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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY Of
CALIFORNIA




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Uniform with this Volume,

A Ramble Round France.

All the Russias.

Chats about Germany.

The Land of the Pyramids. (Egypt.)

The Eastern "Wonderland. (Japan.)

The Land of Temples. (India.)

Peeps into China ; or, The Missionary's Children.

Glimpses of South America.

Round Africa.

The Isles of the Pacific



Cassell & Company, Limited, Ludgate Hill, London.
44—10.95



THE



LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS



Bt



J. OHESNET




TENTH THOUSAND



Cassell and Company Limited

LONDOJS PARIS d; MELBOURNE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



l^OAN STACK



THE WORLD IN PICTURES.

A Ramble Round France.

All the Russias.

Chats about Germany.

The Eastern Wonderland (Japan).

Peeps into China.

Glimpses of South America.

Round Africa.

The Land of Temples (India).

The Isles of the Pacific.

The Land of the Pyramids.

ALL ILLUSTRATED THROUGHOUT.



Cassell & Covipany, Lhnited, Ludgate Hill, London.






PREFACE.

rpHIS little book, in great measure the result of
personal observation during several months spent
in " The Land of the Pyramids/^ has been written with
the view of giving to children a correct idea of the
Egypt of our day, and also some acquaintance with its
ancient history ; it is hoped, therefore, that it may be
found instructive as well as amusing.

In regard to matters beyond her own knowledge,
the Author has consulted the best authorities within
her reach, and she desires to tender her thanks to
Mr. Lane-Poole for having kindly given the little work
the great benefit of his careful revision.



015




CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Page

Uncle Gerard's Arrival .9

CHAPTER IT.
A Glance at Egyptian History ..... 13

CHAPTER III.
Alexandria 56

CHAPTER IV.
The Delta and Ur the Nile to Cairo , . . .102

CHAPTER V.
Cairo 142



Vlll



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI.
Middle and Upper Egypt



Page
18G



CHAPTER VII.
The Red Sea and Suez Canal



20:





THE



LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.



CHAPTER I.



UNCLE GERARD S ARRIVAL.

XTERE^S Lucy ! That is de-

lightful ! " exclaimed three

or four children at once as their

grown-up sister entered the

schoolroom.

" You are just in time for
tea/^ said Harry; ''take the
arm-chair by the fire^ and we
will put the little table beside
you j and now tell us the news while I finish making
some toast.'''

" We want some amusement very badly this dreary
evening/-' put in Lotta, a girl of fourteen ; " we were
going out to get some spring flowers — the banks are




10 THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.

a perfect mass of bluebells and anemones — but with
such a downpour it was impossible to stir/"*

"I was very glad to stay at home and rig up my
boats ; only girls care about gathering primroses and
such nonsense;^'' was the not very civil rejoinder of
Master John, rather a rough specimen of the boy who
affects manliness, though in reality a good-hearted fellow.

^' I like primroses, but I like stories better/^ said
little Susie, evidently a privileged pet, who had climbed
into Miss Carrington^s lap and laid her golden head
upon her shoulder.

" Now, sister,^' resumed Harry, '' give us the news.
What is going to happen ? ''

'^ Why should you think I have anything special to
tell ? ^^ laughingly replied the elder sister, who had long
done her utmost to replace their lost mother. '' Surely
my visits are not so rare that it should require an earth-
quake or something very extraordinary to bring me to
you ! ''

" No. Not that exactly. But you do look as if you
had a secret, and I know it must be a pleasant one.
What is it ? A whole holiday ? A day upon the
river ? or a visit from the Graingers ? "

"It has to do with a visit, but not one from the
Graingers. Who do you think is coming home ? No
less a person than Uncle Gerard, and he will be' here
this day week ! "

" Uncle Gerard ! The old fellow \ ho was digging
out ruins somewhere in Egypt, and who has not been
heard of for ever so long ! I do not call that very
grand news ! I am sure he will be very tiresome, and
not care about us children. He is always poring over
musty books. Papa said so.''"*



UNCLE GERAUD's ARRIVAL. 11

" You do not remember him/' said Miss Carrington_,
** or you would not talk like that/'

^' Uncle Gerard is certainly not fond of hunting
and field-sports, and I am not quite sure that he even
cares for a game of cricket, which in your eyes, Harry,
must be a great disqualification ; but he is neither old
nor tiresome/'

A week soon passed over, and Mr. Gerard Carring-
ton, a fine tall man with a long glossy beard and a
merry twinkle in his dark eyes, who was immediately
voted ^^a jolly fellow" by his two nephews, showed
himself very ready to make friends with all the young
people; little Susie coming in perhaps for an extra
share of notice, and speedily putting in her claim for
" nice stories."

