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J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon.

An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future online

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Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 1 of 316)
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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN



mnl




J L161— O-1096



AN

ENCYCLOPEDIA



OF



GARDENING;

COMPRISING THE

THEORY AND PRACTICE



HORTICULTURE, FLORICULTURE,
ARBORICULTURE,



AND



LANDSCAPE-GARDENING,



INCLUDING



ail tit latest Jmpro&ementg ;

A GENERAL HISTORY OF GARDENING IN ALL COUNTRIES;

AND A STATISTICAL VIEW OF ITS PRESENT STATE,

WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR ITS FUTURE PROGRESS, IN THE
BRITISH ISLES.



By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. &c.



ILLUSTRATED WITH

MANY HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD BY BRANSTON.



jftfrt) GBtiitiom



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR

LONGMAN, &EES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1827.



London :

Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode,

New-Strcet-Square.



n



lo30.3
I 827



PREFACE.



The term Encyclopaedia, applied to a single art, is meant to convey
the idea of as complete a treatise on that art as can be composed at
the time of its publication. No art has been more extended in its
objects, or improved in its practices within the last fifty years than
Gardening. During that period numerous books have been written
in various departments of the subject ; but in no work has the whole
Art of Gardening been included. The only books which have any
pretensions to completeness are the Gardener's Dictionaries : but
though some of these are copious on the culture of plants, and
others, in botanical description ; yet in none is the subject of design,
taste, and the arrangement of gardens, adequately treated of; and
scarcely any thing is contained in these books, either on the History
or Statistics of Gardening. In the voluminous edition of Miller's Dic-
tionary, by Professor Martyn, though the title announces " the addi-
tion of all the modern improvements of landscape-gardening," there is
not an article bearing that title throughout the work ; nor a single
quotation or abridgement from the writings of Wheatley, G. Mason,
Price, Repton, or any modern author, on the art of laying out
grounds.

The Encyclopaedia of Gardening now submitted to the public
treats of every branch of the Art, and includes every modern im-
provement to the present year.

Though this work, like every other of the kind, can only be consi-
dered as a compilation from books, yet, on various subjects, especially
in what relates to Gardening History and Statistics, it was found ad-
visable to correspond with a number of persons both at home and
abroad. The favours of these Correspondents are here thankfully
acknowledged; and their farther assistance, as well as that of every
Reader willing to correct an error or supply a deficiency, is earnestly
entreated, in order to render any future edition of the work as per-
fect as possible.

Besides modern books, it became necessary to consult some com-
paratively ancient and scarce works only to be met with in par-
ticular collections. Our respectful acknowledgments are, on this

A 2



IV



PREFACE.



account, due to the Council and Secretary of the Linnaean Society ;
to the Council and Secretary of the Horticultural Society ; to Robert
Brown, Esq. the possessor of the Banksian library ; and to William
Forsyth, Esq., whose collection of British works on Gardening is more
than usually complete.

It remains only to mention, as a key to this work, that to save
room, the prenoms and other additions to names of persons are not
inserted ; only contracted titles of the books referred to are given ;
and the names of gardens or country residences are mentioned, with-
out, in many cases, designating their local situation. By turning to
the General Index, the names of persons will be found, with the
addition of their prenoms and other titles, where known, at length ;
and there the abridged titles of books are also given complete, and
the names of residences, accompanied by that of the county or
country in which they are situated. The botanical nomenclature
which has been followed is that of Sweet's Hortus Suburbanus Lon*
dinensis, with only one or two exceptions ; the reasons for which are
given where they occur. The systematic names of insects, or other
animals, or of minerals, are generally those of Linnaeus : some ex-
ceptions are also noted. In various parts of the work etymological
and other explanations will be found, which, to one class of readers,
may be unnecessary. But it is to be considered that we address
ourselves to Practical Gardeners as well as to the Patrons of Gar-
dening ; and our opinion is, that to enlighten, and generally to raise
the intellectual character of the former, will ultimately be found the-
most efficient mode of improving them in their profession, and thus
rendering them more truly valuable to the latter.

