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69. 2. Prescito, 'foredoomed,' 'damned.' 5.
i.e., men derive courage from their very despair:
cf. Petrarch, Trionfo della Morte, I, 159: "E per
desperazion fatta secura." 8. in Puglia, 'in
Apulia,' i.e., where there are many flies. Again,
m this same Canto, stanza 332, Pulci refers to the
abundance of flies in Apulia.

70. 5. appife di Porto (cf. Volpi, a pie di P.)
should rather be written a Pie di Porto: cf. 87, v. 7,
and XXVII, 161, v. 4. The place is St. Jean Pied
de Port, a small town which was once capital of
lower Navarre, and since the Treaty of the Pyrenees
(1659) has belonged to France. It commands the
entrance to the pass of Roncevaux (Roncesvalles) ,
which is somewhat less than fifteen miles distant.
A fuller form of the name appears here in XXVII,
147, v. 3, San Gianni di Porto, as it does in the
Spagna (XXX VL, 33), San Giovanni Pie di Porto.
aspQtta.to=aspettazione, if not the past participle.

71. 5. recede = recedi = receda, present subj. of
recedere, 'to go back,' 'to depart.' Popular Italian
shows a confusion of the -a endings of Ihe subj.
of the third conjugation with the -i endir^s of the
subj. of the first conjugation. The verse is a para-
phrase of the words of Simeon in St. Like, II,
29: "Nunc dimittis servuum tuum, Domine": cf.
XXVII, 150 (post, p. 87).

72. 1. Has e dropped out between Orlando and
int 5. Le frutte, etc., i.e., treacherous death. The
reference is to Dante, Inferno, XXXIII, 118 ff.:

" Io son Frate Alberigo,
lo son quel delle frutta del mal orto,
Che qui reprendo dattero per figo."

Thus speaks to Dante a spirit whom he encounters
in the lowest circle of Hell. The spirit is that of
Alberigo, a frate gaudente, and a leader of the
Guelph party at Faenza in the later part of the 13th
century. He was at odds with a political rival,
Manfredo, and the latter's son, Alberghetto, gave



544 Notes [XXV. 73-

Alberigo a slap in the face. Later, Alberigo pre-
tended to be reconciled with his foes, but he really
meditated a terrible vengeance. Under color of
friendship he invited Manfredo and Alberghetto to
a banquet, toward the end of which he uttered the
words, " Vengano le frutta," whereupon assassins
fell upon the two guests and despatched them.

73. 5. come far suole, 'as it is wont to be the
case.'

87. 6. la intemerata ('the undented'), a long
prayer to the Virgin, and, therefore, by transferral,
any long operation, any long account, etc.

89. 3. salamandra, here 'asbestos cloth.' 4.
Apparently the parenthetical remark means. 1 tell
you this in case writers may be deficient in details
as to the asbestos.

90. 3. cefi, pi. of ce/o, " Animale favoloso d'Eti-
opia" (Petrocchi) . Cf. Spanish ce/o. a kind of mon-
key, bissonti = bisonti. 5. stambecchini. The
stambecchini here used seems to be a diminutive of
the sta'nbecchi employed in XXVI, 48. The dic-
tionaries give no suitable sense for either word, but
there is listed a stambecchina denoting a kind of
crossbow ("Sorta di ballestra dei soldati a cavallo"
Petrocchi). It is probable that the words denote
some kind of archer's weapons. 7. Brenuzzi, ' Turk-
ish tunics (or cloaks) ': probably the same word as
the English bernouse (burnous, etc.) , the French
bournous and the Spanish albornoz, all harking back
to an Arabic source. 8. ghezzi, pi. of ghezzo, denned
by Petrocchi as a " Specie di corvo," with reference
to its use in the Moryante. Cf. gazza, " jay."

91. 3. per soprasselli, 'into the bargain,' 'in
addition.'

100. 1. Roncisvalle, 'Roncevaux' (Rpncos-
valles), in a valley of the Pyrenees. Here is laid
the scene of the annihilation of Charlemagne's rear
guard in the Chanson de Roland. 3. Rafael, the
Angel Raphael.

