J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon.

An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future online

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Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 274 of 313)
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which are added, full Directions for raising Melons. Devizes.
8vo. One Plate.

1769. Anon.

Stowe : a Description of the magnificent House and Gardens,
&c. 8vo. Cuts.

1770. Ellis, John, Esq.,*a distinguished naturalist;
a native of Ireland, celebrated for his discovery of
the animal origin of corals. He wrote a variety of
tracts, and numerous papers in the Transactions
of the Royal Society ; and died 1771.

1. Directions to Voyagers for bringing over Plants, &c. from
the East Indies, and other distant Countries, in a state of
Vegetation. Lond. 1770. 4to.

2. Some additional Observations on the Method of preserving
Seeds from foreign parts, for the benefit of the American
Colonies. Lond. 1773. 4to.

3. Historical Account of Coffee; with an Engraving, and
Botanical Description of the Tree. To which are added, many
Papers relative to its culture and use as an article of diet and
of convenience. Lond. 1774. 4to.

4. Description of the Mongostan and the Bread Fruit, the
first esteemed the most delicious, and the other the most useful
of all the Fruits in the East Indies. To which are added

4 B 2



Part IV.

Directions to Voyagers for bringing over them and other veeet-
able productions. Plates. Lond. 1775. 4to.

1770. Hunter, Alexander, M.D. F.R.S. was born
at Edinburgh 1733; settled as a physician at Gains,
borough, at Beverly, and finally at York ; author of
various agricultural and medical works, and of a
cookery-book : died at York 1809.

New Edition of Evelyn's Sylva and Terra.

1770. Ockenden, , Esq.

Letters describing the Lake of Killarney and Rueness Gar-
dens. Dublin. 8vo.

1770. Weston, Richard, Esq. an amateur gardener,
who derived his information chiefly from inspecting
the commercial gardens near London.

1 Tracts on Practical Agriculture and Gardening, in which
the advantage of imitating the Garden Culture in the Field is
fully proved by a seven years' Course of Experiments. To
which is added, a Complete Chronological Catalogue of
English Authors on Agriculture, Gardening, &c. Lond. 1769.

2. The Universal Botanist and Nurseryman, containing De-
scriptions of the Species and Varieties of all the Trees, Shrubs,
Herbs, Flowers, and Fruits, Natives and Exotics, at present
cultivated in the European Nurseries, Greenhouses, and Stoves,
as described by modern Botanists ; arranged according to the
Linnrean System, and their Names in English. To which are
added, A copious Botanical Glossary, several useful Catalogues
and Indexes. Plates. Lond. 1770 1774. 4 vols. 8vo.

3. The Gardener and Planter's Calendar; containing the
Method of raising Timber Trees, Fruit Trees, and Quicks for
Hedges ; with Directions for forming and managing a Garden
every Month in the Year ; also, many new improvements in
the Art of Gardening. Lond. 1773. 8vo.

1770. Wheatley or Whateley, Thomas, Esq. of Non-
such Park, Surrey, secretary to the Earl of Suffolk.
He had a brother who fought a duel with John
Temple, Esq. in 1773 {Gilchrist's Trials by Ordeal,
p. 107.), and another, a clergyman. He died about
1780 ; and some remarks on Shakspeare were pub-
lished after his death, in a thin 12mo. tract. It is
remarkable, that so little is known of a writer, the
beauty of whose style and the justness of whose
taste arc universally acknowledged. Alter enquiring
at his publishers and other sources, we have not
been able to ascertain to a certainty the mode of
spelling his name.

Observations on Modern Gardening, illustrated by De-
scriptions. Lond. 1771. Pp. 207. An edition, in quarto, in
1798, with Walpole's History, inserted as notes, and an ap-
pendix, consisting of an Essay on the natural Situation of
Gardens, originally published by Dodsley.

1771. Meader, James, gardener to the Duke of
Northumberland at Sion House, and afterwards to
the Empress Catherine at Peterhoff, near Peters-
burgh. He was a very satirical person, and wrote
verses both on his friends and enemies.

