J. H. (Johann Heinrich) Kurtz.

Text-book of church history online

. (page 1 of 116)
Online LibraryJ. H. (Johann Heinrich) KurtzText-book of church history → online text (page 1 of 116)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


-z^"^

^s^-^^



TEXT-BOOK



OF



Chuech History.



BY

DR. JOHN HENRY KURTZ,

PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OORPAT: AUTHOR OF "a MANUAL
OF SACRED HISTORY," "THE BIBLE AND ASTRONOMY," ETC., ETC.



^m fifkm^ in ^u,



Revised, with Corrections and Additions from the Seventh
German Edition.



VOL. I.

TO THE REFORMATION.



PHILADELPHIA:

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.

188 8.



THE NEW YOFxK
PUB-LIC LIBRARY

955607A

ASTOR. LEN&X AND

TlLIiEN FOVNDATIONS

B 1938 L



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by

SMITH, ENGLISH & CO.,

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



REVISER'S PREFACE.



rf">HE present revision is in no sense either a new translation or a
X recast of an old one. The chief labor has been directed to cor
reeling in part the oversights or errors not unfrequently common to
translations. Generally these corrections have been simply verbal,
including, however, when it seemed necessary, the remodelling of
whole sentences, and in a few cases even more than this. But, in the
main, only such alterations were attempted as could be made without
destroying the plates from which the American translation was
printed. Many of the corrections, though involving very slight
changes, are of considerable importance, the translation in some cases
having quite reversed the statements of the author. Examples of this
first part of the revision may be found by carefully comparing the
translation and the revision on the following pages : Vol. I., on pages
45, 54, 67, 83, 92, 97, 98, 104, 135, 143, 212, 228, 236, 299, 344, 371,
379, 387, 392, 400, 432, 447, 491, 513, and Vol. IF., on pages 57, 101,
105, 123. 133, 139, 207, 209, 212, 225, 229, 247, 252, 2G1. 265, 282, 298,
807, 318, 319, 324, 336, 342, and 359.

In addition to the above, several hundred minor corrections were
made, in large part merely of typographical errors, errors of dates,
names and references, and in part, though in small part, corrections
aiming to modify Germanized forms of expression. It will, however,
be readily observed that to completely expurgate the foreign idioms
would involve a greater number of changes than the limits of the
present task permit.

The other principal aim of the revision was to introduce new mate-
rial from the seventh German edition. Where it could be easily accom-
plished, this was done by modifying the text, as will be seen by refer-
ring, as above, in Vol. T., to pages 64, 65, 215, 232, 279, 340-2, and in
Vol. II., to pages 150, 304, 343 and 376. The paragraph on page 341,
relating to The Forged Decrdals of Lndore, has been almost entirely
retranslated from the last German edition. But this new matter has

vii



viii reviser's preface.

been annexed, for the most part, in registered Addenda at the close
of the volume. References to the Addenda are made in the small
figures printed just above the lines in which they occur, through tht
body of the work. The Addenda embrace generally abstracts of what
was thought to be most important and interesting in the new material.
Those parts not included relate largely to the strictly local history of
the Author's own land. Owing, however, to the limits to which
the volume had to be confined, some of the results of the Author's
later researches were passed by with regret. Here and there the
references to the later German literature have been inserted, but the
mass of these, as they are of interest chiefly to those who will use the
original text, were left untouched.

What Dr. Kurtz has said, on page 350, Vol. II., relating to the
Lutheran Church of the United States, is so entirely incorrect, that
the whole paragraph has been cut out and a very brief statement
of the present condition of this church supplied from reliable Amer-
ican authorities. Save one or two foot-notes, easily distinguished,
nothing has been attempted beyond the limits here indicated.

August 20th, 1876.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.



The author of the following work was born Dec, 13, 1809, at
Montjoie, in the district of Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia.
In early life he coutemplated becoming a merchant ; but as the
desire to study theology soon became predominant, he entered
(1839), after a five years' course at the Gymnasia of Dortmund
and Soest, the University of Halle. UUmann and Tholuck were
then lecturing there, and the latter especially exerted a decidedly
favourable influence upon our author's theological training. He
subsequently completed his studies at Bonn, and then went as a
private teacher to Courland. He would soon, however, have
returned to his native country, but for an appointment in 1835
as chief teacher of Religion in the Gymnasium at Mitau. Whilsi
occupying this post, he produced several works which laid the
basis for his present reputation : "The Mosaic Sacrifice," Mitau
1842; " The Bible and Astronomy," Mitau 1842-3d ed. Berlin
1853 (transl. by T. D. Simonton, and publ. by Lindsay & Blakis-
ton, Philadelphia, 1857); "Suggestions in vindication and proof
of the Fnity of the Pentateuch," Konigsb. 1844 ; " The Unity
of Genesis," Berlin 1846 ; " Symbolical Signification of the
Tabernacle," Leipsic 1851 ; " Text-book of Church History,'-
Mitau 1849, 3d ed. Mitau 1853, 4th ed. Mitau and Leipsic 1860:
'Maniiil of Sacred History," Konigsb. 1843, 6th ed. 1853

(ix)



X editor's preface.