102. 3. nel prime sguardo, i.e., forthwith, to
begin with.

118. 1. Malgigi, a syncopated form of Malagigi,
a Christian sorcerer and a cousin of Rinaldo's: cf.
Rajna, Fonti dell' Orlando Furwso, 2d ed., p. 131.
5. fece, etc., i.e., employed his usual spells.

119. 1. Here begins the second quite original
episode in the Morgante, one illustrating well Pulci's
bizarre humorism: Symonds has translated parts
of it; see his Italian Literature, Appendix V.



XXV. 228] Fitlci: II Morgante 545

120. 6. braveggiato, 'blustering," emboldened.'

121. 2. 1'anel, etc., i.e., his magic power: cf.
165, v. 6. 4. sotto, etc.- cf. buttargiii le cane, 'to
throw down one's hand at cards': misse= raise,
messe.

122. 5. tenere, 'withstand.'

132. 6. Ricciardetto, the brother of Rinaldo.

133. 1. E' = jE'i = Lat. illi (n. pi.) 2. Bajardo,
Bayard, Rinaldo's horse: cf. O r lando Funoso, 1, 12,
v. 3, note.

164. 4. lasciallp = lasciarlo.

165. 1-2. Rubicante and Farfarello are two
of the demons whom Dante finds in Hell: cf.
Inferno, XXI, 123: "E Farfarello, e Rubicante il
pazzo": cf. also Inferno, XX11, 40, 94.

175. 2. figlio: cf. XXIV, 63, v. 2. 6. modo
cf.. 102, 1 ff.

182. 1. Sansonetto of Mecca figures already in
the early Franco- Venetian chivalrous poem, L' En-
tree de Spagne. His attachment to Roland and his
becoming a Christian at the instance of the latter
are mentioned also by Ariosto, Orlando Funoso,
XV, 95. 6. ammirato, 'full of wonder.' 8. con-
fortava, 'urged,' 'exhorted': cf. 183, v. 5.

183. 1. The unguarded nature of the Christian
camp and the sending of provisions by Marsilio are
dwelt upon also in the Pseudo-Turpin account of
the affair at Roncevaux: cf. Orlando Furioso, XIII,
40, v. 2.

184. 4. Cf. St. Matthew, II, 12: "Et response
accepto in somnis ne redirent ad Herodem, per
aliam viam reversi sunt [Magi] in regionem suam":
cf. Orlando Furioso, X, 69.

202. 3. Chemi, 'Ham,' son of Noah, and accord-
ing to Genesis (IX and X), ancestor of the nations
occupying Egypt, Libya, etc. Plutarch calls
Egypt Chemia, and the Psalms several times term
it the "land of Ham." 4. corso del ciel, i.e., the
signs of the Zodiac.

222. 3. cugino, Roland, cf. 102, v. 2.

227. 1. Bagrade, ' Bagradas' (now Mejerdah), a
river of Northern Africa: it enters the Gulf of
Carthage neat Utica. .3 Greco antico, i.e.,
Hercules: cf. Orlando Furioso, VI, 17, v. 7. 7. e:
Volpi reads e' ( = ei = egli).

228. 4. a quel che^guello a che. 8. sonne, an
amplified form of son ( = sono): cf. the ending -ne
of tiene, viene, tenne, venne-. possibly an influence of



546 Notes [XXV. 229-

the enclitic adverb and pronoun ne may have helped
to produce the form.

229. 1 ff. In these verses Pulci gives us some
of the speculations of the time with respect to
geography. The ideas that Columbus put into
effect were in the air already. 8. Before the end
of the century Columbus and the Portuguese navi-
gators were going to pass out beyond the pillars of
Hercules. Ariosto (Orlando Funoso, XV, 18 ff.) and
Tasso (Gerusalemme lib., XV, 22 ff.) later prophesy
apres coup the passing beyond the Straits of
Gibraltar.

231. 1. segno, 'constellation.'