1. The Modern Gardener, or Universal Kalendar; contain-
ing Monthly Directions for all the Operations of Gardening,
to be done either in the Kitchen, Fruit, Flower, and Pleasure
Gardens, as likewise in the Green-house and StoVe ; with the
Method of performing the different works, according to the
best practice of the most eminent Gardeners. Also an Appen-
dix, giving full and ample Instructions for forcing Grapes,
Vines, Peach, Nectarine Trees, &c. in a new manner : never
before published; selected from the Diary Manuscripts of the
late Mr. Hitt. Revised, corrected, and improved by J. M.
Lond. 1771. 12mo.

2. The Planter's Guide, or Pleasure Gardener's Companion ;
giving plain Directions, with Observations for the proper Dis-
position and Management of the various Trees and Shrubs for
a Pleasure Garden Plantation. To which is added, a list of
Hardy Trees and Shrubs for ornamenting such Gardens. Em-
bellished with Copper-plates. Lond. 1779. oblong 4to.

1772. Boutcher, William, a nurseryman at Comely
Garden, near Edinburgh.

Treatise on Forest Trees; containing not only the best
Methods of their Culture hitherto practised, but a variety of
new and useful Discoveries, the result of many repeated Ex-
periments. To which are added, Directions for the Disposi-
tion, Planting, and Culture of Hedges. Lond. 1772. 4to.

1772. Mason, -William, a divine and celebrated
lyric and descriptive poet; born in Yorkshire 1725;
died 1797, precentor, and canon of York.

The English Garden ; a Poem in four books. Lond. 1772-82.
4to. A new edit, corrected. To which are added, a Com-
mentary and Notes, by W. Burgh, Esq. Lond. 1 785. Svo.

1772. Pierre, Louis de St., a native of South Caro-
lina, and proprietor of lands there.

The Art of Planting and Cultivating the Vine, &c. according
to the most approved Methods jn France. Lond. 12mo.

1774. Anon, .

A n Essay on the different Natural Situations of Gardens. 4to.
Is.Gd. 1774.

1775. Pye, Mrs. Hampden.

A Peep into the principal Seats and Gardens in and about
Twickenham (the residence of the Muses) descriptive of their
Beauties, internal and external, with a suitable Companion for
those who wish to visit Windsor or Hampton-court. To which
is added, a History of a little Kingdom on the Banks of the
Thames, and its present Sovereign, &c. 8vo.

1776. Ellis, Thomas, gardener to the Lord Bishop
of Lincoln.

The Gardener's Pocket Kalendar. Lond. 12mo.

1777. Anderson, James, LL. D., an agricultural
writer of great versatility of genius, was born at
Jrlerdmanston, in the county of Edinburgh, 1730, on
a farm which his parents had possessed for some

generations, and which he was destined to inherit
and to- cultivate. He lost his parents at an early
age, but his education was not neglected ; he studied
chemistry under Dr. Cullen, and soon leaving his
farm near Edinburgh, took one in Aberdeenshire of
loOO acres, which, after improving and cultivating
lor twenty years, he let, and enjoyed an annuity
from it during his life. He settled after leaving
Aberdeenshire in the neighborhood of Edinburgh
where he published the Bee, in weekly sixpen!
ny numbers, till it extended to eighteen volumes
In 1797 he removed to Isleworth, near London
where he published Recreations in Agriculture
in six volumes, and his Description of a Patent
Hot-house. Here he enjoyed his garden, and died
or a decline in 1808, aged 69. Besides the works
which bear his name, he wrote the reviews of books
on rural matters for the Monthly Review for many
years. *

1. Miscellaneous Thoughts on planting and training Tim-
ber-trees, by Agriccla. Edin. 1777. Svo h

2. Recreations in Agriculture, Natural History, Arts, and
miscellaneous Literature. Lond. 1799. 1802. 6' vols. 8vo.

3. A Description of a Patent Hot-house, which operates
ohiefly by the heat of the Sun, and other subjects ; without
the aid of Flues, or Tan-bark, or Steam, for the purpose of
heating it, &c. Lond. 1801. 12mo. v V

1777, Bastard, William, Esq. of Kitley in Devon-

,,P, n . the 9, ulture of Tine-Apples. An extract of a letter from
William Bastard, Esq. of Kit ley in Devonshire, to Samuel
Musgrave, Esq. M.I). F.R.S. dated Kitley, March 15. 1779,
communicated to the Society \/y Dr. Musgrave.