'^ I think I should have liked to be with you in
Egypt, uncle," said Lotta. " Wandering about in boats
and on camels must be grand. Just like a perpetual
picnic. I wish you would tell us about it."

" I am quite at your command, Miss Lotta, if you
care to hear of my doings, but I doubt whether they
will have interest enough for you young people."

^' Oh, yes, they will," said both boys at once ; "it
is ever so much nicer to listen to a person telling his
travels than to read about them ; and, besides, we shall
know that what you say is true."

" You need have no fear on that score ; I shall
either tell you what I have myself seen and done, or
what has been related by people who can be implicitly
believed. Where and when shall our talks come off?"

"Oh, here!" replied Harry. "There is not a nicer
place than this old schoolroom ! I mean, out of lesson-
time!"



12 THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.

" Very well. I will try and begin to-morrow after-
noon ; but now I must go and unpack, and I dare say I
shall be able to find a few curiosities to show you," said
the indulgent uncle. '^ But don't expect/' he added,
'^ that all my talk will be amusing. You must use
your brains a little too. If you want to understand
what I have been doing, you will have to swallow some
dry bits of history between whiles, I can assure you.''"'

'' We shall not mind that, uncle, for the sake of the
rest,"*' was the answer of the three elder children, who
with difficulty managed to control their impatience
during the next twenty -four hours.




CHAPTER II.

A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTORY.

'' Pictures ! pictures ! '' cried Susie, as Mr. C'arriiigtoii
entered the schoolroom, and forthwith seizing upon the




ANCIENT EGYPTIAN REPRESENTATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH.

roll in his hand she carried it to her elder brother to be
immediately opened.

"What queer people!''^ the child exclaimed, as
Harry did as she requested with the least possible delay ;



14 THE LAND OP THE PYRAMIDS.

" men and women/^ she went on, " and boats and
birds, all having a game of play ! "

^' Not exactly, little woman,^' replied her uncle.

'' This picture is, however, extremely curious, though
not quite the one I meant to show you first. I thought
a few engravings would make you understand much
better of what I had to tell.^'

'^ Oh ! so they will,^^ said Lotta ; *' and as we happen
to have pitched upon this one, please tell us what it
means.^^

'' It is intended," replied Mr. Carrington, " for
heaven and earth. You see the latter is represented by
a figure lying down, while the starry heaven, in the
shape of a woman with very long legs and arms, forms
an arch above it.

^' Ra, the sun-god, is in the centre bearing the
symbol of eternity, and on either side is a boat carrying
a dead man and the god of shades — the Egyptian Charon
— to the lower world. Pictures of this kind are often
found on tombs, and also such as this next one where
men are winnowing and ploughing, this of a person
making an offering to the gods, and many like subjects,
showing the former occupation or office of the deceased.
Meantime, before going any farther, I should like to
hear what you yourselves know about Egypt."

^^ It is where there was a wicked king," cried out
Susie, " who put a baby into the water."

This infantine version of the finding of Moses of
course produced a laugh, and when it had subsided
Mr. Carrington said: '^ You all remember the Bible
story of the sufferings of the Israelites and their
miraculous deliverance; but, to begin with, where is the
land of Egypt?"



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTORY.



15




WINNOWING AND PLOUGHING.



"Here," said- Lotta, producing a school atlas, "in
the north-east of Africa/^

'^ And what do you know,
Harry, about its ancient his-
tory ?^^

^^ Alexander conquered
it/' he replied glibly, ^^and
it afterwards belonged to the
Greeks, and the Ptolemies
and Cleopatra reigned there.''

"The Ptolemies and Cleo-
patra may be said to be moderns,
my boy."

" Moderns, uncle ; that is
good ! why, even Cleopatra
lived before Christ, and the
first Ptolemy as much as three
hundred years before Him."

"That is nothing; in an
ancient country like Egypt the making offerings to the gods.




16 THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.

first Pbolemy was a modern, an absolute modern. Why,
the Pyramids have been standing 6,000 years, and we
have found records relating to a king who reigned before
they were built.''

"Oh, uncle ! that is astonishing," answered the
boy ; '' I should hardly believe any one else if he said
such a thing/'

" What made you go out there in the first instance,
dear uncle ? " asked Lucy.