CANTO XXVI

3. 1. colui, i.e., the Sun. According to one
form of the Prometheus legend, the hero, with the
help of Minerva, ascended to heaven and there
secretly lighted his torch at the chariot of Helios
(the Sun), in order to bring fire down to man.
According to Hesiod he was chained to Mt. Caucasus,
by wa-y of punishment, and his vitals were constantly
gnawed by a vulture. 3. Gange, the 'Ganges/ i.e.,
the Orient, since the Ganges was long the eastern
boundary of the known world.

4. 6. guardalli =guardarli.

20. 5. fussi= fosse. 7. le mummie, i.e., appar-
ently the Saracens: cf. XXV, 183-184, where Bian-
ciardin pretended to push on beyond Roncevaux
to the place where Charlemagne was. Cf. mummia
= uo~no brutto e secco, and far le mummie, 'to hide
and then bob up again' (Morg., XXII, 126).

21. 7. in un specchio, i.e., faithfully reflected,
just as he is.

22. 7-8. i.e., You have longed for a crown
(a halo) like that which the medlar has; cf. Volpi:
"Si paragona 1'aureola dei santi a quella corona di
punte che ha la nespola, per la forma che solevano
darle gli antichi pittori."

24. 2. vicitarmi: cf. XXV, 53, v. 5, note. 4.
cori = cuori.

36. 1. Tale, 'Thales' of Miletus (7th and^Gth
centuries B.C.), an Ionic philosopher and one of the
Seven Sages. None of his writings are extant, the
present saying is decidedly Socratic. 4. fusti =
foste 8. giocondo may refer to uomo (v. 6): cf. 42,
v. 4: Gesu lieto, where lieto belongs to ognun.

37. 1. Deci, the 'Decii.' P. Decius Mus, Con-



XXVI. 48] Pulci: II Morgante 547

sul, B.C. 340, on the night before a battle with the
Latins had a vision announcing that the general on
one side and the army on the other were devoted
to death. He therefore, as commander of the wing
which first began to waver, sacrificed himself to
the enemies' weapons and saved his army. His
son, who was a later Consul, is said to have imi-
tated the father's example. 8. mortifero angue, i.e.
the Devil.

38. 1. Orazio, 'Horatius,' i.e., Horatius Codes,
who defended tne Sublician bridge against the
Etruscan army of Lars Porsena: cf. Macaulay,
Lays of Ancient Rome. Curzio, i.e., M. Curtius,
who, in order that the chasm in the Forum might be
closed up, leaped into it, clad in armor and on
horseback.- 8. la ingrata setta, i.e., the fallen
angels: for setta, cf. Orlando, 1, 3, v. 8.

39. 3. Micael, i.e., the Archangel Michael. 7.
sen d'Abramo, 'Abraham's bosom,' i.e., heaven;
cf. St. Luke, XVI, 22 and 23: the giii is peculiar
here, but perhaps the poet is thinking of the fact
that the patriarchs were down in Limbo before
their redemption by Christ, the Amor of v. 6. .

40. 4. Vegliantino, Roland's horse, called in the
Old French Chanson de Roland, 'Veillantif/ i.e.,
the Vigilant. 6. Andianne = Andiamo+ne.

41. 4. I.e., convien \che\ lanto sangue versi sopra
te. 6. feisi = si fecero.

42. 7. bandiera, i.e., the banner of Almonte,
which Roland, performing his maiden feat of arms,
won from the Saracen leader at the battle of Aspra-
monte, described in an early Italian chivalrous ro-
mance.

43. 7. figliuolo, i.e., Ferrau: cf. XXV, 63, v. 2.

46. 5. Parea, quando, 'is like [what happens]
when.' 8. mar della rena, 'sea of sand,' i.e., the
desert.

47. 3. Marrani, a term applied in Spain to the
Moors, who pretended to embrace Christianity, but
whose conversion was regarded as doubtful. 4.
avevon =avevano. 6. Alcuin. The reference is to
the English scholar, Alcuin, who became head of
Charlemagne's Schvla Palatina. His letters throw a
good deal of light upon events of Charlemagne's
reign; but the History of Charlemagne, to which a
reference like the present would be made, was
written by Alcuin's pupil, Eginhard, cf, XXVII,
79, v. 6, note.