The writer states that he truits his pines in pots set in pans
of water, on a shelf close under the roof against the back wall;
prefers a cistern over the flue in that situation ; found a plant
without roots grow well, and produce a fruit which weighed
two pounds.

1777. Heelcy, Joseph, Esq.

1. Letters on the Beauties of Hagley, Envil, and the Lea-
sowes; with Critical Remarks and Observations on the Mo-
dern Taste in Gardening. Lond. 1777. 2 vols. 12mo.

2. Description of Hagley Park. 1777. 8vo.

1777. Loddiges, Conrad, and Sons, eminent botani-
cal nurserymen at Hackney, where their grounds
are remarkable for orderly arrangement, and for
the magnitude and extent of the hot-houses.

1. A Catalogue of Plants and Seeds, in English and German.

2. The Botanical Cabinet, containing figures of new or rare
Plants, with Directions for their Culture. 1817. 4to. In
monthly parts.

3. A Catalogue of Plants for Sale. 12mo. 1820.

1777. Maurice, the Rev. Thomas, M. A., chaplain
to the 97th regiment, author of various poems and
tracts on Indian history and antiquities.

1. Hagley; a Poem.

2. Grove Hill, the seat of Dr. Lettsom, a descriptive Poem ;
with an Ode to Mithra, and many plates. Lond. ] 799. 4to.

1777. Wilson, William, a native of Scotland ;
worked some time under Miller, and was sent by
him to Sir James Cockburn, Bart, at Petersham ;
afterwards gardener to the Earl of Glasgow, near

A Treatise on the Forcing of Early Fruits, and the Man-
agement of Hot-walls. Lond. 12mo.

This is a useful little treatise ; he uses the heat of ferment-
ing dung in his peach and vine houses, as well as the heat of
flues ; and directs not to prune peach-trees to be early forced
till the fires have been made for a fortnight, because " the sap,
when it begins to ascend, will spring more regular after the
knife than after a dry wound." (p. 13.)

1778. Anon.

The Practical Gardener, directing, in the most plain and
vhat is necessary to be done in the Kitchen,

1778. Swinden, N-

-, an ingenious gardener
and seedsman at Brentford- End, Middlesex.

The Beauties of Flora displayed, or Gentleman and Lady's
Pocket Companion to the Flower and Kitchen Garden. Lond.
8vo. 1778.

1779. Neale, Adam, gardener to John Black-
bourne, Esq. near Warrington, Lancashire.

A Catalogue of the Plants in the Garden of John Black-
burne, Esq." alphabetically arranged according to the Linnaean
System. Lond. Svo.

1779. Speedily, William, gardener for many years
to the Duke of Portland, at Welbeck in Notting-
hamshire; afterwards a farmer; died at an ad-
vanced age in 1820.

1. A Treatise on th Culture of the Pine-Apple, and the
Management of the Hot-iiouse ; together with a Description
of every species of Insect that infests Hot-houses, with effec-
tual Methods of destroying them. York, 1779. 8vo.

2. A Treatise on the Culture of the Vine, exhibiting new
and advantageous methods of propagating, cultivating, and
training that Plant, so as to render it abundantly fruitful.
With new Hints on the Formation of Vineyards in England.
York. 4to.

3. Practical Hints on Domestic and Rural Economy, re-
lating partly to the utility, formation, and management of
Fruit, Kitchen, and Cottage Gardens, and Orchards, &c.
Lond Svo. 1820.

1780. Walpole, Horace, afterwards Earl of Orford,
youngest son of Sir Robert Walpole born in 1718 ;

Cock I.



a man of taste and genius, author of the Castle of
(Jtranto, several papers in the World, &C. ; he
sat in parliament from 1741 to 1768, when he retired,
and devoted his time to the improvement of his
villa, Strawberry-hill, near Twickenham. In 1791
he succeeded his nephew as Earl of Orford, but
never took his seat in the House of Lords. He died
in 1797.

