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first works were in the style of Bartolozzi, but he afterwards took
to mezzotint and aquatint, and the use of the needle. It was in
this manner that he engraved several of the early numbers of
his namesake, J. M. W. Turner's "Liber Studiorum." Many
well-known works by Reynolds, Gainsborough, Lawrence, and
other eminent artists were translated by him, all in a most
admirable manner ; no matter what style he used, the result was
always excellent.

He was elected an Associate in 1828, and held the post of
Engraver-in-Ordinary to the King. He died in 1857.

With this chapter ends the record of the Royal Academy
and its members up to the year 1830 of its members, that is,
with one exception, Sir Martin Archer Shee, who, elected an
Associate in 1798, and an Academician in 1800, will properly
take his place in its history as the successor of Lawrence in the
Presidency.

It may not be inappropriate at the close of this volume
to quote a few passages from the speech of the Prince Consort,
to which allusion has been made in the last chapter.

After some pregnant remarks on the duties of critics,
criticism being "absolutely necessary to the development
of art," the prince goes on to say : " We have now, on the
one hand, the eager competition of a vast array of artists
of every degree of talent and skill, and, on the other, as
judge, a great public, for the greater part wholly uneducated



CONTINUED FAVOUR OF THE CROWN 341

in art, and this led by professional writers, who often
strive to impress the public with a great idea of their own
artistic knowledge by the merciless manner in which they treat
works which cost those who produced them the highest effort of
mind and feeling." To these evils, it is added, an institution
like the Academy acts as a counterpoise ; it educates artists,
and those who distinguish themselves "receive a badge of
acknowledgment from their professional brethren by being
elected Associates," and subsequently by being "received into
a select aristocracy of a limited number." " If," he proceeds,
"this body is often assailed from without, it shares only the
fate of every aristocracy ; if more than another, this only proves
that it is even more difficult to sustain an aristocracy of merit
than one of birth or of wealth, and may serve as a useful check
upon yourselves, when tempted, at your elections, to let personal
predilections compete with real merit. Of one thing, however,
you may rest assured, and that is, the continued favour of the
Crown. The same feeling which actuated George III. in found-
ing this institution still actuates the Crown in continuing to it
its patronage and support, recognising in you a constitutional
link, as it were, between the Crown itself and the artistic body ;
and when I look at the assemblage of guests at this table,
I may infer that the Crown does not stand alone in this respect,
but that those feelings are shared also by the great and noble
in the land. May the Academy long flourish, and continue its
career of usefulness."

These gracious sentiments of the Crown towards the Royal
Academy were it may be stated here without indiscretion
fully endorsed by His Majesty King Edward VII. in the reply,
signed by his own hand, which he was graciously pleased to
give to the address presented to him by the Royal Academy
on his accession to the throne.



APPENDICES



LIST OF APPENDICES



I The "Instrument" . . . 345

II. List of the Royal Academicians from 1768 to 1904, with the
dates of their birth, admission as students, election as
Associates, election as Academicians, and death . 352

III. List of the Associates who have not become Royal Academi-

cians from 1770 to 1904, with similar dates . . 360

IV. List of Officers, Professors, and Honorary Members of the

Royal Academy from 1768 to 1904 . . . 364

V. List of Diploma Works from 1770 to 1904 . . . 370

VI. List of Pictures and Statuary other than Diploma Works, and
of various objects of interest belonging to the Royal
Academy ....... 377

VII. List of Students who have obtained Gold Medals and Travel-
ling Studentships, 1769 to 1904 .... 383

VIII. List of works purchased under the terms of the Chantrey

Bequest, 1877-1904 . . . -393



APPENDIX I

THE INSTRUMENT

THE document known as "The Instrument" contains the scheme for the
foundation and government of the Royal Academy, which was approved by
H.M. King George III., who ordered it to be put in execution, signing it with
his own hand. Although many of its provisions are obsolete, and great changes
(as provided for in Clause XXII.) have been made in the laws and regulations,
the Instrument is still, as it were, the Charter of the Academy, and its funda-
mental principles have lost none of their authority.

INSTRUMENT.

WHEREAS sundry persons, resident in this Metropolis, eminent
Professors of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, have most humbly
represented by Memorial unto the King, that they are desirous of
establishing a Society for promoting the Arts of Design, and earnestly
soliciting His Majesty's patronage and assistance in carrying this their
plan into execution ; and, Whereas, its great utility hath been fully
and clearly demonstrated, His Majesty, therefore, desirous of encour-
aging every useful undertaking, doth hereby institute and establish
the said Society, under the name and title of the Royal Academy of
Arts in London, graciously declaring himself the patron, protector,
and supporter thereof ; and commanding that it be established under
the forms and regulations hereinafter mentioned, which have been
most humbly laid before His Majesty, and received his royal appro-
bation and assent.

