrate, smooth,
pale green. The fruit or berry is half a foot in length,
ovate, with a protuberance at the tip. There are two
linds, the outer thin, with innumerable miliary glands,
full of a most fragrant oil ; the inner thick, white, and
fungous. The citron was introduced into Europe from
Media, under the name of mains medica, and was first cul-
tivated in Italy by Palladius in the second century. The
date of its introduction into England is not exactly
known ; it would probably be coeval with that of the
lemon, which was cultivated in the botanic garden at Ox-
ford in 1(748. The fairest fruit, Miller states, was in the
Duke of Argyle's garden at Whitton, where the trees
were trained against a south wall, through which there were flues for warming the air in
winter, and glass covers put over them, when the weather began to be cold. Thus
the fruit was as large and as perfectly ripe, as it is in Italy or Spain. In Italy citrons
and lemons are generally trained on walls or espaliers, because, being considerably more
tender than the orange, they require, at least in the north of Italy, some protection in
winter ; the fruit does not ripen regularly at one time, like that of the orange, but comes
successionally to maturity almost every month in the year.

4894. Use. The fruit is seldom brought to the dessert in a raw state, but it forms excellent preserves and
sweetmeats, to furnish the table when other fruits are scarce. The juice, with sugar and water, forms
lemonade, a most refreshing, salubrious, and universally esteemed beverage. Its use in punch and negus
is well known. It is much used in medicine, and also in perfumery and dyeing.

4895. Varieties. Dr. Sickler enumerates only about a dozen citrons and citronates as grown in Italy.
The French nurseries have nearly twenty names in their lists. In England the six following are cultivated _
for sale :

The common citron
The flat-fruited

The rough-fruited
The forbidden-fruited

The grape-fruited Barbadoes
' Tran


vol. iii. p. 358.)

The round-fruited
The thick-leaved.

4896. The lemon is the C. Medica, var. Limon, W. (Blackw. 362.) ; the limon of the French ; limonier
of the Germans ; and limone of the Italians, (fig. 513.) The distinction between the lemon and citron is
very trifling. The fruit is less knobbed at the extremities, is rather longer, and more irregular, and the
skin is thinner than in the citron ; the wood is more knotty, and the bark rougher. Cultivated in the
Oxford garden in 1648.

4897. Tfie uses of the lemnn are the same as those of the citron. _^ .

4898. Varieties. Dr. Sickler enumerates twenty-eight as grown in Italy. The French, according to
Ville Herve, have eleven sorts ; in the London nurseries are cultivated the twelve following :


Pear-shaped, or Lime {Jig. 514.)
Striped gold

Striped silver
Striped three-colored

Book I.



4899. The lime is the Citrus Adda, Roi. (Brown's Jam.
508.) by some esteemed a variety of tlie C. Medica ; the
limeof the French, Italians, and Germans. {Jig. 515.) The
sour lemon, or lime, grows to the height of about eight feet,
with a crooked trunk, and many diffused branches, with
prickles. The leaves are ovate, lanceolate, almost quite
entire. Berry an inch and a half in diameter, almost glo-
bular, with a protuberance at the top ; the surface regular,
shining, greenish-yellow, with a very odorous rind, en-
closing a very acid juice. It is a native of Asia, but has
long been common in the West Indies, where it is grown
both for its fruit and for fences.

5900. The uses of the lime are the same as those of the
lemon, to which, in the West Indies, it is preferred ; the
juice being reckoned more wholesome, and the acid more
agreeable to the palate.

5901. Varieties. By the catalogue in Nouveau Cours, &c
the French have two sorts of lime ; and according to Dr.
Sickler, the Italians have four varieties. The following
five kinds are grown in the London nurseries :

The common lime
The weeping

I The broad-leaved
I The West India

The Chinese spreading.