(transl. by Chas. W. Schaeffer, D. J)., publ. by Lindsay & Bla
kiston, Philad. 1856); "Biblical History illustrated," Berlin
1847, 3d. ed. 1853 ; and " Manual of Church History," Mitau
1852, 2d ed. 1853.

His literary labours soon gained for him flattering atten-
tion ; the honorary degree of Doctor of Theology was con
ferred upon him, and in 1850 he was called co tho cnair of Church
History in the evangelical University of Dorpat, Livonia (founded
in 1632 and revived in 1802), which he continues to occupy. He
has also been appointed to the honorable post of Counsellor of
State to the Emperor.

The present edition of the " Text-book of Church History"
is, to a large extent, a reprint of the Edinburg translation. But
as that translation, avowedly, tampered with the original work,
care has been taken, in this edition, to make the rendering con-
form strictly to the author's sense. This proved to be a more
serious task than was anticipated, in some cases requiring an
entire reconstruction of the plan of the work, and in others the
translation of. whole pages of matter omitted in the Edinburg
issue. The number of pages thus added amount to about fifty,
including pp. 371-82, 387-99, and the whole of the section
treating upon Hus. The verbal alterations necessary are too
many to be enumerated, although in making these no mere pri-
vate taste was indulged. Wherever the translation fiiirly con-
veyed the author's yense, it was allowed to stand ; and it is due
to the Edinburg edition to say, that tliis was very largely the
case. It is probable that no book, original or translated, was
ever issued, in which the author, or editor, did not see room for
improvement. But the verbal changes made in the present in-
stance, were required in justice to the theological sta)id-point of
Dr. Kurtz. Mr. Erdesheim (the translator of the Edinburg edi-
tion), by omitting a qualifying word, or substituting one of a
different import, has kept Dr. Kurtz from saying, in many in-



EDITOR.S PREFACE. XI

stances, what be desired to say, or has made him utter something
which he would be unwilling to endorse. This is especially true
of statements relating to Predestinarianism, the Sacraments, and
the Church. As an illustration of the injustice thus done to the
author, the reader is referred to § 119, 6, (2), where, in reference
to John Ruchrath of Wesel, Dr. K. says : " In opposition to
transubstdntiation he advocated the doctrine of impanation."
The Edinburg translation has it : " His views were certainly not
Kemish." Indeed it became very evident, upon comparing the
Edinburg issue with the original, that the alterations were de-
signedly made, for the purpose of adapting a Lutheran work to
a Puritan market.

This is not only doing great injustice to the author, but to the
Church at large. One of the best apologies for denomination-
alism is, that it is overruled for the more manifold development
of the excellencies of Christianity. And this benefit, so far aa
it may hold in fact, must exhibit itself no less in the literary
than other labours of Christians of different confessions. Why
then should not a Puritan or Presbyterian be allowed to speak
or write as a Presbyterian, an Episcopalian as an Episcopalian,
a Reformed as a Reformed, and a Lutheran as a Lutheran?
The truth is not all on one side. And no one mind, imbued
with true moral earnestness, is capable at once of appreciating
and presenting fairly, the various sides of truth. Instead, there-
fore, of distorting a work like the present, by forcing it into the
pattern of a foreign mould, it should be permitted to set forth
facts in its own way. Doubtless Dr. Kurtz is fallible, and will
find many to dissent from some of his statements. But he is a
responsible man, and ready, it is to be presumed, to make cor-
rections whenever convicted of errors. We say this the mora
unreservedly for not being of the same Church with the respected
author.

The merits of this work which the reader will please notice u



XU EDITOR'SPREFACE.

the autlior's Text-hook, not his Manual (the latter being a mueli
larger work) of Church History, are so obvious, that they need
not be pointed out in detail. It combines lucid conciseness with
full comprehensiveness to a rare degree. And although it can-
not, of course, supply the place of larger works on the subject,
already issued, or in course of publication, it will tend to satisfy
a great want in this department of literature.