I. The said Society shall consist of forty Members only, who shall
be called Academicians of the Royal Academy ; they shall all of them
be artists by profession at the time of their admission, that is to say,
Painters, Sculptors, or Architects, men of fair moral characters, of
high reputation in their several professions ; at least five-and-twenty
years of age ; resident in Great Britain ; and not members of any other
society of artists established in London.

845



346



APPENDICES



II. It is His Majesty's pleasure that the following forty persons be
the original Members of the said Society, viz. :



JOSHUA REYNOLDS.
BENJAMIN WEST.
THOMAS SANDBY.
FRANCIS COTES.
JOHN BAKER.
MOSES CHAMBERLAIN (sic).
JOHN GWYNN.
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH.
J. BAPTIST CIPRIANI (sic).
JEREMIAH MEYER.
FRANCIS MILNER NEWTON.
PAUL SANDBY.



FRANCESCO BARTOLOZZI.
CHARLES CATTON.
NATHANIEL HONE.
WILLIAM TYLER.
NATHANIEL DANCE.
RICHARD WILSON.
G. MICHAEL MOSER.
SAMUEL WALE.
PETER TOMS.
ANGELICA KAUFFMAN.
RICHARD YEO.
MARY MOSER.



WILLIAM CHAMBERS.
JOSEPH WILTON.
GEORGE BARRET.
EDWARD PENNY.
AUGUSTINO CARLINI (sic).
FRANCIS HAYMAN.
DOMENIC SERRES.
JOHN RICHARDS.
FRANCESCO ZUCCARELLI.
GEORGE DANCE.
WILLIAM HOARE.
JOHAN ZOFFANY.



III. After the first institution, all vacancies of Academicians shall
be filled by election from amongst the exhibitors in the Royal
Academy ; the names of the candidates for admission shall be put up
in the Academy three months before the day of election, of which day
timely notice shall be given in writing to all the Academicians ; each
candidate shall, on the day of election, have at least thirty suffrages
in his favour, to be duly elected ; and he shall not receive his Letter
of Admission till he hath deposited in the Royal Academy, to remain
there, a Picture, Bas-relief, or other specimen of his abilities, approved
of by the then sitting Council of the Academy.

IV. For the Government of the Society, there shall be annually
elected a President and eight other persons, who shall form a Council,
which shall have the entire direction and management of all the
business of the Society ; and all the officers and servants thereof shall
be subservient to the said Council, which shall have power to reform
all abuses, to censure such as are deficient in their duty, and (with
the consent of the general body, and the King's permission first
obtained for that purpose), to suspend or entirely remove from their
employments such as shall be found guilty of any great offences. The
Council shall meet as often as the business of the Society shall require
it ; every Member shall be punctual to the hour of appointment
under the penalty of a fine, at the option of the Council ; and at each
meeting, the attending Members shall receive forty-five shillings to
be equally divided amongst them, in which division, however, the
Secretary shall not be comprehended.

V. The seats in the Council shall go by succession to all the
Members of the Society, excepting the Secretary, who shall always
belong thereto. Four of the Council shall be voted out every year,



APPENDIX I 347

and these shall not re-occupy their seats in the Council, till all the
rest have served ; neither the President or Secretary shall have any
vote, either in the Council or General Assembly, excepting the
suffrages be equal, in which case the President shall have the casting
vote.

VI. There shall be a Secretary of the Royal Academy, elected by
ballot, from amongst the Academicians, and approved of by the King ;
his business shall be to keep the Minutes of the Council, to write
letters, and send summonses, &c. ; he shall attend at the Exhibition,
assist in disposing the performances, make out the Catalogues, &c. ;
he shall also, when the Keeper of the Academy is indisposed, take
upon himself the care of the Academy, and the inspection of the
Schools of Design, for which he shall be properly qualified ; his salary
shall be sixty pounds a year, and he shall continue in office during His
Majesty's pleasure.

