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pointed for a morning sitting. Business is
preceded by. prayers ; after prayers the
House is counted, and if 40 members be not
present a second count is made at 4 o'clock.
If a quorum be not then present, the House
stands adjourned until the next sitting day.
Similarly, on Wednesdays and at morning
sittings, no business is entered upon untu
40 members are present, but, even ii there be
no quorum, the House cannot be adjourned
till 4 o'clock. If notice is taken, or the
numbers in a division show, that 40 mem-
bers are not present, the House at once

On Wednesday the House meets at 12
o'clock and sits until 6 o'clock, unless pre-
viously adjourned. The debate on any
business is interrupted at 5.80 p.m., and no
opposed business is taken afterwards.

When morning sittings are ordered the
House meets at 2 p.m., and suspends its
sitting at 7 p.m., resuming at 9, and adjourns
at 1 a.m., unless previously adjourned.

The ordinary sittings terminate at 1 a.m.,
unless previously adjourned, or unless a
financial Bill or any proceedings taken under
an Act of Parliament or Standing Order
are under consideration, in which case the
sitting may be prolonged if necessary.

At midnight the business in hand is in-
terrapted, and no opposed business can
afterwards be taken, but an exception may
be made in regard to any particular matter
on a motion by a Minister of the Crown,
decided without debate.

No motion for the adjournment of the
House can be made until questions have
been disposed of, and no such motion can
be made before the business of the day
has been entered upon, except by leave of
the House ; a member rising in his place
proposes to move the adjournment for the
purpose of discussing a definite matter of
urgent public importance, and not less than
40 menibers rise in their places to support
the motion ; if fewer than 40 members and
not less than 10 rise, the House determines
by a division whether the motion shall be
made. When, during any debate, a motion
is made to adjourn, or to report progress, the
debate thereupon must be confined to the
matter of such motion ; and no member
who has moved or seconded any such

motion is entitled to move or second any
similar motion during the same debate. If
the Sjpeaker or Chairman is of opinion that
a motion for adjournment of the debate, or
to report progress, is an abuse of the rules
of the House, he may forthwith put the
question thereupon from the chair, or he
may decline to notice it.

Conduct of Members. — Every member
must be uncovered on entering or leaving
the House, or on moving from one part
of the House to another, and must make
an obeisance to the chair in passing to or
from his seat. Seats may be retained for
the sitting by members who have been
present at prayers, but not otherwise. The
front bench on the right of the chair is
reserved for Ministers ; that on the left is
ordinarily occupied by Privy Councillors or
other members who have held office. No
member may pass between the chair and
any member who is speaking from either
of the two lower benches ; nor between the
chair and the table ; nor may he read any
newspaper, book, or letter in his place.

Admi88io7iof Strangers.— "PersonBdesiroxxs
of admission to the Speaker's, Special, or
Strangers' Gallery, must make application
to a member, who may then apply, per-
sonally or by letter, at the office of the
Speaker's Secretary. A ticket of admission,
bearing a number, will then be issued to
the member so applying, a counterfoil being
retained. On any person presenting the
ticket of admission, ne may be required to
sign his name and write his address, which
must correspond with the name and address
as contained in the written application and
entered on the counterfoil. Applications
for admission may be made for not more
than six days in advance. In cases of
casual vacancies occurring during the
sitting of the House, applications are to be
made to the Serjeant-at-Arms in the same
form as above. The Members' Lobby is
reserved for Peers and members ohly, and
for some permanent officials, secretaries of
Ministers, and such others as are included
in a special list authorised by the Speaker.
Parliamentary agents are admitted to the
Members' Lobby until half-past five o'clock.
Persons going to the offices of the House
on business are admitted at all times.
When the Committees and Courts of
Appeal are not sitting, none but persons
going to the offices of the House are
admitted. When the Committees and
Courts are sitting, persons proceeding to
them are only permitted to enter the Com-
mittee Booms and offices pertaining thereto.
During the sitting of the House no
visitor is admitted to the central hall,
unless he wishes to see a member, or has a
ticket of admission to one of the galleries,
and no persons, except those who have
such tickets, are permitted to go beyond the
central and lower waiting halls, nor to
enter the dining, tea, and smoking rooms ;
nor to go on the terrace, even though
accompanied by a member. After 4 p.m.
the subway under Bridge Street is closed
to all but members. Strangers may be

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ordered to withdraw by vote of the Honse,
decided withont debate, or by order of the
Speaker or Chairman at any time.