5902. The shaddock is the C. decumana, W. {Rump. am. 2.
L 24. f. 2.) ; the orange pampelmouse of the French ; and
the arancio massimo of the Italians, {fig. 516.) The tree is
above the middle size, with spreading prickly branches. The
leaves are ovate, subacute, seldom obtuse ; the petioles are
cordate, winged ; the wings as broad as the leaves. The berry
spheroidal, frequently retuse at each end, of an even surface,
and greenish-yellow color ; pulp, red or white; juice, sweet or
acid ; rind, white, thick, fungous, and bitter. Thunberg says,
the fruit in Japan grows to the size of a child's head, and
Dr. Sickler states its weight as fourteen pounds, and its diameter
as from seven to eight inches. It is a native of China and Japan,
and was brought to the West Indies by Captain Shaddock, from
whom it has derived its name. From the West Indies it was
sent to England, and cultivated by Miller in 17S9.

5903. Use. The shaddock is certainly the least useful of the
species enumerated, and is cultivated chiefly for show. It has
the handsomest leaf of the whole tribe, and the fruit is larger
than the orange. Where several sorts of oranges are pre-
sented at the dessert, it makes a striking addition to the variety.
The juice is of a subacid sweetness, and excellent for quench-
ing thirst; and the fruit, from the thickness of its skin, will
keep longer in sea voyages than any of the other species of

5904. Varieties. The Italians, according to Dr. Sickler, have one ; and the French, according to the
Nouveau Cours, &c. four sorts. The following four are grown in the English nurseries :

The common shaddock | The rough-fruited | The largest-fruited | The AVest India.

5905. Prcqmgation of the citrus tribe. All the sorts may be propagated by seeds, cut-
tings, layers, and grafting, or inoculation.

5906. By seed. The object of raising plants from seed is either to obtain new varieties or stocks for
grafting. To attempt raising new varieties in Britain will in general be found a tedious process, as the
trees do not even in Italy show fruit for six or eight years or more; and there is now in the botanic
garden at Toulon, a large handsome tree, of twenty-five years' growth, which had not in 1819 blossomed.
However, if new varieties are attempted, select the largest and best-formed ripe fruit of the kind to be
raised, extract the seeds, dry them, and sow and nurse as hereafter directed for raising stocks. Where
trees are to be raised for stocks to bud oranges, Miller advises to procure citron-seeds, as stocks from these
are preferable to any other for quickness of growth ; and also that they will take buds of either orange,
lemon, or citron. Next to these are the Seville orange seeds ; and the best of either sort are to be had
from rotten fruits. Prepare in spring a good hot-bed of dung or tan, and when it is in moderate temper sow
the seeds in pots of light earth ; plunge them, give water frequently, and raise the glasses in the heat of
the day. In three weeks the seeds will come up, and in a month's time be fit to transplant into single
pots. Then renew the bed, and fill pots of five inches in diameter half full of good fresh earth, mixed
with very rotten cow-dung : shake out the seedlings, and plant one in each pot, filling it up with the
same earth, and replunge as before. Give a good watering at the roots, and repeat this often, as the
orange tribe in a hot-bed require a good supply of water. Shade in the day-time, when the sun is power-
ful, and give air so as not to draw the plants. By this method, with due care, the plants will be two feet
high by July, when they must be hardened by degrees, by raising the glasses very high, and afterwards,
in fine days, taking them entirely off, shading the plants from the sun with mats or other screei>s. To-
wards the end of September, house them in a dry part of the green-house, near the glass, where they
will not be liable to damp off'. During winter refresh them with water, and in April now and then wash
their stems and leaves, to clear them from any filth they may have contracted. Place them again in a
moderate hot-bed, and harden them by the beginning of June, that they may be in a right order to bud
in August.

5907. Budding. "Make choice of cuttings from trees, that are healthy and fruitful, observing that the
shoots are round ; the buds of these being much better and easier to part from the wood than of such
shoots as are flat or angular. After performing the operation, remove the plants into the green-house, or
under glass frames, to defend them from wet, turning the buds from the sun ; but let them have as much
free air as possible, and refresh them often with water. In a month it will be observable which has taken,
then untie them, and let them remain in the green-house all the winter. In spring cut off the stocks
about three inches above the buds, and place them in a moderate hot-bed, giving air and water, and
shading as before. By the end of July they will have made shoots of two feet or more ; then harden them
before the cold sets in, that they may the better stand the winter. In the first winter after their shooting,
you must keep them very warm, for by forcing them in the bark-bed they will be somewhat tenderer ;
but it is very necessary to raise them to their height in one season, that their stems may be straight, for
in trees which are two or more years growing to their heading height, the stems are always crooked. In
the succeeding years their management will be the same as for full-grown trees.