48. 7. stambecchi: cf. Volpi. "Stambecco qui



54 Notes Jxxvi. 49-

pare indicare una specie di macchina da guerra, ma
questo significato manca ai vocabolarj": cf. XXV.
90, v. 5. 8. cavon=cawmo, i.e., send forth from
their midst.

49. 3. 1'altro. Apparently antithetic to Macon
(Mahomet), and, if so, used with reference to the
Christian deity. 5. vegnamo = veniamo : it is a
popularly developed form of the Latin veniamus : cf .
Boiardo, Orlando Innamorato, I, iii, 50, v. 6 (post,
p. 115).

62. 2. duole, etc. Oliver had been wounded
shortly before by a Saracen (cf. stz. 58 f.) 4.
Turpino. He is of the Church militant, being both
an archbishop and a warrior. 8. Malprimo, the
Saracen who, after wounding Oliver, was slain by
this latter.

63. 1. treccia=resta. 2. bambola di specchio,
'looking-glass of a mirror.' 5. civettar, 'to dodge':
cf. Volpi, "muovere la testa." The same sense
occurs in XXIV, 141. 8. lo guaii, i.e., he cured
him of deafness by slaying him.

79. 1. lascian = lasciamo : cf. v. 2: voglicm = vo-
gliamo.

82. 4. campane, cf. XXVII, 50, v. 4. 6,
S^uarciaferro, another demon already mentioned in
XXV, 269 ff. 7. Rogatus rogo: these Latin words
were apparently of legal use: cf. Volpi, "Para
riduzione della forma notarile Rogatus rogavi, ch&
si trova usata nel secolo XV."

84. 6. quanto fussi, 'as much as though you
were: ' fussi = fossi.

85. 5. legge, 'faith,' 'religion.' 7. penti = pen
ta.

87. 6. Iscriver6=*Scrwero. In early Italian th
prosthetic i is found before Latin initial s plus &
consonant, even where the preceding word doesno^
end in a consonant: cf. 102, v. 7, Istupefatto; ol
course the Latin inscnbere might be present, here.

92. 5. non . . . falta, 'not knowing what was
the trouble.'

93. 5-6. pericol, etc., i.e., the danger which
every captain runs of having his order disturbed on
him.

94. 3-4. The meaning seems to be: Be within
hailing distance, whether in danger or in safety. 5.
prevaricorno = prevoricarono, 'transgressed,' 'ex-
ceeded their directions.' 6. L'un, cf. 95, v. 1:
1'nltro, cf. 95, v. 8.

95. 8. s'ha=s'.



XXVII. 22] Pulci: 11 Morgante 549

96. 1. sonassi a doppio: cf. Petrocchi, s. v. f
Campana, " Sonar e a doppw, Picchiare qualcheduno,
Rifinire, Sparlare d'una persona." None of these
senses seems to fit well here. The idea suggested
by the context is rather that of 'playing false,' of
treachery on Bianciardino's part. Such a suspicion
is expressed by Marsilio in stanza 111. 7. non,
expletive, and due to the idea of fearing involved
in the principal verb.

97. 2. cala = scende.- 4. Conte, i.e., Roland.

98. 2. rigolletto, i.e., the circle of Saracens
about him.- 5. di piatto, i.e., with his sword laid
flat so as to make a sweeping horizontal blow.

101. 5. sendo = essendo. 7. rocca, i.e., the cita-
del of the heart.

102. 6. tomato, etc., 'having regained contro)
of himself,' i.e., having recovered from his astonish^
ment. 8. Lazzer =Lazzaro.

110. 8. a tanto corollario, i.e., for so muck
argumentation and deduction; for further words.



CANTO XXVII

9. 8. prima. Grandonio was previously de-
scribed as a perfect demon in XXV, 180: his weapon
was a stick arranged as a scourge.

11. 1. Altachiara, Oliver's famous sword. 8.
Cacco. The giant Caccus was slain in Italy by
Hercules, whose cattle he had stolen.

12. 3-4= Ulivieri, etc., i.e., Oliver is so put to
it that he needs, etc. 5. scrima = scherma. 8.
signer di Bajona, Angiolino.

19. 6. aveva veduto cascallo = Zo a. v. cascar.