It is proper to add, that whilst the Edinburg translation was
made from the third edition of the original work, the edition
now offered to the public contains all the improvements of the
fourth edition of the original, which was published within the
last three months.

J. H. A. BOMBERQER.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN
CHURCH.

{ 1. Idea of Church History Page 26

I 2. Division of Church History , 26

1. Different Tendencies apparent in Church History. 2. The
Several Branches of Church History. 3. Principal Phases
in the Historical Development of the Church.

1 3. Sources and Auxiliaries of Church History 32

2 4. History of Church History 33

THE PREPARATORY HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN
CHURCH ;

OR, THE WORLD BEFORE THE COMING OF CHRIST IN
ITS RELATION TO THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

g 6. Survey of the History of the World 42

5 6. Primeval Preparation of Salvation 42

g 7. Different Purposes which Judaism and Heathenism were intended

to serve 43

{ 8. Heathenism 45

1. Religious Life among the Heathen. 2. Moral Condition of
the Heathen. 8. Intellectual Culture of the Heathen.
4. Greek Philosophy. 5. Social Condition.

5 9, Juaaism 61

1. Judaism under Special Divine Discipline. 2. Judaism after
the Retirement of the Spirit of Prophecy.

{ 10. The Samaritans 6"

2 (^iii)



XIV CONTENTS.

§ 11. Points of contact between Judaism and Heathenism 64

1. Influence of Heatlienism on Judaism; 2. of Judaism on
Heathenism.
I 12. The Fulness of Time 56

HISTORY OF THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH.

FOUNDATION OF THE CHURCH BY CHRIST; ITS CONSTITUTION

IN THE APOSTOLIC AGE.

(First Century.)

§ 18. Characteristics of this Primitive History 67

I. THE LIFE OF JESUS.

g 14. Jesus Christ the Saviour of the World 59

II. THE APOSTOLIC AGE.

§ 15. Feast of Pentecost — Activity of the Apostles before the calling

of Paul 61

g 16. Labours of the Apostle Paul 62

g 17. Labours of the other Apostles 64

1. Peter's Bishopiic at Rome. 2. Two or Three James's? 3.
John's Exile.

I 18. Constitution, Life, Discipline, and Worship of the Church 66

1. The Charismata. 2. Bishops and Presbyters. 3. Other
Church Ofl5ces. 4. Life and Discipline. 5. Worship.

g 19. Apostolic Opposition to Sectarians and Heretics 71

1. The Convention of the Apostles. 2. The Basis of Apostolic
Teachino;.



FIRST SECTION.

HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHURCH IN
ITS ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL FORM.

g 20. Character and Boundaries of this Phase or Development 79

FIRST PERIOD OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY UNDER THE
ANCIENT AND CL.ASSICAL FORM OF CULTURE (100-323).

L REL.\TIONS BETUKKN TIIK CHUKCII, THE SYNAGOGUE, AND HEATHENISM.

g2]. Hostilities and Persecutions by the Jews 82

} 22. Attempts at Restoration and Reaction on the part of the Syna-
gogue and the Sam-aritans 8>

1 Dositheus. 2. Simon Magus. 3. Menander.



CONTENTS XV

I 23. Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empiie 84

1. To the Time of Trajan. 2. To the Time of Marcns Aurelius.
3. To the Time of Septimius Severus. 4. To the Time of
Decius. 5. To the Time of Diocletian. 6. Diocletian.
7. Constantine.

I 24. Tntellectual Reaction on the part of Heathenism 92

1. Apollonius of Tyana. 2. Neo-Platonism. 3. Lucian. 4.
Celsus, Porphyry, Hierocles.
§25. Spread of Christianity 94

II. D.-VNGERS ACCRUING FROM A LEAVEN OF JUDAISM AND IIE.\THENISM

REMAINING IN THE CHURCH.

§26. Survey 95

Gnosticism.

§27. Ebionism and Ebionite Gnosis 97

1. The Nazarenes. 2. The Ebionites. 3. The Elkesaites. 4.
The Pseudo-Clementine S\'stem.

§28.. Christo-Gentile Gnosticism 101

1. Cerinth. 2. The Gnosticism of Basilides. 8. The Gnos-
ticism of Valentine. 4. The Gnoi^ticism of the Ophites.
5. The Gnosticism of Carpocvates. 6. The Antitactes.
7. Saturninns. 8. Tatian. 9. Bardesanes. 10. Marcion. ,
11. Hermogenes.