The Italian process of raising and budding.
3 D

In the orange-nurseries at Nervi,



Part III.

the seeds of the citron or orange, as it may happen, are sown in beds in the open ground
in February or March, and in September planted out in compartments, in rows generally
about eighteen inches wide, and the plants six or eight inches in the row. They are
placed thus close to draw them up with clean straight stems. There they remain
generally four years, and in April or May of the fifth year they are taken up, their roots
cut within four or six inches of the tap-root, which is also shortened to six or eight
inches, according to the size of the tree. The stem, if it has any side shoots, is pruned
clean, and sawn off horizontally, at such a height as that the section is from half an
inch to an inch in diameter. {Jig- 517. a) The
general heights are one foot, which forms the
lowest-growing plants ; eighteen inches for
trees to be sold in Italy; from two to four
feet for trees to be sent abroad ; and five or
six feet for extraordinary orders. These last
are not so common ; as the stocks require six
or eight years' growth, and some care to attain
that height with clean stems, and a diameter
of three quarters of an inch. The plants thus
pruned are budded, sometimes when out of
ground, and sometimes after planting. One
bud is inserted on each side of the stock (a),
within an inch of the section. In a month
buds and roots begin to push, and in Decem-
ber or January following these plants are in
fit state for taking up for exportation. After
being taken up, the roots, now well furnished
with fibres, are enveloped in a ball of stiff
clay ; this is covered with moss carefully tied
on, and in this way they are laid in boxes, or
in casks, and sent not only to most parts of
Europe, but to North and South America.
The chief defect in this system is the naked
horizontal section at the top of the stem (a), which, not being smoothed with the knife
and covered with clay or any other protection, to cause the bark to grow over it, indurates
and cracks with the drought ; retains moisture and decays, so that in almost all trees
that have > been budded in this way, a dead stump or a rotten hole, may be observed
during the whole period of their existence. This evil is often lessened by covering with
a cap of lead or a patch of wax ; but it might readily be obviated by peeling off a piece
of bark from one side of the part of the stock to be sawn off (d), letting it remain attached
to the lower part or stem ; and after removing the head, bringing it down close over
the section, inserting its end under the bark in the opposite side, somewhat in the man-
ner of saddle-grafting ; or the manner employed by surgeons in amputating a limb
(e) might be adopted. A similar object might probably be effected by removing a
wedge-shaped section from the top of the stock (f), and then compressing its sides, so
as to present a wedge-shaped termination covered with bark (g). But the gardeners at
Nervi are too indolent and obstinate to hear of any thing new, and will persist in their
present plan till the credit of Genoa for orange-trees is gone, or till some strong necessity
urges them to improvement.

5909. The Maltese, aware of the defects in Italian trees, make a sloping section (5), paring it clean, and
budding on one side only; the consequence of which is, that the section becomes covered with bark, and,
which it never does in the Italian method, as sound and healthy as any part of the stem. The French
graft and inoculate in a very neat manner (c), and indeed their orange-trees, though small, are much
handsomer than the Italian ones.

5910. By grafting. This mode is occasionally resorted to in Italy, and is that most generally adopted
in the nurseries at Paris. The stocks, when of two years' growth, and not much thicker than the scion,
are cut over within six inches of the ground, and then grafted in the whip manner. The trees continue
small, but have clean stems of from one to three feet, and generally make handsome plants, prolific in
flowers and fruit, of a small size. Grafting, both by the whip manner and by approach, is frequently
practised in England, in nearly the same circumstances of age, size, and effect, as practised in France. A
variety of the whip-manner is described by Cushing, in which the top of the stock is left on, but the scion
is cut off as in grafting. "Form the scion as for the common whip-graft, and then, without taking off
the head of the stock, cut from the clearest part of its stem an equal splice as smoothly as possible ; do not
tongue the scion, but tie it on neatly and firmly with matting and clay, in the manner of a graft : plunge
them in a hot-bed, and cover with a cap-glass till the scion begins to grow, and then cut away the top of
the stock, and remove the matting by degrees." {Exotic Gard. 103.)