By referring to the Kalendarial Index, those parts of this work
which treat of Garden Culture and Management may be consulted
monthly, as the operations require to be performed ; and by recourse
to the General Index, the whole may be consulted in detached por-
tions, as in a Dictionary of Gardening.

Although this second edition forms a less bulky volume than the
first, yet it contains considerably more printed matter ; besides above
a hundred new engravings. These important additions we have been
enabled to make by printing all those parts of the work which may be
considered as of secondary importance, in a smaller type than that of
the general text.

J. C. L.

Bayswater, April 8, 1824.



CONTENTS.



PART I.



GARDENING CONSIDERED IN RESPECT TO ITS ORIGIN, PROGRESS, AND PRESENT
STATE AMONG DIFFERENT NATIONS, GOVERNMENTS, AND CLIMATES.



BOOK I.

HISTORY OF GARDENING AMONG ANCIENT
AND MODERN NATIONS.

Chap. I. Page

Of the Origin and Progress of Gardening in the
earliest ages of Antiquity, or from the 10th
century before the vulgar sera to the found-
ation of the Roman Empire - - 3

I. Of the fabulous Gardens of Antiquity - ib.

II. Jewish Gardens. B.C. 1500. - - 4

III. Phaeacian Gardens. B.C. 900. - - ib.

IV. Babylonian or Assyrian Gardens. B.C.

2000. - - - - 5

V. Persian Gardens. B. C. 500. - - 6

VI. Grecian Gardens. B. C. 300. - - ib.

VII. Gardening in the ages of Antiquity, as

to Fruits, Culinary Productions, and
Flowers - - 7

Chap. II.

Chronological History of Gardening, from the
time of the Roman Kings, in the sixth cen-
tury B. C. to the Decline and Fall of the
Empire in the fifth century of our sera - 9

I. Roman Gardening as an Art of Design and

Taste - ... ib.

II. Roman Gardening considered as to the Cul-

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament 13

III. Roman Gardening in respect to its Pro-

ducts for the Kitchen and the Dessert ib.

IV. Roman Gardening considered in respect

to the Propagation and Planting of Tim-
ber-trees and Hedges - - - 14

V. Roman Gardening as a Science, and as to

the Authors it produced - - 15



Chap. III.

Chronological History of Gardening, in conti-
nental Europe from the Time of the Romans
to the present Day, or from A. D. 500 to A. D.
1833. - . . -

I. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State

of Gardening in Italy

1. Italian Gardening, in respect to Design

and Taste

2. Italian Gardening in respect to the Cul-

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament
5. Italian Gardening in respect to its Products
for the Kitchen and the Dessert

4. Italian Gardening, in respect to the plant-

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges

5. Italian Gardening, as empirically practised

6. Italian Gardening, as a Science, and as to

the Authors it has produced

II. Of the Revival, Progress, and present State

of Gardening in Holland and Flanders -

1. Dutch Gardening, as an Art of Design and

Taste -

2. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the Cul-
. ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament

3. Dutch Gardening in respect to the Cul-

ture of Fruits and Culinary Vegetables -



16
ft

- ib.

'21



'J I
25

- ib.

26

ib.



Page



4. Dutch Gardening, in respect to the plant

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges

5. Dutch Gardening, as empirically practised

6. Dutch Gardening, as a Science, and in re-

spect to the Authors it has produced

III. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in France

1. French Gardening, as an Art of Design

and Taste

2. French Gardening, in respect to the Cul

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament

3. French Gardening, in respect to its horti-

cultural Productions

4. French Gardening, in respect to the plant-

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges

5. French Gardening, as empirically prac-

tised ...

6. French Gardening, as a Science, and as to

the Authors it has produced

IV. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in Germany

1. German Gardening, as an Art of Design

and Taste

2. German Gardening, in respect to the Cul

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament

3. German Gardening, in respect to horticul-

tural Productions

4. German Gardening, as to planting Timber-

trees and Hedges -

5. German Gardening, as empirically prac-

tised ....

