J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon.

An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future online

. (page 215 of 313)
Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 215 of 313)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


6345. Species and varieties. The lists of the London and Paris nurserymen contain upwards of 500
names : that of Calvert and Co., Englishmen, who have established a nursery at Bonne Nouvelle near
Rouen, enumerates near 900 sorts. The greater part of these have been raised from seed on the continent,
where it ripens better than in this country, within the last thirty years. A number of varieties have also
been raised in Britain, especially of the R. spinosissima, or Scotch rose, of which above 300 varieties
are procurable in the Glasgow nursery. New varieties are raised in France and Italy annually ; Villaresi,
royal gardener at Monza, has raised upwards of fifty varieties of Rosa indica ; not one of which have, as
far as we know, reached this country. Some of them are quite black, others shaped like a ranunculus,
and many of them highly odoriferous. The following table contains nearly 150 species and varieties of sin-
gle roses, of longest standing, arranged according to their time of flowering, heights, and colors; and of
the greater number of which there are double and semi-double varieties of the same colors. The names
are chiefly taken from Page's Prodromus, and the plants are known by them in the Hammersmith nursery.
Ample lists, as already observed, may be had from all the principal nurserymen, and the best mode of
making a selection is to view the plants while in flower.



Height from to 1 foot. \ From 1 foot to 2 feet.



Rosa spinosissima rub. p.


Rosa spinosissima alb. p.


Rosa spinosiss. marm.p.

Rosa spinosiss. pannic. ]>.

From 2 feet to 3 feet.

From 5 feet to 5 feet. I From 5 feet to 8 feet.


Rosa pimpinellifolia





itosa pumila

^losa pilosa, p.


roxburghii, p.


ftosa prostrata, p.


Rosa alpina rubra





j Rosa alpina


Rosa centifolia

rubiginosa coccinea
-,- damascena

rubiginosa apiifolia



Rosa lutea

Rosa caucasica





Rosa alba





I Rosa oiy mpica
| villosa


Rosa bland.spinis rubr.p.

indica resplendens

di versa? flora, .

indica salieifolia.p

Rosa lucida




Rosa blanda, p.



Rosa turbinata
I - lyonU,*.
rubifotia, p.


1 Rosa kamschatica


Rosa americana lutea, p.



; Rosa minuta, d.


| Rosr. minuta, d.

Rosa hractea ta, y._


IRosa pennsylvanica, i



' Ro^a moschata

Book II. ROSE. 891

6547. Propagation By seed for new varieties, and chiefly by layers for continuing approved sorts.
They are also multiplied by budding, cuttings, and suckers. F

6548. By seed. Ripe hips containing the seeds are obtained from semi-double and single flowers and to
increase the chance of new varieties, these should be taken from plants that have been planted among or
near to the sorts of which a cross is desired. We are not aware that Knight's mode of extracting the
stamina from the one parent, and dusting the stigma with the anthers of the other, has been applied to
the rose, but there can be no doubt it might be done in many instances. In France and Italy, the usual
mode is to form a plantation of double and semi-double sorts mixed indiscriminately, and take the result
of promiscuous impregnation. Guillemeau has given lists of such as are adopted for this purpose : and
v lllaresi raised most of his beautiful varieties of the Rosa indica, by planting them among as many va-
rieties of the European roses as he could procure. Austen nurseryman at Glasgow, and Lee of Ham-
mersmith, mix all the sorts of Scotch roses together in the same plantation. The other mode may be
compared to cross-breeding at random ; and this to random-in and in-breeding.

6549. Process. Few of the hips are ripe before October, but most sorts that come to maturity in this
country, will be fit to gather by November. The seeds of the rose require to be one year in the soil before
they vegetate ; they may either be immediately rubbed or washed out, and preserved among sand or cin-
der-dust : or the hips entire may be so preserved a full year, when the husks will be perfectly rotten, and
the seed being separated and sown in February, will come up in the May or June following. The best
place to lay up the hips is the floor of a cellar, such as that used for storing roots ; but in whatever way
they are preserved, care must be taken that they are not laid together in such masses as to produce fer-
mentation ; and that the heap be turned over frequently in course of the twelve months, to promote
decay. The seeds should be sown in a soft moist soil, such as that composed of equal parts of sand and
vegetable mould, in a shady situation ; it may be covered from a fourth to half an inch, according to the
size of the seeds, and the surface should be kept moist by watering in the evenings, till the plants have
come up and attained a few inches in height. Early in the second spring, they may be transplanted in
rows a foot apart every way, and a year afterwards again transplanted to a distance more or less, accord,
ing to the sorts. Here they are to remain till they flower, which varies in different sorts, from the third
to the fifth year, but most commonly they flower the fourth summer.