20. 5. assilla, i.e., smarts under the pain of the
sting of the gadfly (assillo).

22. 1. Chirone, i.e., no great preceptor, such as
the Centaur Chiron, who trained Achilles, had
taught him. 4. terming, 'determined.' 8. Salvo,
etc., 'Except that the bistoury ( = a surgeon's knife
here humorously indicating the sword) stops at
(i.e., spares) the first finger.' Volpi takes gam-
mautte to be the musical term 'gamut,' denoting
here the thumb; he says: "II dito pollice: espres-
sione scherzevole tolta dai trattati musciali, nei
quali la gamma o scala era rappresentata da una
mano aperta." But what can primo denote, if this
be the case ? His interpretation seems not accepta-
ble. Pulci regards the situation as like to a surgi-



55 Notes [XXVII. 23-

cal operation, with the sword as the surgeon's
knife.

23. 3. corna: cf. the insulting gesture called
jar le corna: Stender la mano in atto di spreggio
verso uno, e allungare 1'indice e il mignolo (Pe-
trocchi). For this at least two fingers were necessa-
ry. 4. buschette. In the game of 'cuts,' called
buschette or bruschette, the straws to be drawn were
hidden in the hand at times: here the term seems
to be used for the straws themselves. 6. vecchio,
'great,' 'mighty.'

29. 7-8. The syntactical order is: Parea che
quello (i.e., Vegliantino) intendesse che il suo signor
volesse vendicar Sansonetto.

30. 6. di, 'with respect to.' 8. Malfusso. In
a note to XIV, 9, v. 2, Volpi says: "Epiteto
ingiurioso, di cui non si sa il precise valore." It
may, however, be the same word as the oppro-
brious Spanish term marfuz, 'treacherous,' 'scoun-
drelly,' derived from the Arabic.

33, 2. grid6. Volpi reads gridoe.

58, 2. mortito, 'ragout.' Cf. Volpi's note to
VII, 56, v. 5: "Da una ricetta, conservata nel
codice Magliabechiano II, IX, 42 (c. 14 v ), rilevo che
il mortito era una pietanza, che si faceva con un
capo di porco e dodici piedi di castrone, cotti nel
vino rosso con coccole di mortine, garofani, cannella
e pepe." 5. bulicame. Pulci has in mind the boil-
ing river of blood (Phlegethon), called by Dante
(Inferno, XII, 117 and 128) a bulicame. The
suffering souls that Dante sees in the stream are
guarded by the Centaur Nessus. As Dante, his
guide Vergil, and Nessus advance by the stream, it
grows shallow until they finally reach a place where
it can be crossed. Hence Dante speaks (Inf.,
XII, 128) of the "bulicame che sempre si scema."
8. con nodi e con gruppi, i.e., con n. e con g. di
vento, 'with whirlwinds.'

59. 5. 1'Arcaliffa : cf. Spagna, XXXVI, 14, v. 1,
note. The ending -a, which appears here, is the
original Arabic vowel. In the main Pulci follows
the narrative of the Spagna (cf. p. 12) from here on.
Note, however, that he makes the Caliph's attack
a treacherous one.

60. 7. lilfa = laude.

62. 3. Ulivier. The syntactical function of this
word is expressed by the gli which follows.

63. -3. niente, if not an adverb, may be here
an adjective equivalent to nessuno, as elsewhere in



XXVII. 79] Pulci: 11 Morgante 551

early Italian: cf. the early Italian adjectival use of
chente.

67. 6. ti conforte=fi conforti, 'refresh your-
self,' 'rest.'

68. 1 ff. Cf. the scene of Brandimarte's death
in the Orlando Furioso, XLII, 14 (post, p. 356).
Pulci, of course, is following the Spagna, XXXVI,
18 (ante, p. 11). See Rajna, Fonti dell' Orlando
Fur., 2d ed., p. 559, note 3.

69. 6. So, in theChanson de Roland, the effort of
blowing the blast bursts Roland's temples: "De
son cervel li temples est rompanz." 7-8. The
Pseudo-Turpin says that the blowing of the horn
burst it; but the Chanson de Roland says that
Roland broke it on the head of a Saracen.