VII. There shall be a Keeper of the Royal Academy, elected by
ballot, from amongst the Academicians ; he shall be an able painter of
History, Sculptor, or other Artist, properly qualified. His business
shall be to keep the Royal Academy, with the Models, Casts, Books,
and other moveables belonging thereto ; to attend regularly the
Schools of Design, during the sittings of the Students, to preserve order
among them, and to give them such advice and instruction as they
shall require ; he shall have the immediate direction of all the servants
of the Academy, shall regulate all things relating to the Schools, and
with the assistance of the Visitors, provide the living Models, &c.
He shall attend at the Exhibition, assist in disposing the performances,
and be constantly at hand to preserve order and decorum. His salary
shall be one hundred pounds a year ; he shall have a convenient
apartment allotted him in the Royal Academy, where he shall con-
stantly reside ; and he shall continue in office during the King's
pleasure.

VIII. There shall be a Treasurer of the Royal Academy, who, as
the King is graciously pleased to pay all deficiencies, shall be ap-
pointed by His Majesty from amongst the Academicians, that he may
have a person in whom he places full confidence, in an office where his
interest is concerned ; and His Majesty doth hereby nominate and
appoint William Chambers, Esquire, Architect of his Works, to be
Treasurer of the Royal Academy of Arts ; which office he shall hold,
together with the emoluments thereof, from the date of these presents,
and during His Majesty's pleasure. His business shall be to receive
the rents and profits of the Academy, to pay its expenses, to super-



348 APPENDICES

intend repairs of the buildings and alterations, to examine all bills,
and to conclude all bargains ; he shall once in every quarter lay a fair
state of his Accounts before the Council, and when they have passed
examination and been approved there, he shall lay them before the
Keeper of His Majesty's Privy Purse, to be by him finally audited,
and the deficiencies paid ; his salary shall be sixty pounds a year.

IX. That the Schools of Design may be under the direction of the
ablest Artists, there shall be elected annually from amongst the
Academicians nine persons, who shall be called Visitors ; they shall
be Painters of History, able Sculptors, or other persons properly
qualified ; their business shall be, to attend the Schools by rotation,
each a month, to set the figures, to examine the performances of
the Students, to advise and instruct them, to endeavour to form their
taste, and turn their attention towards that branch of the Arts for
which they shall seem to have the aptest disposition. These officers
shall be approved of by the King ; they shall be paid out of the
Treasury ten shillings and sixpence for each time of attending, which
shall be at least two hours, and shall be subject to a fine of ten
shillings and sixpence whenever they neglect to attend, unless they
appoint a proxy from amongst the Visitors for the time being, in
which case he shall be entitled to the reward. At every election of
Visitors, four of the old Visitors shall be declared non-eligible.

X. There shall be a Professor of Anatomy, who shall read annually
six public Lectures in the Schools, adapted to the Arts of Design ; his
salary shall be thirty pounds a year ; and he shall continue in office
during the King's pleasure.

XI. There shall be a Professor of Architecture, who shall read
annually six public Lectures, calculated to form the taste of the
Students, to instruct them in the laws and principles of composition,
to point out to them the beauties or faults of celebrated productions,
to fit them for an unprejudiced study of books, and for a critical
examination of structures ; his salary shall be thirty pounds a year ;
and he shall continue in office during the King's pleasure.

XII. There shall be a Professor of Painting, who shall read
annually six Lectures, calculated to instruct the Students in the
principles of composition, to form their taste of design and colouring,
to strengthen their judgment, to point out to them the beauties and
imperfections of celebrated works of Art, and the particular excel-
lencies or defects of great masters, and, finally, to lead them into the
readiest and most efficacious paths of study ; his salary shall be thirty



APPENDIX I 349

pounds a year ; and he shall continue in office during the King's
pleasure.

XIII. There shall be a Professor of Perspective and Geometry,
who shall read six public Lectures annually in the Schools, in which
all the useful propositions of Geometry, together with the principle of
Lineal and Aerial Perspective, and also the projection of shadows,
reflections, and refractions shall be clearly and fully illustrated; he
shall particularly confine himself to the quickest, easiest, and most
exact methods of operation. He shall continue in office during the
King's pleasure ; and his salary shall be thirty pounds a year.

XIV. The Lectures of all the Professors shall be laid before the
Council for its approbation, which shall be obtained in writing, before
they can be read in the public Schools. All these Professors shall be
elected by ballot, the three last from amongst the Academicians.

XV. There shall be a Porter of the Royal Academy, whose salary
shall be twenty-five pounds a year ; he shall have a room in the Royal
Academy, and receive his orders from the Keeper or Secretary.