6. German Gardening, as a Science, and as to

the Authors it has produced

V. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in Switzerland

VI. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in Sweden and Norway

VII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in Russia

1. Russian Gardening, as an Art of Design

and Taste -

2. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Cul-

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament

3. Russian Gardening, in respect to its horti-

cultural Productions

4. Russian Gardening, in respect to the Cul-

ture of Timber-trees and Hedges

5. Russian Gardening, as empirically prac-

tised - . .

6. Russian Gardening, as a Science, and as

to the Authors it has produced - 61

VIII. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State

of Gardening in Poland - - ib.

IX. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of

Gardening in Spain and Portugal - 63

1. Spanish Gardening, as an Art of Design

and Taste - - - 64

2. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in ro-

spect to the Culture of Flowers and
Plants of Ornament - - 65

3. Spanish and Portuguese Gardening, in re-

spect to its horticultural Productions and
Planting - - - 66

X. Of the Rise, Progress, and present state of

Gardening in European Turkey - ib.

A 3



31

S<2



33



- ib.



39

40



4J
- ib.



- ib.

47



4fl



60



59



BO

ib.



VI



CONTENTS.



Chap. IV. Page

Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of



Gardening in the British Isles

I. British Gardening, as an Art of Design and

Taste -

1. Gardening in England, as an Art of De

sign and Taste

2. Gardening in Scotland, as an Art of Design

and Taste -

3. Gardening in Ireland, as an Art of Design

and Taste -

II. British Gardening, in respect to the Cul-

ture of Flowers and Plants of Ornament

1. Gardening in England, in respect to the

Culture of Flowers and the Establishment
of Botanic Gardens

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the

Culture of Flowers and the Establish-
ment of Botanic Gardens

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to Flori-

culture and Botanv -

III. British Gardening, in respect to its horti-

cultural Productions -

1. Gardening in England, in respect to its

horticultural Productions

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to its

horticultural Productions

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to its hor-

ticultural Productions

IV. British Gardening, in respect to the plant-

ing of Timber-trees and Hedges

1. Gardening in England, in respect to the

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges -

2. Gardening in Scotland, in respect to the

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges -

3. Gardening in Ireland, in respect to the

planting of Timber-trees and Hedges -

V. British Gardening, as empirically practised

VI. British Gardening, as a Science, and as to

the Authors it has produced



. 68



69
- ib.



- 80
82



83



- 84



Chap. V.



Page



- ib.

yi



- 92

- ib.



ib.
- 93



- 96



Of the present State of Gardening in Ultra-
European Countries - - - 97

I. Syrian, Persian, Indian, and African Gar-

dens of modern Times - - 98

II. Chinese Gardening - - 101
HI. Gardeuing in Anglo-North America, or

the United States and British Provinces 104

IV. Gardening in Spanish North America, or

Mexico - - - 106

V. Gardening in South America - - 107

VI. Gardening in the British Colonies, and in

other Foreign Settlements of European
Nations - - - ib.

BOOK II.

GARDENING CONSIDERED AS TO ITS PRO-
GRESS AND PRESENT STATE UNDER DIF-
FERENT POLITICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAI
CIRCUMSTANCES.

Chap. I. Page

Gardening as affected by different Forms of
Government, Religions, and States of Society 110

I. Gardening as aflected by different Forms of

Government and Religions - - 111

II. Gardening as affected by different States of

Society ... ib.

Chap. II.
Gardening as affected by different Climates,
- Habits of Life, and Manners - - 112

I. Influence of Climate, in respect to Fruits,

culinary Plants, Flowers, Timber-trees,
and horticultural Skill - - 113

II. Influence of Climate and Manners on Gar-

dening, as an Art of Design and Taste - 114

III. Of the Climate and Circumstances of Bri-

tain, in respect to Gardening - - 118



PAUT II.

GARDENING CONSIDERED AS A SCIENCE.



BOOK I.