74. 8. Ecuba: cf. Orlando Furioso, X, 34, v. 5,
note.

75. 2. autor, i.e.,Turpino. 4. Beato a chi. In
such constructions the adjective istreated as a sub-
stantive. Cf. the similar locutions povero a me
povero me, lasso a me = lasso me (used already by
Boccaccio), and see a note by R. Fornaciari,
Novelle scelte di Giovanni Boccaccw (Florence, 1889),
p. 254. 6. Pirrato. If this is a proper noun, the
identity of the passage is not obvious. Volpi may
be right in printing it without the capital. In this
case it is a common noun equivalent to the modern
pirata. The ending -o is found elsewhere in earlier
Italian. For the inorganic doubling of the r there
are parallels in the cases of proper nouns and espe-
cially of verbs: cf. Ettorre (Orlando Furioso, XXIV,
60, v. 3, and elsewhere), Pirramo (Morgante, Volpi's
ed., XXVII, 103, v. 7)=Latin Pyramus, crederrai
(Boccaccio, Decameron, 9th Day, 7th Tale), Iro-
vcrresti (ibid., 10th Day, 8th Tale), troverra and the
like (many cases in Machiavelli, II Principe, Lisio
ed.), etc. In such verb forms the rr may be due
to the analogy of verro, varro, etc., in which the rr
is explicable on phonetic grounds. Has pirrato,
then, the sense here of 'poacher'?

79. 1-2. According to the Chanson de Roland
Turpin did die before Roland at Roncevaux, and
Roland pronounced the funereal regret over him.
Pulci whimsically defends the attribution of the
Vita Caroli magni (the Pseudo-Turpin) to him. 6.
si raccozza, i.e., Alcuin joins his narrative on to
Turpin's. See ante, XXVI, 47, v. 6, note, and cf.
G. Paris, Histoire poetique de Charlemagne, 2d ed.,
p. 492: "Le Pulci dans son Morgante Maggiore



552 Notes [XXVII. 80-

pre"tend sou vent s'appuyer sur 1'autorite" d'Alcuin;
. . . dans le dernier livre de son poeme [XXVIII,
50 ff.] il fait successivement prononcer Poraison
fune'ire de Charles par deux panegyristes, 1'un clerc,
Alcuin, 1'autre jongleur, Lattanzio; ces deux
orateurs racontent chacun une vie toute diffe'rente
de leur he>os; . . . c'est Alcuin qui fait le rcit
historique, c'est Lattanzio qui debite les fables
populaires. Dans la pense"e de Pulci, Alcuin repre-
sentait done 1'histoire reell de Charle nagne; il
est tre; possible qu'il lui ait attribue" li 7r'a Caroli
Magni d'Eginhard; cette confusion a c'te faite plus
d'une fois au moyen age." An eleventh ce tury
MS. of Eginhard's history also refers to Alcuin as
having written about Charlemagne. This testimony
is likewise dismissed by Paris.

80. 1. Arnaldo, seemingly a fantastic authority.
7. Grazie, etc., i.e., graces (the faculty of truth)
conferred by Nature from one's very birth.

81. 7. acerva=acer6a. 8. conserva, 'convoy,'
i.e., his companions now dead. Cf. Petrocchi, con-
serva: "Compagnia di navi diu pi palroni che
viaggino insieme": cf. also the phrase andar die.,
' to gb together.'

102. 1. Roland's lament over his steed is quite
in the nature of the regret which, in the Chanson de
Roland, a surviving hero pronounces over a dead
comrade, e.g., Turpin over Oliver, Roland over
Turpin, and Charlemagne over Roland.

103. 7-8. gelso fonte. Has the conjunction e,
'and,' dropped out after gelso or is fonte = fontano(l},
i.e., ' the mulberry tree by the spring'? Cf. Ovid's
account of the Pyramus and Thisb3 story, Meta.
IV, 89-90:

" arbor ibi, niveis uberrima pomis,
Ardua morus, erat, gelido contermina fonti."