6550. By layers. The common mode is to lay down the young shoots of the preceding summer late in
autumn, or early in the succeeding spring, and then, with the exception of the moss-rose, and one or two
others, they form rooted plants by the next autumn. But it is now found, that if the same shoots are
laid down when the plant is beginning to flower in July, they will, with a few exceptions, produce roots
and be fit to remove the same autumn, by which a whole year is gained. Such sorts as do not root in one
year must be left on the stools till the second autumn ; but layers made when the shoots are in a growing
state, and furnished with healthy leaves, root much more freely than shoots of ripe wood. After the
plants are removed from the stools, they are planted in nursery rows, and in a year, the blossom-buds
having been carefully pinched off from the first laying down, they will be fit for removal to their final
destination. The stools are then to be pruned, and the soil stirred and enriched on the general principles
already laid down. (2004.)

6551. By suckers and dividing the roots. Many of the commoner sorts admit of being rapidly multiplied
in this way ; and the plants obtained may be planted in their final destination at once.

6552. By cuttings. Most of the sorts might, no doubt, be propagated from cuttings of the young wood ;
cut at a joint where it is beginning to ripen, and planted in sand and vegetable mould under a hand-glass.
But this mode is only adopted with such sorts as strike easily, as the R. indica, and other eastern species.

6553. By budding. ' This mode of propagating roses is adopted chiefly with the rare sorts, and such as
art-e difficult to propagate by layers ; for it is found, that plants so originated, even though on stocks of
the hardier sorts, are less durable than such as are raised by any-of the other modes. But the chief use of
budding in the culture of the rose is to produce standard roses, or to produce several sorts from the same
stock. Standard roses are a modern invention, it is generally supposed of the Dutch, first carried to
Paris, and about twenty years ago to England. They are highly artificial objects, of great beauty, and
form magnificent ornaments to parterres and borders. The stocks are either of the tree-rose (R. villosa,
W.), or of any sorts of woody wild roses, as R. scabriuscula, heterophylla, or surculosa, Wds. They are
budded at different heights from three to seven feet, but commonly between five and six feet from the
ground. A stock in the Paris garden, which carries several sorts, has a naked stem of nearly fifteen feet,
and there are others at Malmaison and the Grand Trianon, of equal height. These stocks are, both in
France and England, procured from woods and copses, and after being planted in nursery lines, are often
budded the same summer, sometimes in sp"ring by the scalopemode of budding (2059.), Vceil poussant of the
French ; and never later than the succeeding spring or summer by the common mode, Vceil dormant, Fr.
Generally two buds are inserted on opposite sides of the stock, but often three or four, or a dozen, in
alternate' positions on the upper six, or twelve inches of the stem. Every stock is supported by a rod,
which should reach a foot or eighteen inches higher than the situation of the bud ; to this rod the stock
is tied, and afterwards the shoots from the buds, which are otherwise liable to be blown out by high winds.
The Paris nurserymen being supplied with stronger stocks than can readily be procured in England, and
having a better climate, and more experience in the culture of roses, excel us in this department of rose
propagation, and their standards afford an article of commerce with other countries. Their common
plants, raised by layers, are also in extensive demand, but in these we equal, if not surpass them. Fine
collections of standi rd roses from Faris, maybe seen in the Hammersmith nursery, in the Comte de
Vandes's garden at Bayswater in the Duchess of Dorset's at Knowle, and at various other places.