THE STUDY OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

Chap. I. Pa g e

Origin, Progress, and present State of the Study
of Plants - - " lM

Chap. II.
Glossology, or the Names of the Parts of Plants 122

Chap. III.
Phytography, or the Nomenclature and De-
scription of Plants

I. Names of Classes and Orders

II. Names of Genera -

III. Names of Species

IV. Names of Varieties and Subvaneties

V. Descriptions of Plants

VI. Of forming and preserving Herbanans

VII. Of Methods of Study ...



123
ib.
ib.
124
125
126
127
128



Chap. IV.

Taxonomy, or the Classifications of Plants - ib-

I. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according

to the Linnaean System - - laO

II. The Hortus Britannicus arranged according

to the Jussieuean System - -133

Chap. V.

Vegetable Organology, or the external Struc-
ture of Plants

I. Perfect Plants

1. Conservative Organs

2. Conservative Appendages

3. Reproductive Organs

4. Reproductive Appendages

II. Imperfect Plants

1. Filices, Equisitacese, and Lycopodineae -

2. Musci -

3. Hepaticae

4. Algae and Lichenae

5. Fungi



138

ib.

ib.

ib.
139

ib.
140

ib.

ib.
141

ib.
142



Chap. VI. Page

Vegetable Anatomy, or the internal Structure
of Plants - - - 142

I. Decomposite Organs - - ib.

II. Composite Organs - - - 144

III. Elementary or Vascular Organs - 146

Chap. VII.

Vegetable Chemistry, or primary Principles of
Plants - - - - 147

I. Compound Products - - ib.

II. Simple Products ... 157

Chap. VIII.

Functions of Vegetables - . lib.

I. Germination of the Seed - . 158

II. Food of the vegetating Plant - .160

III. Process of Vegetable Nutrition - - 165

IV. Process of Vegetable Developement - 172

V. Anomalies of Vegetable Developement - 177

VI. Of the Sexuality of Vegetables - .181

VII. Impregnation of the Seed - . 182

VIII. Changes consequent upon Impregnation 183

IX. The propagation of the Species . -184

X. Causes limiting the Propagation of the Spe-

cies .... 186

XI. Evidence and Character of Vegetable Vi-

tality - - - 187

Chap. IX.

Vegetable Pathology, or the Diseases and Casu-
alties of Vegetable Life - - 191

I. Wounds and Accidents - - ib.

II. Diseases - - - 192

III. Natural Decay - - - 195

Chap. X.

Vegetable Geography and History, or the Dis-
tribution of Vegetables relatively to the Earth
and to Man ... 196

I. Geographical Distribution of Vegetables - 197

II. Phvsical Distribution of Vegetables - ib.

III. Civil Causes affecting the Distribution of

Plants - - - 202



CONTENTS.



Vll



Page

IV. Characteristic or Picturesque Distribution

of Vegetables ... 203

V. Systematic Distribution of Vegetables . 205

VI. Economical Distribution of Vegetables -206

VII. Arithmetical Distribution of Vegetables - ib.

VIII. Distribution of the British Flora, indige-

nous and exotic - - ib.

Chap. XI.

Origin of Culture, as derived from the Study of
Vegetables - - * - 214

BOOK II.

OP THE NATURAL AGENTS OF VEGETABLE
GROWTH AND CULTURE.



Chap. I.



Of Earths and Soils

I. Of the Geological Structure of the Globe and

the Formation of Earths and Soils

I I. Classification and Nomenclature of Soils -

III. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils

1. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by

means of the Plants which grow on
them -

2. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by

chemical Analysis - -

3. Of discovering the Qualities of a Soil

mechanically and empirically

IV. Of the Uses of the Soil to Vegetables

V. Of the Improvement of Soils



- 217



ib.

219
221



ib.

ib.

- 222
223
226
ib.



1. Pulverisation
. 2. Of the Improvement of Soils by Compres-
sion - - - -228

3. Of the Improvement of Soils by Aeration

or Fallowing ... ib.