" My health had broken down, and I required rest
from brain work and also a dry climate, but I only
made a stay of a few months at that time, though what
I saw interested me so much that I returned to Egypt
on two subsequent occasions, and during my last
journey went so much farther up the country than I
had intended that I could not send news home for a
long while, and you all thought I was lost."*'

" But why did you care so much about the ruins ? ''
said John. *^What good could it do you to dig up
old bricks and mummies ? "

'^Oh ! I think that would be grand,'' said Lotta;
*' fancy the pleasure of turning up something fresh
every day, and puzzling out the meaning of it."

" Ah ! but you don't find something fresh every
day, or every week either," replied Mr. Carrington.
" You often toil fruitlessly for months together, and
have a great deal of trouble, too, sometimes with the
people of the country, and a good many other difiiculties
and disagreeables, but it is worth it all; not precisely
for the sake of old bricks and mummies, as John says,
but in order to learn something more of the history of
Egypt, and of the manners and religion of the people
of former davs.



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTOllY.



17




^^ When you see
a group of splendid
monuments like
the Pyramids and
the Sphinx, for
instance, you can-
not help desiring
to know more
about those who
made them, and
this is only to be
done by decyphe
ing the picture-
writing we call
hieroglyphic (the
word means sacred
sculptures) , which
covers a large part

of the walls of Egyptian temples, tombs, and other
monuments/''



MONUMENTS OF THE PAST— PYKAMIDS OF
GHIZEH AND THE SPHINX OF KARNAK.



18



THE LAND OP THE PYRAMIDS.



'' What is a sphinx ? '^ said Harry.

'^ A figure with the body of a lion and the head of a
man or a ram, often found near Egyptian temples. It

is one of the forms
of the sun-god, and
supposed to repre-
sent kingly power.
The largest of the
sphinxes is that
near the Pyramids ;
you shall hear all
about it by-and-bye.
In the lower part
of the picture to
the left we have
w^orkmen busily en-



gaged in making
a sphinx. One you
see is chiselling the
head, and the two
others look as if
they were polish-
ing; one seems to

hold a pumice-stone, and the other a bowl of water.
In the upper section they are engaged on a gigantic
statue, and you see they have erected a scaffolding in
order to reach the higher part, and two of them are
kneeling upon it, while one stands and works on the
ground.^''





SCULPTORS AT WORK.



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTOUY. 19

'^They are odd-looking fellows/' said John^ ^^but
they do not seem to be wasting their time/''

^'No, indeed. The poor people of Egypt have
always had to work hard ; but many of those who built
the vast monuments we are talking about were slaves^
or prisoners taken in battle. Thothmes III., whose title
is engraved on this necklace, was a great conqueror,
who made many captives and also built much ; and in




NECKLACE WITH THE TITLE OP THOTHMES III.

one of the tombs at Thebes there is a painting executed
fully a hundred years before the birth of Moses, which
depicts this forced labour, representing brickmakers at
their work, some carrying water, others breaking up and
kneading clay, some moulding the bricks, and others
carrying them in slings to stack them, while the over-
seers, staff in hand, are either following the labourers, or
sitting watching them, and in the inscription beside the
picture are represented as saying, ^ The stick is in my
hand, be not idle/ all which reminds us forcibly of the days
of bondage and Pharaoh's reproaches to the Israelites.'-'

^^Well, this is very curious," said John. "I do not
so much wonder now, uncle, at your caring to dig, if you
can find out things like that/^
B 2



20 THE LAND OF THE PYEAMIDS.

'^ If it were not for the cost of the work we should
find out a great deal more/^ said Mr. Carrington.
'^ There is, however_, a society for assisting in the explo-
ration of Egyptian ruins that has already done much,
and will, I hope, obtain funds to enable it to work more
efficiently; and our discoveries do not always relate, as
you might suppose, to "grave matters of history, for
M. Mariette found in the tomb of En-Aaa, the portrait .
of that king^s favourite hound, with its name, Bahuka,
engraved on the, stone, so that we actually know what a
particular dog was called that lived 3,000 years ago !^'

^' What sort of religion had these ancient Egyptians,
uncle ?'^

" They were of course idolaters. We learn that
from the Bible, where we hear of their gods.

'^ They had many sacred animals supposed to repre-
sent different divine attributes, and the sun was con-
sidered to be a visible manifestation of the Creator.

'^ The king too was looked upon as a god, and was
worshipped both during his life and after his death.