1. On Modern Gardening, published In the Anecdotes of
Painting; in a later edition of 1782 are some additional

Various Remarks on Gardening occur in his correspond-
ence with Mr. .Montague, published in 1818, in -ito.

1781. Darwin, Erasmus, M.D. F.R.S., an eminent
physician and poet, born at Elton near Newark, in
Nottinghamshire, in 1731. Completed his medical
studies at Edinburgh, settled at Litohrield, where
he resided the greater part of his life : but went to
Derby in 1781, and died there in 1802. As a poet
he is esteemed rather gaudy and fanciful ; as a phi-
losopher, he is apt to indulge in hypothesis ; but he
possesses the great quality of being totally exempt
from everv kind of prejudice.

Phytologia, or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Garden-
ing, with the Theory of Draining Morasses, and with an un-
proved construction of the Drill Plough. Lor.d. 1800. 4to.

1781. Ful/ner, Samuel.

The Young Gardener's best Companion for the Kitchen and
Fruit Garden. Lond. 12mo.

1781. Lcttsom, John Coakley, M.D. F.R.S., an
eminent physician in London, was born on a small
isle called little Van Dyke, near Tortola, in 1744 ;
died 1815.

1. Hortus Uptonensis ; or a Catalogue of Stove and Green-
house Plants in Dr. Fothergili's Garden, at his death. Lond.
1781. Sve.

2. Grovehill ; a Rural and Horticultural Sketch. Lond.
1801. 4to.

3. On the Beta Cicla, or Root of Scarcity. (Ceded. Sort.
Mem. i. 420.)

1783. Anon.

Some thoughts on Building and Planting, addressed to Sir
James Ixiwther, Bart, published in Dodsley's collection of
poems for this year.

1783. Bryant, Charles, of Norwich.

1. Flora Diabetica, or the History of Esculent Plants, both
Domestic and Foreign, in which they are accurately described
and reduced to their Linnaean, generic, and specific names,
with their English names annexed- Lond. 17So. Svo.

2. A Dictionary of the Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and
Plants, most commonly cultivated in the Plantations, Gar-
dens, and Stoves of Great Britain ; arranged according to the
Linnaean generic names, and containing full and accurate
Descriptions of the Genera and Species, with the names
proi-erly accented. Norwich, 1790. Svo.

1783. Falconer, Willia?n, M.D. F.R.S., physician
to the general hospital, Bath ; author of a num-
ber of medical works, and of Remarks on the
influence of climate, situation, nature of country,
population, nature of food, and way of life ; on
the disposition and temper, manner and behaviour,
intellects, laws and customs, forms of government,
and religion of mankind. A most interesting

1. An Historical View of the Taste for Gardening and
Laying out Grounds among the Nations of Antiquity. Svo.
The principal parts of this tract were originally printed in the
Literary and Philosophical Memoirs of the Manchester So-
ciety. 8vo.

.2." An Essay on the Preservation of the Health of Persons
employed in Agriculture ; and on the Cure of Diseases inci-
dent to that way of life. Lond. 1789. Svo.

5. Miscellaneous Tracts and Collections relating to Natural
History ; selected from the principal writers of antiquity on
that subject. Lond. 1793. 4to.

1784. Curtis, W/lliatJi, a botanical writer, was born
at Alton in Hampshire in 174(5. He served his ap-
prenticeship as an apothecary to his grandfather,
and while in that situation cultivated botany with
eagerness. At the age of twenty he came to Lon-
don, and entered into the service of Mr. Talwin of
Gracechurch-street, to whose business he succeed-
ed. His love of botany, however, induced him to
give up the shop, and he became a lecturer and de-
monstrator in his favorite science. His first garden
was at Bermondsey, and afterwards he occupied a
more extensive one at Lambeth, which he ex-
changed for another at Brompton. In 1771, he pub-
lished Instructions for. Collecting and Preserving
Insects ; and in the following year a translation of
the Fundamenta Entomologiee of Linnaeus, with the
title of an Introduction to the Knowledge of In-
sects. In 1777, appeared the first number of his
Flora Londonensis, which was completed in six
fasciculi of seventy-two plates each. This work
was followed by the Botanical Magazine, in monthly
numbers. In 1782 he published a History of the
Broivn-tailed Moth ; besides which he wrote Prac-
tical Observations on the British Grasses, and some
papers in the transactions of the Linnaean Society,
of which he was a member. He died in 1799, and

was buried at Battersea ; after his death his lectures
were published with colored plates.