5911. Whip-grafting in the common way has lately been successfully performed, even with fruit or
flowers on the scion, by Nairn, who gives the following account of the process : " Let the operator select
as many orange or lemon stocks as he wishes to work, and place them on a moderate hot-bed for a fort-
night, by which time the sap will have risen sufficiently to move the bark; the stocks must then be cut
off, about two inches above the surface of the pot, and an incision made with a sharp knife, similar to
what is done for budding, separating the bark from the wood on each side. Let the scion be cut thin, in
a sloping direction, and thrust between the bark and wood, and then bound tight with woollen yarn ; but
very great care must be taken, in binding, to prevent the bark from slipping round the stock, which,
without attention, it is very apt to do. After it is properly and neatly bound, put a little loam or clay

Book I.



close round the stock, to the surface of the pot, then, with a glass of a proper form (Jig. 518.), to prevent
the damp from dripping on the scion, cover the whole, and press it firmly
into the mould, to prevent the air or steam from getting to the plant ; ^^^.

the glass must not be taken off", unless you find any of the leaves damp-
ing, and then only till this is remedied," when it must be immediately re-
turned. The stocks must next be placed on a brisk hot -bed of dung, and
in about six weeks, the glasses may be taken off", and the clay and binding
removed ; but it will be necessary to bind on a little damp moss, in lieu of
the clay, and to keep the glasseson in the heat of ihe day, taking them
off at night; when, in about three weeks or a month, they will be fit to
be put into the green-house, where they will be found to be one of the
greatest ornaments it can receive. I should recommend the mandarin
orange for the first trial, as the fruit is more firmly fixed than that of any
of the other sorts. 1 have, by the above method, had seven oranges on a /
plant, in a pot, commonly called a small sixty, which I conceive to be /
both curious and handsome." {Hort. Trans, iii.) L

5915. Henderson's mode of grafting is well adapted for proving successful."
" Take two-vear-old wood, cut into lengths of about seven inches. If the stock is much thicker than
the graft [fig. 519. a), cut a piece out of the stock of a triangular figure, about an inch and two eighths in
length, regulating the depth according to the
thickness of the graft, and keeping it square at
the bottom. Displace two leaves at the bottom of
the graft, for the convenience of getting it put on,
cut the graft right across under one eye, where a
leaf has been taken off: dress the graft to fit the
receptacle made in the stock, observing to keep
the lower end of the graft equal in thickness as
above ; always let three or four leaves remain
untouched on the graft. After the graft is fitted
in the stock, tie it up with bass matting, and put
clay around it. If the grafts and stocks are nearly
of the same thickness (6), cut the stock, at right
angles, nearly half through. Cut off the piece,
keeping it equal at top and bottom : cut the
lower end of the graft right across under an
eye a , and with a knife prepare the graft to fit the
stock. When the grafted plants are tied up and
clayed, set them at the back of the vinery or
peach-house, observing to keep them away from
the flues, as fire-heat is hurtful to them at first :
cover them with hand-glasses, or, if a frame can
be spared, it is still better. Shade them every
day, but take the mats ofFat night ; continue the
shading till they begin to grow, when they may be
exposed to the light If any stock happens to be
so tall and thick that it cannot be placed under a
hand-glass or frame, put two or three grafts on
it, set in any convenient place in the house, and
shade it with mats ; it will succeed perfectly in
this way, the grafts lose none of the old leaves ;
and, in five or six months, they will make three
or four young shoots six or eight inches long ;
these, with the leaves that were on the grafts
when put on, form a well-clothed little plant"

5913. By cuttings. This method, though little

Cractised on the continent, where the object is
irge trees and fine fruit, is frequently adopted
by the British gardener, whose object is generally
small handsome plants. Two methods are adopt-
ed ; the first is to take young succulent wood as
soon as it has done growing, and the lower end
has become somewhat mature. These cuttings,
prepared properly (5914.) are inserted with a small
dibber in pots of light sandy loam, with two or
three inches of gravel or broken pots at bottom.
They are then covered close with a crystal bell,
and plunged in a gentle heat, and shaded. The

Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 184 of 313)