"There were also a great many gods only wor-
shipped at particular places where we find temples
specially dedicated to them. It is, however, believed by
some of the learned that these were the same deities as
the former, only adored under different names.

" It is pretty clear that the Egyptians had retained
the idea of one great universal God who formed all
things out of nothing, made the day and the night,
loves goodness and hates evil, provides for the welfare
of men, and rules the destiny of nations ; and this God
they typified by all that is best and strongest, most
beautiful and productive amongst visible things; so
that in the beginning the sun and the moon, the sacred



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTORY. 21

animals and images were only worshipped as the repre-
sentatives of some of the divine attributes; but in the
course of time their true signification was forgotten^ and
planets, beasts, and stones, received divine honours, at
any rate from the ignorant people.

'^ The principal divinity was the sun, the vivifier or
daily renewer of life, but he was worshipped under
different forms answering to the several stages of his
daily course ; when he was rising, as Harmachis or the
sphinx — in midday strength as Ra^ his own special title
— -at sunset as Turn, and during the hours of darkness
as. Osiris the judge of the dead, for the Egyptians
believed in a judgment, and we often see in paintings
on the tombs a representation of the soul either waiting
to hear sentence pronounced upon it, or going away to
a state of happiness, or perhaps departing in the form of
an unclean animal to undergo punishment or purification.

^' Osiris is represented either standing or sitting,
wearing a cap ornamented with the feather of truth,
and carrying a whip and a crook as symbols of his
governing and directing power.

" Isis was the wife of Osiris ; she is usually repre-
sented sitting, and bears on her head the moon between
a pair of cow's horns.

^^ Amon, or Amen, for the name is variously written,
means the hidden unrevealed deity, and he may be said
to have been the greatest of Egyptian gods. He is
represented in different ways, but usually with the head
ornament of feathers and other symbols. As we have
him here, he is the sun-god Amen-Ra. Thebes was the
place where he was more especially worshipped, and it
was called the city of Amen.

^^ There were a great number of other deities, such



22



THE LAND 0¥ THE PYRAMIDS.



as Ma, the goddess of truth; Maut, the universal
mother; Thoth, the god of letters, and so on.




ISIS.



^' Many animals also were^ as I have told you, held
sacred ; such as the bull Apis, the calf Mnevis, a water-
fowl called the ibis, the cat, the crocodile, and the wolf ;
and these creatures were not only worshipped while



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTORY.



23



living", but carefully embalmed after death, and their
bodies laid in sepulchres.

'^In 1850 M. Mariette found quite accidentally an
immense cemetery entirely devoted to the
remains of sacred bulls, with the tomb of
one of the high priests of Apis who was the
son of the then reigning- king of Egypt.

'^When my heavy baggage arrives I
shall be able to show you some mummies
of birds and small animals, and I have
brought home a human mummy too, but
that is to go to the museum. ^^

'^ But why did the Egyptians make
mummies of people, instead of burying
them as we do ? '''' remarked Lotta. •

"It was their great desire that the
body should not decay, because they
thought that unless it were preserved
entire for the soul to re-enter, its resur-
rection would be impossible.

^' For this reason, therefore, the bodies
of dead people were most carefully swathed
in folds of linen with fragrant spices, and
then placed in a kind of case made of a
sort of papier mache with a glazed white
surface, which for persons of good standing
was covered with hieroglyphs and other paintings, and
very often placed in a handsome stone coffin.

" With the dead man or woman were also buried
the things they most prized — gold and silver vases,
ai'mour, splendid ornaments and jewels, and even
clothing and furniture, for they believed that the
soul after undergoing a very long probation would come



AMEN-RA.



24



THE LAND OF THE PYHAMIDS.



back once more to its body, which would then arise
and go forth to enjoy hfe again.

'^ The tombs of ancient
Egyptians are always found
either in the desert or in the
side of a mountain, sometimes
built up like the Pyramids, at
others, hewn out of the rock,
and all who were able to do so
prepared their last resting-place
during their life-time with the
greatest care, as they looked
upon their sepulchre as a place
of abode.

" The inner walls were co-
vered with sculptures or paint-
ings showing the kind of scenes
in which the deceased passed his
life, ending with his burial ;
these pictures are very curious,
as you shall hear later on.