1. A Catalogue of British .Medical, Culinary, and Agricul-
tural Plants, cultivated in the London Botanical Garden.
Lond. 1784. 12mo.

Mr. C. commenced the Botanical Magazine in 1787. A
work which has met with great encouragement, and has done
much to diffuse a general taste for botany. It is still con-
tinued by Dr. Sims.

2. Observations on Aphides, chiefly intended to show that
they are the principal cause of Blights in Plants, and the sole
cause of the Honey Dew. (Train. Linn. Hoc. xi. 75. 1802,

1784. Rodenhurst, T.
A Description of Hawkstone in Shropshire, the seat of Sir

Richard Hill, Bart, in 1799. 12mo.

1785. Anon.
Miscellanies on Ancient and Modern Gardening, and on

the Scenery of Nature. Lor.d. Svo.

1785. Kyle, Thomas, gardener to the Hon. Baron
Stewart of Moredun, near Edinburgh. One of the
first gardeners in Scotland of his time.

Treatise on the Management of the Peach and Nectarine
Trees, either in Forcing.houses or on hot and common Walls.
Edin. 8vo.

1785. Marshall, William, Esq., a native of York-
shire, brought up to trade; was some yearsjn the
West Indies, as a planter ; returned about 1775, and
took a farm in Surrey ; went down into Norfolk as
agent to Sir Harbord Harbord's estates in 1780;
left this situation in 1784, and went and resided at
Statfold, near the junction of the four counties of
Leicester, Warwick, Stafford, and Derby, where he
remained till 1786, occupied in collecting materials
for his economical survey?, and in printing some of
his works. From this time, till about 1808, he re-
sided chiefly in Clement's Inn, London, in winter,
and visited different parts of the country during
summer. He spent one summer in Perthshire,
chiefly on the Earl of Bredalbane's estates at Tay-
mouth ; and partly also on the Earl of Mansfield's at
Scone. He proposed arrangements for the tenant -
able lands, and also the park and woody scenery on
various estates ; and finally retired to a considerable
property he purchased in his native county, in the
Vale of Cleveland, in 1808, where he died at an ad-
vanced age, in 1819. He was a man of little educa-
tion, but of a strong and steady mind ; and pursued,
in the most consistent manner, from the year 1780
to his death, the plan he originally laid down ; that
of collecting and condensing the agricultural prac-
tices of the different counties of England, with a
view to a general work on Landed Property, whicli
he published ; another on Agriculture, which he
did not live to complete ; and a Rural Institute, in
Which he was supplanted by the Board of Agri-

1. Planting and Rural Ornament, 1 vol. 8vo. A second
edition in 2 vols, in 1796.

2. A Review of the Landscape, a didactic poem ; also an
Essay on the Picturesque ; togeiher with PracUcal Remarks
on Rural Ornament. Lond. 1796.

1786. Brocq, Philip Le, M. A., chaplain to the
Duke of Gloucester. About the time he published
his work on the Vine, he took out a patent for
" training all sorts of fruit-trees or vines near the
ground," as suggested by Lord Bacon, and practised
at the time the patent was taken out by F. X. Vis-
pre, at Wimbledon, and subsequently at Chelser.
(See Speechley, Treatise on the Vine, Svo. edition,
p. 205.)

1. A Description of certain Methods of Planting, Training,
and Managing all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines, &c. Loud.
1786. Svo.

2- Sketch of a Plan for making the Tract of Land called the
New Forest, a real Forest, and for various other purposes of
the first national importance. Stockdale, 1793. 8vo.

1786. Browne, Robert, gardener to Sir Harbcrd
Harbord, Bart, at Gunton, in Norfolk.

A method to preserve Peach ar.d Nectarine Trees from the
Effects of the Mildew ; and for the destroying the red spider
in melon frames, ar.d other injects which infest plants in
stoves, and trees, shrubs, &c. in the open garden. Lond-12iuo.