Business of the House. — The ordinary
business of each day consists of orders of
the day and notices of motion. An order
of the day is a Bill, or other matter, which
the Honse has ordered to be taken into
consideration on a particular day.

Orders of the Day generally take prece-
dence of motions on Mondays, Wednesdays,
Thursdays, and Fridays ; Ministers having
the right to place Government Orders at
the head of the list on every order day
except Wednesday. After Whitsuntide, all
public Bills, except those introduced by
the Government, are arranged so as to give
priority to those which are most advanced
in their stages.

Except for a money bill, no order of the
day or notice of motion can be taken after
twelve at night, if objection is made to its

The House generally proceeds each day
with, 1, Private Business ; 2, Public Peti-
tions ; 8, Giving Notices of Motions ; 4,
TJnopposed Motions for Beturns; 5, Motions
for Leave of Absence ; 6, Questions ; 7,
Orders of the Day and Notices of Motions,
as set down in the order book. Notices of
motions take precedence of orders of the
day on Tuesdays, unless otherwise ordered.
When a motion has been made and
seconded a question thereupon is proposed
to the House by Mr. Speaker ; if it is not
seconded it drops at once. A motion once
made can only be withdrawn by the unani-
mous leave of the House. A question may
be superseded : 1, By Adjournment or by a
• " Count out ; " 2, By a motion " That this
House do now proceed to the Orders of the
Day," or " That the Orders of the Day be
now read ; " 3, By Amendment. A decision
by the House on a question may be pre-
vented. by moving the Previous Question,
i.e.y " That that question be not now put,"
and to this motion no amendment may be
moved. If the previous question be
negatived, the original question is to be

Sut forthwith, without amendment or
ebate. Debate upon a question may be
interrupted; 1, By a matter of privilege
suddenly arising; 2, By words of heat
between members; 3, By a question of
order ; 4, By a message from the Queen or
Lords Commissioners ; 5, By an answer to
an address; 6, By a message from the

Closure. — The Closure rule adopted in
March, 1887, and amended in March, 1888,
is as follows : —

" That after a question has been proposed,
a member rising in his place may claim to
move, "That the question be now put,"
and, unless it shall appear to the Chair
that such motion is an abuse of the rules
of the House, or an infringement of the
rights of the minority, the question, " That
the question be now put," shall be put
forthwith, and decided without amend-
ment or debate.
When the motion, ** That the question

be now put," has been carried, and the*
question consequent thereon has been
decided, any further motion may be made
(the assent of the Chair as aforesaid not
naving been withheld) which may be
requisite to bring to a decision any question
already proposed from the Chair. Also,
if a clause be then under consideration, a
motion may be made fthe assent of the
Chair as aforesaid not naving been with-
held) that the question, that certain words
of the clause defined in the motion stand
part of the clause, or that the clause stand
part of, or be added to the Bill, be now put.
Such motions shall be put forthwith, and
decided without amendment or debate.

Provided always, that this rule shall be
put in force only when the Speaker or the
Chairman of Ways and Means is in the
chair, " Questions for the closure of debate
under this order are decided iii the affirma-
tive if, when a division be taken, it appears
by the numbers declared from the* Chair
that not less than 100 members voted in
the majority in support of the motion."