6554. Final situation. No species of rose, wild or cultivated, thrives well in or very near
large towns, on account of the smoke and confined air. The yellow and Austrian roses
(R. lutea and L. bicolor) are difficult to flower in any situation, but seldom or never blow
in the suburbs cf London : even the monthly rose does not thrive so well there as at
some miles' distance in the country. Roses are generally planted in the front of shrub-
beries, md in borders ; they are also planted by themselves in rose-gardens or rosaries
(Jig. 620.), in groups on lawn or gravel, either with common box or other edgings, or
with edgings of wire, in imitation of basket-work. These last are called baskets of
roses ; the ground enclosed in the basket-margin is made convex, so as to present a
greater surface to the eye, and increase the illusion ; the shoots of the stronger
sorts are layered or kept down by pegs till they strike roots into the ground, so
that the points of the shoots furnished with buds appear only above the soil, which is
sometimes covered witn moss or small shells. Under this treatment, the whole surface
of the basket becomes, in two or three years, covered with rose-buds and leaves of
one or of various sorts. Where one of the larger free-growing sorts is employed, as the
moss, or any of the Provins (rose de cramoisi, Fr.) varieties, one plant may be trained
so as to cover a surfa e cf many square yards. Where different sorts are introduced in



tlie same basket, they should be as much as possible assimilated in size of leaves and
flowers, and habits of growth, and as different as possible in the colors of their flowers.
By mixing small-flowered with large showy sorts, the beauty of the former is lost with-
out adding to the effect of the latter.

6555. In rosaries commonly but one plant of a sort is introduced, and the varieties which most resemble
each other are placed together, by which their distinctions are better seen. Particular compart-
ments are often devoted to one species, as the Scotch, Chinese, yellow, Lurnet-leaved, &c. which has an
excellent effect ; sometimes a piece of rock-work in the centre is covered with the creeping roses, and
on other occasions these are trained to trellis-work, which forms a fence or hedge of rases round the
whole. In this hedge, standard-roses are sometimes introduced at regular distances ; a grove of standards
is also frequently formed in the centre of the rosary, and sometimes they are introduced here and there
in the beds.

6556. Standard roses, however, have certainly the best effect in flower-borders, or when completely de-
tached on a lawn : their sameness of form, and that form being compact and lumpish, prevents them from
grouping well, either among themselves or with other objects. Their beauty consists in their singularity
as rose-plants, and in their flowers ; and, therefore, to display these beauties to the best advantage, they
require to be seen singly, or in succession. This is the case where they occur as single objects on a lawn,
or in the centre in, and here and there among, groups of flowers ; or in lines or avenues, along flower-
walks. In the gardens of the Grand Trianon, they are planted profusely in large masses, like plantations of
trees and shrubs, and there much of their individual beauty is lost, and no good general effect produced.

6557. Soil. Most species of the rose in their wild state grow in sandy and rather poor soil, excepting
such as are natives of woods, where the soil is richer, and comparatively moist. But all the cultivated
roses, and especially the double-flowering kinds, require a rich loamy soil, inclining to clay rather than
sand ; and they require also, like most double flowers, plenty of moisture when in a growing state.

6558. General culture. To produce strong flowers, roses require some attention to
pruning ; old wood should be yearly cut out, and the young shoots thinned and shortened
su-cording to their strength, and whether number or magnitude of flowers be wanted.
Those sorts which throw up numerous suckers should be taken up every three or four
years, reduced and replanted ; and most sorts, excepting the standards, will be improved
by the practice, provided attention be paid to remove a part of the old soil, and replace it
by new. The points of the shoots of the more delicate sorts of roses are very apt to die
when pruning is performed in winter or spring ; to avoid the consequences of this evil,
many give a second pruning in June, or do not prune the tender sorts at all till the be-
ginning of that month. A very good time for performing the operation is immediately
after the bloom is over ; cutting out old exhausted wood, shortening shoots which have
flowered to a good bud accompanied with a healthy leaf, but leaving such shoots as are
still in a growing state untouched till October. Where very large roses are wanted, all
the buds but that on the extreme point of each shoot should be pinched off as soon as they
make their appearance, and the plant liberally supplied with water. To lessen evapor-
ation, and keep up a constant moisture at the roots of their roses, the Paris gardeners
generally mulch them with half-rotten stable-dung, or partially rotten leaves.