§ 29. Manichseism 108

1. Person and History of the Founder. 2. The System and
Sect.

III. DEVELOPMENT IN THE GOVERNMENT, WORSHIP, LIFE, AND DISCI PLINB

OF THE CHURCH.

§ 30. Internal Organization of the Church Ill

1 Ordines jNlajores et Minores. 2. Synods. 3. Unity
and Catholicity of the Church. 4. The Pnmacy of Rome.

§31. Celebration of Public Worship 116

Disputes about the Observance of Easter.

§32. The Administration of Baptism 118

1. Catechumens. 2. Discussion about the Baptism of Heretics.
3. The Dogma concerning Baptism.

§ 33 The Administration of the Lord's Supper 12''

1. The Liturgy of the Supper. 2. The "Disciplina Arcani."
3. The Dogma of the Lord's Supper, 4. The Sacrificial
Theory.

J 34. Reading, Sermon, Prayer, and Singing 123

1. The Doctrine of Inspiration. 2. The New Testament Canon.
3, Translations of the Bible. 4. Hymnology.



XVI CONTENTS.

I 35 Places of Public Worship and Influence of Art 128

§36. Life, Manners, and Discipline 121

1. The Christian Life. 2. Ecclesiastical Discipline. 3. As-
ceticism. 4. Begiuning of the Worship of Martyrs.

^37. The Montanistic Reformation 181

1. Phrygian Montanism, 2. Montanism in the West. 3. Doc-
trine and Practice.

I 38. Ecclesiastical Schisms 13;i

1. The Schism of Hippolytus at Rome. 2. Of Felicissimus at
Carthage. 3. Of Novatian at Rome. 4. Of Meletius in
Egypt.

IV. DOCTRINAL AND APOLOGETIC LABOES OF THE CHDBCH.

1 89. Theological Schools and their Representatives 135

1. The Apostolic Fathers. 2. The Apologetical Writers of the
Second Century. 3. The School of Asia Minor. 4. The
School of Alexandria. 5. The School of North Africa.
6. The School of Antioch. 7. Apocryphal and Pseudo-
Epigraphic Works.

2 4D. Development of Doctrine and Dogmatic Controversies 141

1. The Trinitarian Question. 2. TheDynamisticMonarchians.
3. Praxeas and Tertullian. 4. Noetus, Callistus, and Hip-
polytus. 5. Beryllus and Origen. 6. Sabellius and the
Two Dyonisii. 7. Paul of Samosata. 8. The Millennarian
Controversy.

{ 41. Theological Literature 147

1. Apologetics. 2. Polemics. 3. Dogmatics. 4. Criticism and
Exegesis. 4. Historical Theology. 6. Practical Theology.

SECOND PERIOD OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY UNDER THE
ANCIENT CLASSICAL FORM (323-692).

I. STATE AND CHURCH.

542. Fall of Heathenism in the Roman Empire 161

1. Constantine the Great and his Sons. 2. Julian the Apos-
tate. 3. Final Destruction of Heathenism. 4. Resistance
and Apologies of the Heathen.

I 48 The Christian State and the State Church 16i

1. The Emperors. 2. General Synods. 3, Ecclesiastical iaw



CONTENTS. XVU

It MONASTICISM, IHE CLERGY, AND HIERARCHY.

2 44. Monasticism ^"^

1. St. Aiitonius. 2. Nunneiies. 3. Monasticism in the East.
4. The Acoimetes and Stylites. 5. Sectarian and Hereti-
cal Monasticism

I 45. The Clergy 162

1. Training of the Clergy. 2. Canonical Age. 3. Ordination.
4. Injunction of Celibacy. 5. Ecclesiastical Functionai-ies.

I 46. The Patriarchal Office and the Primacy 165

1. The Rivalry between Rome and Byzantium. 2. Pretensions
of Rome to the Primacy.

III. THEOLOGICAL SCIEXCE .\ND ITS LITERATURE.

I 47. Theological Schools and Tendencies 170

1. The School of Antioch. 2. Of Edessa. 3. Of Alexandria.
4. New Alexandrian School. 5. Theology of the West
during the Fourth and Fifth Centuries. 6. The Theology
of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries.

J 48. Theological Literature 181

1. Exegetical Theology. 2. Historical Theology. 3. Apolo-
getics. 4. Polemics. 5. Dogmatics. 6. Ethics and As-
ceticism. 7. Practical Theology. 8. Christian Poetry.