Rules of Debate, - Every member desiring^
to speak must rise in his place uncovered,
and address himself to the Speaker. A
member may not read a speech, but may
refresh his memory by notes. Members
can only speak to a point of order, while the
House is dividing, by permission of the
Speaker, and while speaking, are to sit
covered. A new member who has not yet
spoken, is generally called upon, by cour-
tesy, in preference to other members. On
resuming an adjourned debate, the member
who moved its adjournment is allowed
precedence by courtesy. The Speaker or
Chairman may call the attention of the
House, or Committee, to continued irrele-
vance or tedious repetition of his own
arguments, or the arguments of others,
on the part of a member ; and may direct
the member to discontinue bis speech. In
questions to ministers or other members,
no argument or opinion may be offered,
nor any facts stated, except so far as
necessary to explain the question. By
indulgence, a member may explain matters
of a personal nature, although there be no
question before the House ; but they may
not be debated. A reply is allowed to a
member who has made a substantive
motion to the House. Any member may
rise to speak " to order," or upon a matter
of privilege suddenly arising. No member
is to allude to any debate of the same
session, upon a question or bill not being
then under discussion, except by the
indulgence of the House, for personal
explanations. A member may not allude
to any debate in the other House of Parlia-
ment. He may not use Her Majesty's
I name irreverently in debate, nor for the
I purpose of influencing the House in its
deliberations; nor may he refer to any
other member by na7ne.

Censure. — Whenever any member is
named by the Speaker or ChaiiTnan, im-
mediately after an offence of disregarding
' the authority of the Chair, or of abusing

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the rules of the House by persistently
and wilfully obstructing the business
of the House, or otherwise, has been
oommitted by such member, a question
is forthwith put, without amendment,
adjournment, or debate, "That such
member be suspended from the service
of the House." If any member is so
suspended, his suspension on the first
occasion continues lor one week, on the
second occasion for a fortnight, and on
the third, or subsequently, for a month.
The suspension does not exempt the
member from serving on any private bill
committee. Not more than one member
can be '' named " at the same time, unless
several have jointly disregarded the au-
thority of the chair. A member whose
conduct is grossly disorderly may be
ordered to withdraw from the House for
the remainder of the day's sitting, or he
may be ** named " as above described.

Divisions. — No member may vote unless
present when the question is put, and every
member so present must vote. When a
division is taken strangers are excluded
from seats below the bar, and a two-
minute sandglass is turned to allow
members time to enter the House, after
which the doors are locked, and the
Speaker puts the question. After the voices
have been given, he declares whether,
in his opinion, the ** ayes " or the " noes "
** have it." If his decision is challenged,
he directs the " ayes " to go into the right
lobby, and the ** noes " into the left lobby,
and appoints two tellers for each party.
When all the members have resumed their
places, the tellers on either side come to
the table and report the numbers to the
Speaker, who declares them to the House.
If he is of opinion that a division is frivo-
lously or vexatiously claimed, he may take
the vote by calling upon the members who
support and who challenge his decision, to
rise in their places, and he shall then either
declare the numbers or name tellers for a

Ptiblic Bills. — A member who wants to
initiate a Bill must attend at the beginning
of business on the first day of a Session,
and must ballot for a place for his notice
for leave, and when called on he fixes the
next day for the motion. He attends next
day, and at the end of the evening he rises
and moves for leave to bring in the Bill,
and on his position in the ballot, early oi*
late,- very much depends the chance of
pushing the Bill through Parliament. The
ballot can be drawn by one member for
another, but the member who brings
in the Bill must himself attend to move
for leave. Bills making grants of public
money must originate with Ministers, and
must be first considered in Committee of
the whole House. The first reading of
every bill is proposed immediately
after the same has been presented.
On the order being read for the second
reading of a bill, a motion is made,
and a question put, "That the bill be
now read a second time," and amendments

may be moved by leaving out **now," and
substituting " three months," " six months,"
or any other time ; or that the bill be re-
jected. A bill having been read a second
time, is ordered to be committed to a Com-
mittee of the whole House ; or, in certain
oases, to a Select Committee, or to a Stand-
ing Committee. The bill having been fully
considered in Committee, the Chairman
is directed to report it to the House.
Clauses may be withdrawn by the mem-
ber in charge of the Bill on giving
two days' notice. A bill reported
without amendment is ordered to be
read a third time, and on the third
reading a motion is made and question put,
that the bill be now read a third time, to
which amendments may be moved, as on
the second reading. After the third reading,
and further proceedings thereon, the title
of the bill is agreed to, and the bill is
passed without further question. For a
descnption of the various Committees of
the House of Commons see ** Glossary of
political terms," post.