4. Alteration of the constituent Parts of Soils 229

5. Changing the Condition of Lands, in re-

spect to Water - - - 231

6. Changing the Condition of Lands, in re-

spect to Atmospherical Influence - 232

7. Rotation of Crops - - 233

Chap. II.
Of Manures - - - 234

I. Of Manures of Animal and Vegetable Origin 235

1. The Theory of the Operation of Manures

of Animal and Vegetable Origin - ib.

2. Of the different Species of Manures of

Animal and Vegetable Origin - 236

3. Of the fermenting, preserving, and apply-

ing of Manures of Animal and Vegetable
Origin - - - 241

II. Of Manures of Mineral Origin - -243

1. Theory of the Operation of Mineral Ma-

nures ■ - - - ib.

2. Of the different Species of Mineral Ma-

nures ... 244

Chap. III.

Of the Agency of Heat, Light, Electricity,



and Water, in Vegetable Culture

I. Of Heat and Light

II. Of Electricity

III. Of Water



249
. ib.
. 253
- ib.



Chap. IV.
Of the Agency of the Atmosphere in Vegeta-
tion - - - - 254

I. Of the Elements of the Atmosphere - - ib.

II. Ofthe Means of prognosticating the Weather 264

III. Of the Climate of Britain - -266

BOOK III.

MECHANICAL AGENTS EMPLOYED IN GAR-
DENING.



Chap. I.

Implements of Gardening

I. Tools

II. Instruments

1 Instruments of Operation

2. Instruments of Direction

3. Instruments of Designation

III. Utensils

1. Utensils of Preparation and Deportation



Page

2. Utensils of Culture - - - 283

3. Utensils of Protection - - 286

4. Utensils for entrapping Vermin - 287

IV. Machines - - - ib.

1. Machines of Labor - - 288

2. Machines for Vermin, and Defence against

the enemies of Gardens - - 292

3. Meteorological Machines - - 293

V. Various Articles used in Gardening Oper-

ations .... 295

1. Articles of Adaptation - - ib.

2. Articles of Manufacture - - 297

3. Articles of Preparation - - ib.

Chap. II.

Structures used in Gardening - - 298

I. Temporary or Moveable Structures - ib.

1. Structures Portable, or entirely Moveable ib.

2. Structures partly Moveable - - 300

II. Fixed Structures - - - 303

III. Permanent Horticultural Structures -310

1. Ofthe Principles of Design in Hot-houses 311

2. Forms of Hot-house Roofs - - 314

3. Details of the Construction of Rcofs, or



318
. 319

- 322
. 323

- 326

- 328

- 329



III.
1.



- 269




- ib.


II.


- 272


1.


- ib.


2.


- 278


3.


. 280


4.


- 282


5.


- ib.


6



the glazed part of Hot-houses

4. Glazing of Hot-house Roofs

5. Walls and Sheds of Hot-houses

6. Furnaces and Flues

7. Steam Boilers and Tubes

8. Trellises

9. Paths, Pits, Stages, Shelves, Doors, &c. -

10. Details for Water, Wind, and Renewal of

Air - - -331

IV. Mushroom-houses - - 3o2

V. Cold Plant-habitations - - 334

Chap. III.

Edifices used in Gardening - - ib.

I. Economical Buildings ... ib.

II. Anomalous Buildings - - 339

1. Of the Ice-house and its Management - ib.

2. Of the Apiary and the Management of

Bees - - - 341

3. Of the Aviary, and of Menageries, Pisci-
naries, &c. ... 346

Decorative Buildings - - 348

Useful Decorative Buildings - - ib.

2. Convenient Decorations - - 355

3. Characteristic Decorations - - 360

Chap. IV.
Of the Improvement of the Mechanical Agents
of Gardening - - - - 361

BOOK IV.

OF THE OPERATIONS OF GARDENING.

Chap. I.
Operations of Gardening, in which Strength is
chiefly required in the Operator - - 363

I. Mechanical Operation's common to all Arts

of Manual Labor - - ib.

II. Garden-labors on the Soil - - 364

III. Garden-labors with Plants - -367

Chap. II.