IV. DiTCTRINAL CONTROVERSIES AND HERESIES.

g 49. General Development of Doctrine 186

I 50. The Trinitarian Controversy (318-381 ) 187

1. First Victory of Homoousian Principles (318-325). 2. As-
cendancy of Homoiousianism (326-356). 3. Horaoiism
(357-361). 4. Final Ascendancy of the Nicene Creed
(361-381). 5. The Pneumatomachoi. 6. Literature of
the Controversy. 7. Later Development of Nicene Views.

8 61. Origenistic Controversies (394-438) 194

1. The Monks of the Scetian and Nitrian Desert. 2. Contro-
versy in Palestine and Italy (394-399). 3. Controversy
in .Alexandria and Constantinople (399-438).

I 52. Discussions about the Person of Christ (428-680) 197

1. The Apollinaristic Controversy (362-381). 2. .Antagonism
between the Different Theological Schools (381-428). 3.
The Nestorian Controversy (428-444). 4. The Monophy-
site Controversy — (A.) Eutychianism (444-451). 5. (D.)
Imperial Attempts to bring about a Union (451-519). 6.
(C.) The Decrees of Justinian I. (527-553). 7. (D.) The
Monophysite Churches. 8. The Monothelete Controversy
(633-680).



xviii CONTENTS.

g 53. Contro-versies connected witli the Doctrine of Redemption (412-

529) 207

1. Preliminary History. 2. Doctrinal Views of Augustine.
3. Pelagius and his System. 4. The Pelagian Controversy
(412-431). 5. The Semi-Pelagian Controversy (427-529).

§ 64. Revival of former Sects 214

1. Manichseism. 2. Priscillianism.

V. WORSHIP, LIFE, DISCIPLINE, AND MANNERS.

I 55. \Yor<hip in general 210

g 56. Times of Public Worship and Festivals 217

1. The Weekly Cycle. 2. Horse and Quatember. 3. The Cal-
culation of Easter. 4. The Easter Cycle of Festivals. 5.
The Christmas Cycle of Festivals. 6. Festival of the Trans-
figuration, 7. The Ecclesiastical Year.

557. The Worship of Saints, of Relics, and of Images 221

1. Saints' Days. 2. The Worship of Mary. 3. The Worship
of Angels. 4. The Worship of Images. 5. The Worship
of Relics. 6. Pilgrimages.

§ 58. Administration of the Sacraments 226

1. Administration of Baptism. 2. Doctrine of the Lord's Sup-
per, 3. Sacrifice of the Mass. 4. The Dispensation of
the Supper.

? 59. Administration of Public Worship 230

1. Use of the Scriptures. 2. Hymnology. 3. Psalmody and
Ilymnody. 4. The Liturgy. 5. Symbolical Rites.

g 60. Places of Worship and Works of Art 236

1. Basilicas, &c. 2. Side Buildings. 3. Ecclesiastical Furni-
ture. 4. The Fine Arts,

§61. Life, Discipline, and Manners 239

1. Ecclesiastical Discipline. 2, Christian Marriage. 3. Sick-
ness, Death, and Burial.

g 62. Heretical Reformers 242

g 63. Schisms 248

1. Schisms in consequence of the Arian Controversy. 2. The
Donatist Schism. 3. The Concilium Quinisextum.

n. THE CHURCH BEYOND THE BODNDARIES OF THE ROM.\N EMPIRE.

J 64. Christian Missions in the East 247

1. The Abyssinian Church. 2. The Persian Church. 3. The
Armenian Church. 4. The Iberians, Lazians, and AbaB-
gians ; the East Indies and Arabia.



CONTENTS. XIX

65. The Mohammedan Counter-Missions. 250

1. Fundamental Idea of Islamism. 2. Service performed by
Mohammedanism.



THIRD PERIOD OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN ITS ANCIENT
AND CLASSICAL FORM.

(692-1453.)

I. MOVEMENTS IN THE EASTERN CHURCH, IN CONJUNCTION WITH SIMILAR
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE WESTERN CHURCH.

?. 66. Iconoclastic Controversy in the East (726-842) 253

1. Leo the Isaurian. 2. Constantiiius Copronymus. 3, Irene

4. Theodora.

5 67. Schism between the Greek and the Roman Church, and Attempts

at Union (857-1453) 256

1. Commencement of the Schism (867). 2. Leo the Philoso-
pher and Basilius; II. 3. Completion of the Schism in
1054. 4. Attempts at Re-union. 5. Andronicus III. and
Johannes V. Paloeologus. 6. Johannes VII. Palseologus.

n. INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE EASTERN CHURCH.