Supply. — Whenever the Committee of
Supply stands as the first order of the day
on Monday or Thursday, the Speaker leaves
the chair without putting any question,
unless on first going into Supply on the
army, navy, or civil service estimates
respectively, or on a vote of credit, an
amendment is moved, or question raised,
relating to the estimates proposed to be
taken in Supply. In 1896, for the first
time, a Sessional Order was passed allotting
twenty days, before the 6th August, to the
business of Supply, with an additional
three days, if necessary, before or after
the same date. If the business were not
completed within that time the remain-
ing votes were jto be decided upon forth-
with. Supplementary estimates and votes
of credit were excluded from the com-
putation, and the proceedings were not to be
interrupted by motions for adjournment or
other dilatory motions. The success of thi»
experiment in providing for the regular and
business-like discussion of the Estimates
has been very marked, and the Sessional
Order was renewed in 1897.

Fartly-considered Bills, — In the Session
of 1890, owing to the excessive length of
the debates. Lord Salisbury's Government
brought forward proposals, by which
power would be given to the House of
Commons to carry over Bills from one
session to another. A Committee was
appointed, and the Government proposals
were met by Mr. Gladstone with a direct
negative, but his draft report framed in
that sense was rejected.

The Report of the Committee stated
that the exhausting labours imposed upon
members of Parliament were excessive and
increasing, and that the closure was in-
adequate to enable the House to deal with
lengthy, complicated, and controversial
Bills. It was necessary, therefore, either to
adopt a more stringent form of closure or
to give power to revive measures in the
succeeding session. They recommended

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the second alternative. They proposed
that —

"A Standinf( Order should be passed,
under which any Public Bill, in progress
in Committee of the whole House, or
in a Standing Committee, or which had
been reported, or which had reached any
further stage, might, on the motion of a
member in chargeof the Bill, be suspended
until the next Session.

If the Motion were carried, then, in
the ensuing Session of the same Parlia-
ment, a Member whose name was on the
suspended Bill might present the Bill in
the form in which it stood when the
Proceedings thereon were suspended;
and the Questions on the First and Second
Readings thereof should be successively
put forthwith.

If both Questions be carried, the
Bill would be ordered to be printed;
and, if it had been partly considered in
Committee in the previous Session, the
Committee would begin their considera-
tion of the Bill at the Clause on which
Progpress was reported in the previous
■Session; but if it had been reported
from Committee in the previous Session,
its consideration, as reported, would be
appointed for that day week.

If the First or Second Reading were
negatived, such Vote was not to preclude
the House from entertaining a Bill on
the same subject under the ordinary
Rules of Procedure.

The Committee pointed out that the
proposed Standing Order whs limited to
Bills which had originated in one House
i&nd which had never left it, and they
recorded their opinion that neither House
could, of its own authority, postpone to a
future Session any Bill sent to it from the
other House without a breach of constitu-
tional usage.

The Committee summarised the various
considerations as follows : —

*' The length of discussion to which it is

thought necessary to subject measures which
are the object of party controversy has
increased, is increasing, and does not seem
likely to diminish. As a result, the difficulty
of passing such measures through all their
stages in the course of one Session has
increased likewise. This difficulty is
especially felt in the case of long and com-
plicated Bills, and it is precisely in the case
of these Bills that the closure of debate is
most ineffective as an instrument for
facilitating the rapid progress of business.
It is, therefore, desirable to increase the
power of the House of Commons to deal
with such measures ; it is also desirable to
shorten the length of Sessions, whose
present duration overtaxes the endurance
of Members and embarrasses the machinery
of administration ; but it is not desirable,
so long as any other alternative remains, to
increase the stringency of the existing
machinery for closing debate. Your Com-
mittee believe that if these three principles
be accepted every possible alternative is
excluded, except one which shall relieve
Parliament in certain cases from the
necessity of repeating in two successive
Sessions the same debate upon the same
questions. They attach no weight, for
reasons above given, to any objections that
have suggested themselves to this plan,
based upon the relations now existing
between the two Houses of Parliament.
They think the change, though undoubtedly
an important one, is much less violent in
character and much less at variance with
the spirit of Parliamentary tradition than
some alterations which have been made of
late years in Parliamentary procedure ; and
they point out that if, as they recommend,
it be efl'ected, by Standing Order instead of
by Bill, the experiment may be purely
tentative, and could be abandoned, should
that course be subsequently thought desir-
able, by the sole action of the House of
Commons, without requiring the consent
of the other branch of the Legislature."