6559. Forwarding and retarding roses. The earliest flowering rose is the monthly, which, in mild
seasons, and planted against a wall, will sometimes flower in the beginning of April ; the roses next in
succession are the cinnamon, which flowers in May ; the damask, in the end of May or beginning of
June ; the blush, York and Lancaster, Provence and Dutch hundred-leaved, in June, July, and August.
The Virginia and musk roses are the latest European sorts ; they flower in September, and in shaded
situations will sometimes continue in bloom till the middle of October ; but the earliest rose (the monthly)
is also the latest, and generally continues flowering till interrupted by frost. The earliest sorts may be
materially forwarded by being planted against a south wall, and if portable sashes are placed before them,
and the wall is either flued and heated by fires, or a lining of dung placed behind, the plants may be
brought to flower in February or March. The monthly rose being protected by glass in autumn, or aided
by artificial heat, may be continued in bloom till Christmas. A very common mode of obtaining late roses,
and one of the greatest antiquity (48.), is by cutting all the flower-shoots off when the buds begin to ap-
pear, or by rubbing off all the rudiments of shoots, of every kind, early in spring; a second crop is in
consequence produced, which will not be in a state to bloom before the autumn.

6560. Forcing the rose. The best sorts for this purpose are the common and moss Pro-
vence; the Indian sorts force well, or rather, in stoves, continue in bloom all the year; hut
the commoner varieties of these not being fragrant, they are in less repute than the European
roses. Rose-plants should be a year in pots previously to the autumn when it is intended
to force them ; they should be planted in pots of six or eight inches' diameter, in rich
loam, and plunged in an open airy situation ; their flower-buds pinched off as they ap-
pear ; and the plants put early into a state of rest, by excluding the sun and rain, but


not a free circulation of air. Abercrombie says, " There is no certainty of attaining a
fine blow of roses in the depth of winter by the most expensive artifices of forcing ; and
yet fine flowers may be produced early in the spring by any ordinary stove put in oper-
ation in December When the plants are first introduced, keep the air of the house at
about 50, never letting it fluctuate to more than two or three degrees below or above.
In the second week, aim at 60 as the standard ; in the third week ,at 65. When a
month has nearly elapsed, begin to increase the heat gradually to 7G ; having brought
it to this standard, let it afterwards exceed it from three to five degrees, rather than sink
below. A succession may be kept up by introducing some pots every eight or ten days."
6.561. Insects. All the species of rcwes are very liable to the attacks of insects, especially of the aphides ;
some, and especially the briar and Scotch rose, are attacked by the Cynips rosce, which, by puncturing
the bark, occasions the production of rose-galls, and of those mossy tufts often seen on wild roses, which
were known formerly under the name of Bedeguar, and used in medicine. A great number goi

of insects seem fond of the flowers of roses, from the appalling earwig ( Forficula auriciUaria) ~
to the seemingly harmless lady- bird (Coccinella l-i-guttata) (Jig. 621.), which deposits its laryae
(a) in the leaves of various species, both wild and cultivated. There seems no remedy tor
insects on plants in the open air so simple and effectual as gathering them by hand, or remov-
ing the leaf, or that part of the shoot which is infested by them. Under cover, tobacco-smoke
will prove an effectual remedy for the aphides ; but the larva? of many others, and especially of tipula and
the tenthredinida?, which occasion the wrapping up and shrivelling of the leaves, can only be removed by
washing with lime-water or hand-picking.

Subsect. 2. Select American and other Peat-Earth Shrubs, viz. of Magnoliaceee, Mag-
nolia ; of RhodoracetB, Rhododendron, Azalea, Kalmia; of the genera Cistus, Arbutus*
Vaccinium, Andromeda, Erica, Daphne, and various others.

6562. Of select American shrubs there are numerous species and varieties, both deci-
duous and evergreen, which will be found arranged according to their heights and colors
in the two succeeding tables, and those requiring a peat-soil distinguished by a letter (p).
They are all highly valued for their flowers, which are large and magnificent in magnolia
and rhododendron ; odoriferous in azalea and daphne ; and beautiful in andromeda, vac-
cinium, and erica : arbutus is valued both for its flowers and fruit. They are mostly
natives of America, and introduced within the latter half of the last century.