^^ But Susie has gone to
sleep; our talk is too dry for
her. Perhaps you have all had
enough for to-day ? ^^

''No, no, uncle/' was the

reply from the rest. ''Do

please go on and tell us a little

A MrMMY. about the kings of Egypt, and

we shall then understand better

what you are speaking of when you describe your own

travels. ''

" Well, I will try and give you a short account of




A GLAKCT: AT KfiYPTTAN HISTORY. 25

what we at present know. In the first place the name
of the country is said to be derived from Aegyptus or
Mizraim, the grandson of Noahj who is supposed to
have settled on the banks of the Nile soon after the
dispersion at the building of the tower of Babel ; but




ENTRANCE TO A TOMB AT GHIZEH.



the first Egyptian monarch of whom we have any record
is Menes_, who left This, the ancient capital of the king-
dom, and built Memphis.

'^ I have not a sketch of the ruins of Memphis, but
here is one of Zoan, or Tanis, as it is called in Greek,
which will give you an idea of the utter desolation into
which most of these cities have fallen.

'^ Zoan was also once the capital of Egypt, a city of
great importance, and one of the chief abodes of the
Pharaohs. You may remember that Zoan and its



26 THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.

Princes are often spoken o£ in the Biblcj and that
Ezekiel prophesies of its downfall, saying that ''fire
shall be set in Zoan/

^' Zoan, then, was in all probability the residence of
the Pharoah ' who knew not Joseph/ for we are expressly
told that the wonders which ended in the deliverance
of the Israelites were wrought ^ in the field of Zoan/
and from Zoan it was that they set forth on their march
towards the Red Sea.

'' We know but little of the long line of kings of
different dynasties who succeeded each other in Egypt
before its conquest by Cambyses, though Manetho,
who wrote in the time of the first or second of the
Ptolemies, has left a list of them; but we possess
fragmentary accounts of the remarkable events of many
reigns either on engraved tablets or in papyrus rolls.

" The glories of Osirtasen, the first and second for
instance, are inscribed in some of the tombs at Beni
Hasan, while at Semneh, above the second cataract of
the Nile, there is a record of the rise of that river
during the reign of .Amenemhat III., a prince who
conferred great benefits on his country by constructing
dykes, reservoirs, and canals for regulating the inun-
dations. It was he who caused the Lake Moeris to
be dug.

'^ Thothmes I. was a great conqueror. He introduced
the horse into Egypt after one of his Asiatic campaigns,
and it is on a monument of his time that we first find a
representation of that animal.

" Thothmes III., however, was still more famous as
a warrior, and greatly extended his kingdom.

^^ He built a splendid temple at Karnak, the walls
of which are covered with the accounts of his triumphs



41




28 THE LAND OF THE PYRAMIDS.

and of the countries and people lie subdued. But it
would take mucli too long were I to go on telling you
about all these kings. I will mention only two others,
Seti, a very magnificent prince, who not only distin-
guished himself by his conquests, but made himself
much more famous by constructing the first canal
between the Red Sea and the Nile; and his son
Rameses II., whom you already know very well under
the name of Pharaoh.^'

'^ What ! uncle ! Pharaoh who was drowned in the
Red Sea ?^^

'' Not that one, but the Pharaoh who oppressed the
Israelites. ^^

^' But, uncle, you said his name was Rameses ; how
does he come to be called Pharaoh ?'^

'' It is common in Eastern countries to give various
honourable titles to the sovereigns, and to call them by
these instead of their proper names. This was particularly
the case in Egypt, and we find Per-ao, Hhe great house/
continually substituted for the king's name; indeed, it
is believed that the common people were not allowed
to mention him otherwise, and it is this word Per-ao
which has been in our Bibles turned into Pharaoh.-''

^' Rameses must have been a bad king, uncle,'' said
Lotta; " I do not think he deserved the title of Great."

^^ He was certainly cruel," replied Mr. Carrington,
''^for he had a passion for founding new cities and
carrying on gigantic works of all kinds, and recklessly
destroyed in doing so millions of lives by forced labour.
Slaves from Ethiopia and captives taken in war were all
employed in this way ; and it was probably when they
w^ere insufficient to do what was required that the
Israelites were oblio^ed to undertake the same tasks.



A GLANCE AT EGYPTIAN HISTORY.



29



'^ Bitter as was the lot of the latter, however, it
does not seem to have been nearly so terrible as that o£
the slaves, who were torn from their country and their




homes, and obliged to work underground in the mines
without respite until they died.

'' Notwithstanding all this Rameses was a popular
hero j and there is no ancient Egyptian king whom we
know so well, not merely by his great works and the
inscriptions upon them, but by his portraits, and as you
may see from this one (p. 30) he was a handsome man.


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