Operations of Gardening in which Skill is more .
required than Strength ... 369

I. Of transferring Designs from Ground to

Paper or Memory - - - ib.

II. Of transferring Designs from Paper or

Memory to Ground - - 373

1. Transferring Figures and Designs to plane

Surfaces - - - - - ib.

2. Tranferring Figures and Designs to irregu-

lar Surfaces .... 375

3. Of the Arrangement of Quantities -377

III. Of carrying Designs into Execution - 37S

Chap. III.

Scientific Processes and Operations - - 384
1. Preparation of fermenting Substances for



Hot-beds, Manures, and Composts
II. Operations of Propagation
' Propagation by natural Methods
Propagation by Layering
Propagation by Inarching
Propagation by Grafting
Propagation by Budding
Propagation by Cuttings



ib.
387

ib.
388
390
391
397
399



vin



CONTENTS.



Page

III. Operations of Rearing and Culture - 401

1. Sowing, Planting, and Watering - ib.

2. Transplanting - - - 402
a Pruning - - - 406

4. Training - - - 411

5. Blanching - - 415

IV. Operations for inducing a State of Fruit-

fulness in barren and unblossoming Trees
and Plants - - - ib.

V. Operations for retarding or accelerating

Vegetation - 418

1. Operations for retarding Vegetation - ib.

2. Operations for accelerating Vegetation - 419

VI. Operations to imitate warm Climates - 423

VII. Operations of Protection from Atmospher-

ical Injuries ... 424

VIII. Operations relative to Vermin, Diseases,

and other Casualties of Plants and
Gardens - - - 426



Page

1. Of the Kinds of Vermin most injurious

to Gardens - - - 426

2. Operations for subduing Vermin - 436

3. Operations relative to Diseases and other

Casualties ... 437

IX. Operations of Gathering, Preserving, and

Keeping - - - 4-38

Chap. IV.

Operations relative to the final Products de-
sired of Gardens, and Garden-scenery - 443

I. Of the Vegetable Products desired of Gar-

dens - - - 444

II. Of the Superintendence and Management

of Gardens - - - 445

III. Of the Beauty and Order of Garden-

scenery - - - - 451



PART III.

GARDENING AS PRACTISED IN BRITAIN.



BOOK I.

HORTICULTURE.

Chap. I.

The Formation of a Kitchen-garden

I. Situation

II. Exposure and Aspect

III. Extent

IV. Shelter and Shade

V. Soil

VI. Water

VII. Form

VIII. Walls

IX. Ring-fence and Slip



Page

- ^55

- ib.

- 456

- 457

- 458

- 460

- 463

- 464

- 465

- 472



X. Placing the Culinary Hot-houses and

Melonry - - - - ib.

XI. Laying out the Area - • -473

Chap. II.
Of the Distribution of Ffuit-trees in a Kitchen-
garden - - - 476

I. Of the Selection and Arrangement of Wall

Fruit-trees - - - - 477

II. Of the Selection and Arrangement of

Espaliers and Dwarf-standards - - 479

III. Of tall Standard Fruit-trees in a Kitchen-

garden . - - - 480

IV. Fruit-shrubs - - - - 481

Chap. III.

Of the Formation and Planting of an Orchard,
subsidiary to the Kitchen-garden - - 482

Chap. IV.
Of the general Cultivation and Management
of a Kitchen-garden

I. Culture and Management of the Soil

II. Manure -

III. Cropping -

IV. Thinning - - -

V. Pruning and Training

VI. Weeding, Stirring the Soil, Protecting,

Supporting, and Shading

VII. Watering -

VIII. Vermin, Insects, Diseases, and Accidents

IX. Gathering and Preserving Vegetables and

Fruits, and sending them to a Distance

X. Miscellaneous Operations of Culture and

Management



485
ib.
486
487
489
490

493
ib.

494

495
- ib.



Chap. V.

Of the general Management of Orchards - 496



Online LibraryJ. C. (John Claudius) LoudonAn encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future → online text (page 1 of 316)