6563. Propagation. They are all propagated by seed or by layers ; though grafting or inarching
is resorted to in some cases as more expeditious. The seed is either procured from America, or saved in
this country, and, being very small, is sown as early as possible in pans of peat-earth, and placed in the
shade. In winter it is placed under a cold-frame, or otherwise protected from the frost, and the plants
come up in May or June. In the following autumn, or succeeding spring, they are pricked out into other
pots, or into beds of peat-earth in a shady situation. Here they are protected by hoops and mats during
winter; and in two years are again transplanted into a similar soil and situation, and at distances corre-
sponding to the size of the leaves, or habits of the plants ; here they remain till they flower, or till wanted
to be removed to their final destination. They commonly flower from the fourth to the seventh year.

6564. By layers. The voung shoots only are used for this purpose, either laid down in June and July,
when in full growth, or in the following autumn ; by the former plan a year is gained, as the shoots will
be rooted, and may be removed by the succeeding winter or spring. Some sorts of magnolia, rhododen-
dron, &c. require two years to form a sufficient number of roots. The plants, when removed, may be
planted in nursery lines, in proper soil, and kept well watered during summer, and protected the first
winter by mats ; or, they may be planted in pots, and receive, during winter, the protection of a frame.

6565. By suckers, and by dividing the root. Both these modes may occasionally, though but rarely,
be resorted to. Some species of azalea and andromeda throw up numerous suckers, and the heaths may
often be increased by dividing their roots.

6566. By cuttings. Some of the azaleas, heaths, &c. may be multiplied by cuttings of the young shoots,
when in a growing state, taken off where the wood is beginning to ripen, and planted in sand and peat,
and covered with a hand-glass. If this operation is performed in the end of June, they will be ready to
remove into prepared beds, or to plant in small pots by the middle of September.

6567. By grafting, budding, or inarching. This is practised with some sorts of magnolia, arbutus,
daphne, &c. which are placed on stocks of hardier species of the same genus, as on M. purpurea, A.
unedo, D. laureola, &c. The stocks are planted in pots a year before wanted, which admits of their
being placed in any position with respect to the shoot being inarched. The daphnes and arbutus an-
drachne, are generally grafted with detached scions.

6568. Culture. The culture requisite for American plants, Abercrombie observes,
" principally consists in providing some imitation of the original soil, in order that they
may flourish in full vigor ; and, where there is no factitious soil provided, in making a
compensation during the dry part of summer, by plentiful waterings. Most of the exotic
shrubs brought from America, were originally found growing on tracts of ground re-
sembling our beds of peat, except that the alluvial soil there extends along a greater
surface, and the body of vegetable mould embedded in the swamp is richer and deeper,
being on a scale corresponding with the magnitude of the rivers. The native plants
found in these situations, vegetate with the highest vigor and luxuriance. The soil in
many parts is so pervaded by vegetable substances, that where from any cause a section
of the solid ground occurs, as in the bank of a river, or the shaft of a well, a layer of de-
cayed logs, branches, and leaves of trees is uncovered to the spectator. The luxuriance
of the vegetables may, however, partly be ascribed to the excessive moisture which is
peculiar to the climate of America. In a few places, indeed, on the western coast, rain
is not known ; but the soil there is, in general, copiously watered by dew, so as to render
it highly productive. In the season called winter by the natives of South America, last-
ing from May to November, a continued succession of impetuous rains gives to the plains,
in most places, the appearance of an ocean. When the rains have ceased, the humidity


of the climate is kept up by a constant evaporation from swamps, rivers, and lakes, the
largest in the world. As we cannot have the mitigated warmth of the climate of South
America in plantations, in the full ground, and as the temperature of our winter cannot
be expected to coincide in its effects with the corresponding season even of North America,
when so many local circumstances are different, it is neither indispensable, nor perhaps
advisable, to create an artificial swamp for the cultivation of many American plants. It

Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 215 of 313)