XVI. There shall be a Sweeper of the Royal Academy, whose
salary shall be ten pounds a year.

XVII. There shall be an Annual Exhibition of Paintings, Sculp-
ture, and Designs, which shall be open to all Artists of distinguished
merit ; it shall continue for the public one month, and be under the
regulations expressed in the bye-laws of the Society, hereafter to be
made. Of the profits arising therefrom, two hundred pounds shall be
given to indigent artists, or their families, and the remainder shall be
employed in the support of the Institution. All Academicians, till
they have attained the age of sixty, shall be obliged to exhibit at least
one performance, under a penalty of five pounds, to be paid into the
treasury of the Academy, unless they can show sufficient cause for
their omission ; but, after that age, they shall be exempt from all
duty.

XVIII. There shall be a Winter Academy of Living Models,
men and women of different characters, under the regulations expressed
in the bye-laws of the Society, hereafter to be made, free to all Stu-
dents who shall be qualified to receive advantage from such studies.

XIX. There shall be a Summer Academy of Living Models, to
paint after, also of Laymen with draperies, both Ancient and Modern,
Plaster Figures, Bas-reliefs, models and designs of Fruits, Flowers,
Ornaments, &c., free to all artists qualified to receive advantage from



350 APPENDICES

such studies, and under the regulations expressed in the bye-laws of
the Society hereafter to be made.

XX. There shall be a Library of Books of Architecture, Sculp-
ture, Painting, and all the Sciences relating thereto ; also prints of
bas-reliefs, vases, trophies, ornaments, dresses, ancient and modern
customs and ceremonies, instruments of war and arts, utensils of
sacrifice, and all other things useful to Students in the Arts ; which
Library shall be open one day in every week to all Students properly
qualified. One of the Members of the Council shall attend in the
room during the whole time it is open, to keep order, and to see that
no damage is done to the books ; and he shall be paid los. 6d. for his
attendance. No books shall, under any pretence, be suffered to be
taken out of the Library ; but every Academician shall have free in-
gress at all seasonable times of the day to consult the books, and to
make designs or sketches from them.

XXI. There shall be annually one General Meeting of the whole
body, or more if requisite, to elect a Council and Visitors ; to confirm
new laws and regulations ; to hear complaints and redress grievances,
if there be any ; and to do any other business relative to the Society.

XXII. The Council shall frame new laws and regulations ; but
they shall have no force, till ratified by the consent of the General
Assembly, and the approbation of the King.

XXIII. Though it may not be for the benefit of the Institution
absolutely to prohibit pluralities, yet they are as much as possible to
be avoided, that His Majesty's gracious intention may be complied
with, by dividing as nearly as possible the emoluments of the Insti-
tution amongst all its Members.

XXIV. If any Member of the Society shall, by any means, become
obnoxious, it may be put to the ballot, in the General Assembly,
whether he shall be expelled, and if there be found a majority for
expulsion, he shall be expelled, provided His Majesty's permission be
first obtained for that purpose.

XXV. No Student shall be admitted into the Schools, till he hath
satisfied the Keeper of the Academy, the Visitor, and Council for the
time being, of his abilities ; which being done, he shall receive his
Letter of Admission, signed by the Secretary of the Academy, certi-
fying that he is admitted a Student in the Royal Schools.

XXVI. If any Student be guilty of improper behaviour in the
Schools, or doth not quietly submit to the rules and Orders established



APPENDIX I 351

for their regulation, it shall be in the power of the Council, upon com-
plaint being first made by the Keeper of the Academy, to expel, repri-
mand, or rusticate him for a certain time ; but if he be once expelled,
he shall never be re-admitted in the Royal Schools.

XXVII. All modes of election shall be regulated by the bye-iaws
of the Society, hereafter to be made for that purpose.

I approve of this Plan ; let it be put in execution.

GEORGE R.

ST JAMES'S, December 10, 1768.



APPENDIX II



THE ROYAL ACADEMICIANS, 1768-1904,

WITH the dates respectively of their Birth, Admission as Students of
the Academy, Election as Associate (A.), election as Academician
(R.A.), and Death ; also the office, if any, held by them. The letter
after each name indicates the branch of art in which each was
chiefly distinguished, viz. : P, Painter, S, Sculptor, A, Architect,
E, Engraver.

The first thirty-six Academicians were nominated by George III. at
the foundation of the Academy, and are given in the order in which
they are named in the " Instrument."



NAME.


Born.


Student


A.


R.A.


Died.


Office held.


JOSHUA REYNOLDS (Sir) P


1723


...


...


I 7 68


1792


President.


BENJAMIN WEST . P


1738


...




1768


1820


President.


THOMAS SANDBY . A


1721




...


1768


1798


Prof, of Architect.


FRANCIS COTES . . P


1725


...


...


1768


1770


...


JOHN BAKER . . P


1736


...


...


1768


1771




MASON CHAMBERLIN P


(?)