It seems hardly possible that Pulci has confused
Ovid's gelido, 'cool,' and the Italian gelso. The
laments of the lovers in the Ovidian incident sug-
gest the reference made by Pulci here

105. 2. Trojan, i.e., ./Eneas, who envied the
happiness of his comrades that had fallen at Troy:
cf. Vergil, .Eneid, I, 94 ff.

108. 8. Even in the 17th century pilgrims were
still shown the stone cloven by Roland: of. G. Paris,
Legendes du moyen aye (Paris, 1904). p. 31.

109. 8. Riguardata, 'spared,' 'shown considera-
tion.'



XXVII. 134] Pulci: II Morgante 55 j

111. 7. di di San Michele : on May 8 the Church
celebrates the feast of the Apparition of St. Michael
the Archangel.

116. 1. Cf. Dante, Inferno, V. 25: "Orincomin-
cian le dolenti note," already imitated bv Pulci in
XVII, 123, v. 2.

117. 2. Majestatis laesae, i.e., crimen (or culpa)
m. 1., ' treason against the Emperor.' 4. sorella, i.e.,
Alda, or Aude, sister of Oliver. 8. Donchiaro.
For this homicide, committed by direction of
Charlemagne, Roland expressed regret back in
XXVI, 109,

119. 7. secordia (or socordia), the Latin term
denoting 'folly,' 'indolence.'

120. 3. 'miserere,' cf. the 50th Psalm: "Mise-
rere mei, Deus, secundum magnam misericordiam
tuam," etc.: 'peccavi,' i.e., the Confiteor, with its
acknowledgment of guilt on the part of the sinner,
"peccavi nimis, cogitatione, verbo et opere." 4
ufficio, i.e., the office of forgiving sins' cf. St.
Matthew, XVIII, 18, and St. John, XX, 22 f.
Cefas, 'Cephas,' St. Peter: cf. St. John, I, 42.

121. 5. Cf. Dante, Paradiso, IX, 138: "La
dove Gabriello aperse 1'ali." See St. Luke, I, 26.
7-8. Cf. 150, vv. 2-3.

122. 6. Cf. St. Matthew, XXVI, 41. 8. Cf.
St. Matthew, XX, 16, and XXII, 14.

129. 1. }udicio=giudicw: cf. Psalms, CXLII,
2. 3. vuoi: perhaps we may understand for this
verb a pronoun object referring to alcun.

131. 4. Iri, 'Iris,' the rainbow. 8. Che, etc.,
i.e., ecstatic, as St. Francis of Assisi is represented
when in the act of receiving the stigmata, or marks
typifying the wounds of the crucified Christ.
According to the oldest biographies of St. Francis,-
Christ appeared to him in 1224 on Mt. Alvernia
and impressed these marks upon him: cf. Dante,
Paradiso, XI, 106 ff.

132. 6. angel, i.e., Gabriel: cf. 121, v. 5, note.
8. Pulci has in mind the description of the Ascen-
sion of Christ in the Acts of the Apostles, I, 10-11:
"...ecce duo viri astiterunt juxta illos [i.e., the
disciples watching the ascent of Christ] in vestibus
albis, Qui et dixerunt: ' Viri Galilaei, quid statis
aspicientes in caelum."' He seems to identify
Gabriel with one of the two men in white. The
Latin diphthong ae became e in Vulgar and Middk
Latin, so that Galilaei rhymes here with Iddei.

134. 6. atleta, ' champion ' : cf . Orlando Furioso,



554 Notes [XXVII. 147-

XXXIV, 63. 7. archimandrita, 'archimandrite,'
'shepherd': from Latin archimandrila, Late Greek
dpXinav^pirrfS, 'chief of the fold or flock.'

*a' j_2 f ^' 1^' vv ' ^~^' This Communion

by means of earth (or, in France, by means of grass
or foliage) was widely practised in the Middle Ages
by men dying on the battlefield or in some other
place in which the real communion could not be
obtained. Examples of it are found in the litera-
ture of Italy, Spain, Germany, Provence, and
Northern France: cf. J. D. M. Ford, 'To bite the
dust ' and Symbolical Lay Communion in the
Publications of the Modern Language Associ'tion of
America, XX (1905), 197 ff. 2. e' = ei. Here, and



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