1786. J'isjtie, Francis Xavier.

A Dissertation on the Growth of Wine in England. Bath,

1789. Emmerich, Lieutenant-colonel A., a Ger-
man gentleman, author of a tract on his own pro-
fession, and deputy-surveyor of the woods and
forests under Mr. Robinson.

The Culture of Forests ; with an Appendix, in which the
state of the Royal Forests is considered, and a s\stem proposed
for their improvement. Lond. 1789. Svo.

1789. Graffer, John, a native of Germany, who
came to England about the middle of the eighteenth
century, and after being some time under Miller,
was gardener to James Vere, Esq., of Kensinpton-
Gore. Afterwards he joined Thompson, a gardener,
and Gordon, a seedsman, in establishing a nursei v at
Mile-end. When Gordon died, the nursery became
the sole property of Thompson, the present pro-
4 B 3



Part IV.

prietor ; and GraefFer, soon afterwards, received from
Sir Joseph Banks the appointment of gardener to the
King of Naples, at Caserta. Here he laid out an
English garden, and richly stocked it with exotics
from the Hammersmith nursery. He was employed
by Admiral Lord Nelson to look after his estate of
Bronte, and by various native noblemen to lay out
their grounds ; he remained in his situation as gar-
dener at Caserta during Murat's reign, and died
there, or was in part murdered when he fell from
his gig, within a mile of his own house in 1816.

columns, exhibiting, at one view, the names, magnitude, height
and situation, time of flowering, color of the flowers, and native
country of each species. With a List of Hardy Ferns, for the
decoration of Northern Borders, and the most ornamental
Annuals. Lond. 1789. 8vo.

1789. Sowerby, James, F.L.S. A botanical drafts-
man and engraver to whom science is much indebted.
He formed a rich museum of botany and miner-
alogy, and published different valuable works on the
latter subject ; he died in 1822.

1. The Florist's Delight, containing six Coloured Figures,
with the Botanical Description*. Lond. 1791. fol.

2. Figures of English Fungi, or Mushrooms. .Lond. 1797
1803. 3 vols. fol.

3. Notice on the Effect of Watering Fruit Trees early in the
Spring. (Hort. Tran. ii. 271 )

1790. Bridles, .

Hints for the Management of Hot-beds, and Directions for
the Culture of early Cucumbers and Melons. To which are
added, brief Instructions for Pruning Wall and Espalier Trees.
Bath, 1790. 8vo.

1791. Forsyth, William, Esq. F.A.S., a native of
Scotland, born at Old Meldrum in Aberdeenshire in
1737 ; came to England in 1763, and was some time
employed under Miller at Chelsea. He was after-
wards gardener at Sion House, till Miller's removal
in 1769, when he succeeded him as curator of the
Chelsea garden ; and at the death of the late Thomas
Robinson, Esq. royal gardener at Kensington, in
1784, he was appointed to that situation. Here,
finding the fruit-trees in an old worn-out state, he
began a system of renovation by heading down, and
renewing the soil, in which he was highly successful;
and for discovering the ingredients of a composition
with which he covered over the wounds, received
a parliamentary reward. His works procured him
the published animadversions of Knight, M'Phail,
Pontey, and others. He died In 1804, and left a son
an eminent London seedsman, and author of a bo-
tanical catalogue, &c.

1. Observations on the Diseases, Defects, and Injuries in all
kinds of Fruit Trees ; with an Account of a particular method
of Cure, invented and practised by the Author. Lond. 1791.

2. Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees;
in which a new method of pruning and training is fully de-
scribed. With plates. Lond. 1802. 4to.

1791. Linncean Society.

Transactions of the Linna;an Society, vol. i. 4to. : vol. xii.
completed in 1820. These volumes contain some papers con-
nected with gardening; such for example as : 1. Biographical
Memoirs of several Norwich Botanists, vol. vii. 2. Notes re-
lating to Botanv, and collected from the manuscripts of the

late Peter Collinson, Esq. F. K. S. and , vol. x. 270. 8. On

the supposed Effect of Ivy upon Trees, vol. xi. 27.

Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present stat, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 274 of 313)