...


...


1768


1787




JOHN GWYNN . . A


(?)


...




1768


1786


...


THOS. GAINSBOROUGH P


1727




...


1768


1788


...


GIOVANNI BATTISTA
CIPRIANI . . P


}i727




...


1768


1785




JEREMIAH MEYER . P


1735


...


...


1768


1789


...


FRANCIS MILNER NEW-
TON . P


JI720


...


...


1768


1794


Secretary.


PAUL SANDBY . . P


1725


...




1768


1809


Dep. Librarian.


FRANCESCO BARTOLOZZI
P&E


}i727


...


...


1768


1815


...


CHARLES CATTON . P


1728




...


1768


1798


...



352



APPENDIX II



353



NAME.


Born.


Student


A.


R.A.


Died.


Office held.


NATHANIEL HONE . P


1718


...


...


1768


1784




WILLIAM TYLER . A


(?)


...


...


1768


1801


...


NATHANIEL DANCE (after-


}












wards Sir N. Dance-


N734


...




1768*


1811




Holland, Bart.) . P


J












RICHARD WILSON . P


1714


...


...


1768


1782


Librarian.


GEO. MICHAEL MOSER S


1704


...


...


1768


1783


/Keeper ; Deputy
\ Librarian.


SAMUEL WALE . . P


(?)


...


...


1768


1786


I Prof. Perspective;
V Librarian.


PETER TOMS . . P


(?)


...


...


1768


1776


...


ANGELICA KAUFFMAN P


1741


...


...


1768


1807


...


RICHARD YEO . . S


(?)


...


...


1768


1779


...


MARY MOSER . . P


(?)




...


1768


1819


...


WM. CHAMBERS (Sir) A


1726


...


...


1768


1796


Treasurer.


JOSEPH WILTON . S


1722


...


...


1768


1803


Keeper; Librarian.




{1732


'V










GEORGE BARRET . P


(or


1


...


1768


1784


...


EDWARD PENNY . P


1714


...


...


1768


1791


Prof, of Painting.


AGOSTINO CARLINI . S


(?)


...


...


1768


1790


Keeper.


FRANCIS HAYMAN . P


1708


.. .


...


1768


1776


Librarian.


DOMINIC SERRES . P


1722


...


...


1768


1793


Librarian.


JOHN INIGO RICHARDS P


(?)


...


...


1768


1810


Secretary.


FRANCESCO ZUCCARELLI P


c.1 702


...


...


1768


1789


...


GEORGE DANCE . . A


1740


...


...


1768


1825


Prof, of Architect.


WILLIAM HOARE . P


1706


...


...


1769


1792


...


JOHAN ZOFFANY . P


1733


...


...


1769


1810


...


EDWARD BURCH . S


( ?)


1769


1770


1771


1814


Librarian.


RICHARD COSWAY . P


1740


1769


1770


1771


1821


...


JOSEPH NOLLEKENS . S


1737


...


1771


1772


1823


...


JAMES BARRY . . P


1741


...


1772


I773t


1806


Prof, of Painting.


WILLIAM PETERS (Rev.) P


(?)


...


1771


I777J


1814


Hon. Chaplain.


JOHN BACON . . S


1740


1769


1770


1778


1799


...


JOHN SINGLETON COP-
LEY . P


}i737


...


1776


1779


1815


...


PHILIP JAMES DE Lou-


\




1780


1781


1812




THERBOURG . . P


/












EDMUND GARVEY . P


(?)


...


1770


1783


1813


...


JOHN FRANCIS RIGAUD P


1742


...


1772


1784


1810


Dep. Librarian.


THOMAS BANKS . S


1735


1769


1784


1785


1805


...


JAMES WYATT . . A


1748




1770


1785


1813


President Elect.



Resigned 17UO.



t Expelled 1779.



J Resigned 1790.
Z



354



APPENDICES



NAME.


Born.


Student


A.


R.A.


Died.


Office held.


JOSEPH FARINGTON . P


1747


1769


1783


1785


1821




JOHN OPIE . . P


1761




1786


1787


1807


Prof, of Painting.


JAMES NORTHCOTE . P


1746


1771


1786


1787


1831


...


WILLIAM HODGES . P


1744


...


1786


1787


1797


...


JOHN RUSSELL . . P


1744


1770


1772


1788


1806


...


WILLIAM HAMILTON P


I75i


1769


1784


1789


1801


...


HENRY FUSELI . . P


1741


...


1788


1790


1825


/Prof, of Painting ;
\ Keeper.


JOHN VENN . . A


(?)



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