§ 68. Theological Science and its Literature 261

1. Revival of Classical Studies. 2. Aristotle and Plato. 3
Scholasticism and Mysticism. 4. Theological Sciences

5. Distinguished Theologians.

§69. Dogmatic Controversies (the Hesychastic Controversy) 266

I 70 Government, Worship, and Manners k 268

1. The Arsenian Schism. 2. Public Worship. 3. Monasticism.
4. Reformatory Efforts.

5 71. Gnostic and Manichjean Heretics 270

1. The Paulicians. 2. The Children of the Sun. 3. The Eu-
chites and Bogomiles.

§ 72. The Orthodox Slavonic-Greek Churches 274

1. Greece. 2. The Chazars. 3. The Bulgarians. 4. The
Russians.

( 73. The Heretical Churches of the East 277

1. The Nestorians. 2. The Monophysites. 3. The Maronites



XX CONTENTS.



SECOND SECTION.

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN ITS MEDIEVAL AND
GERMANIC FORM OF DEVELOPMENT.

I 74. Character and Extent of this Phase of Development 284

1. Its Character. 2. Its Periods.

FIRST PERIOD OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY IN ITS MEDI^SIVAL
AND GERMANIC FORM OF DEVELOPMENT.

(Cent. 4-9.)

I. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD, AND LIMITATIONS OF TUE GERMAN
CHURCH.

^ 75. Christianity and the Germans.. 287

1. Predisposition. 2. Profession of Christianity. 3. Mode
of Conversion.

g 76. Victory of Catholicism over Arianism 290

1. The Goths in the Countries along the Danube. 2. The Visi-
goths. 3. The Vandals. 4. The Suevi. 5. The Burgun-
dians. 6. The Rugians and St. Severinus. 7. The Ostro-
goths. 8. The Laugobards. 9. The Franks.

2 77. Victory of the Romish over the British Confession 296

1. British Confession. 2. Ireland. 3. The Picts and Scots.
4. Romish Mission among the Anglo-Saxons. 6. British
Mission among the Anglo-Saxons. 6. Victory of the Ro-
mish over the British Confession.

5 78. Conversion of Germany .. 302

1. South-Western Germany. 2. South-Eastern Germany. 3.
North - Western Germany. 4. St. Boniface. 5. The
Saxons.

I 79 The Slavonians within the Boundaries of Germany 311

1. The Moravian Church. 2. Introduction of Christianity into
Bohemia.

^ 80. The Scandinavian Nations 313

J 81. Christianity and Islamism 316



CONTENTS. ^^J

II. INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT OF THE GERMANIC CHUKCH.

I 82, The Papacy and the Carolingians 318

1. Origin of the States of the Church. 2. The Carolingian
Dynasty. 3. The Papacy till the Time of Nicholas I. 4.
I'licholas I. and Hadrian II. 5. John VIII. and his Suc-
cessors.

§83 The Papacy and the Metropolitan Office 326

§ S4. State of the Clergy 329

1. The Higher Clergy. 2. The Inferior Clergy. 3. Injunction
of Celibacy. 4. The Canonical Life.

§86. Monasticism 333

1. Benedict of Nursia. 2. Benedict of Aniane. 3. Nunneries.
4. Large Monasteries. 6. Stylites, Recluses, and An-
chorites.

g 86. Ecclesiastical Property 337

Benefices and Secularization.

§87. Ecclesiastical Legislation 339

1. Collections of Ecclesiastical Law. 2. The Forged Decretals
of Isidore.

§ 88. State of Intelligence, Ecclesiastical Usages, and Discipline 342

1. Religious Education of the People. 2. Popular Christian
Poetry. 3. Social State. 4. Administration of Justice.
5. Ecclesiastical Discipline and Penances.

2 89. Public Worship and the Fine Arts 348

1. Liturgy and Preaching. 2. Church Music. 3. The Sacri-
fice of the Mass. 4. The Worship of Saints, Relics, Im-
ages, and Angels; Pilgrimages. 5. Ecclesiastical Seasons
and Places. G. The Fine Arts.
I 90. State of Science and of Theological Literature 353

1, Monastic and Cathedral Schools. 2. Celebrated Theologians
before the Time of the Carolingians. 3. During the Reign



Online LibraryJ. H. (Johann Heinrich) KurtzText-book of church history → online text (page 1 of 116)