Speaker— Right Hon. W. C. Gully, M.P.

Chairman of CJommittees— -J. W. Lowther, M.P.

Clerk of the House— Sir Reginald F. D. Palgrave, K.C.B.
Clerk Assistant— ArchihAld J. S. Milman, C.B.
Second Clerk Assistant — F. B. G. Jenkinson, C.B.

Principal Clerk Public Bill Office and Clerk of the Fees—W. A. Ferguson -Davie, C.B.
Clerk of the Journals — "W. H. Ley.
Principal Clerk Private Bill Office— ¥. H. Webber.
Principal Clerk of Committeeb — Reginald Dickinson.

Department of the Speaker —

Chaplain— "Rev. Canon Wilberforce.

Secretary — Edward Gully.

Counsel— Ron. E. Chandos Leigh, (^.C, C B.

Referee on Private Bills — A. Bonham-Carter.

Examiner of Petitions for Private Bills and Taxing Offieer—C. W. Campion.

Serukant at Arms— H. D. Erskine.

Deputy Sergeant at- Arms — P. R. Gosset. *

Assistant Sergeant-at- Arms— U.-Col. Hon. E. H. Legge.

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Abbreviations, etc.— C, Conservative; 1m.XJ., Liberal Unionist; O.L., Gladstonian
Liberal; IT., Nationalist; F.lT.y Famellite Nationalist; Cand.y unsuccessful
candidate; unsd., unseated ; el., elected for present constituency. Other abbrevia-
tions as for House of Lords, see page 74.

Abraliam, Wm. (N. £. Cork Co.) ; b.
1840 ; Nurseryman ; M.P. W. Limerick
1886-92; el. 1893.— 7, Cheverton Eoad,
Tufnell Park, N. N.

Abraham, William (Glamorgan,
Ehondda); b. 1842; Miners' Agent; el.
1886.— Pentre, Pontypridd. O.L.

Acland, Rt. Hon. A. K. Dyke
<Yorks., Eotherham); b. 1847; el. 1886;
Vice-Pres. of Council for Education 1892-6.
—28, Cheyne Walk, S.W. G-.L.

Acland-Kood, Capt. Sir Alex. F.,

Bt. (W. Somerset) ; b. 1858 ; Army (Egypt) ;
el. 1892.— St. Audries, Bridgwater. C.

Aird, John (N. Paddington) ; b. 1883;
Contractor; el. 1887.— 14, Hyde Park
Terrace, W. C.

Akers-Donglas, Rt. Hon. A. (E.
Xent) ; b. 1861 ; Eailway Director ; M.P. B.
Kent 1880-85 ; el. 1685 ; Pari. Sec. Treasury
1886, 1886-92 ; First Commr. of Works since
1895.— Buckingham Palace Gdns., S.W. C.

Allan, Wm. (Gateshead) ; b. 1837;
Marine Engineer; el. 1898. — Scotland
House, Sunderland. O.Ij.

Allen, W. (Newcastle-under-Lyme) ;
b. 1870 ; el. 1892. — Woodhead Hall,
Cheadle, Staffs. G-.I>.

AlUinsen, A. E. K. (Salisbury); b.
1867; Yeo.; el. 1897—40, Portland Place,
W. C.

Allison, R. A. (N. Cumberland); b.
1838; Eailway Director ; el, 1885.— Scaleby
Hall, Carlisle. G.L.

Allsopp, Hon. O. H. (Worcester) ; b.
1846 ; Brewery Director ; Cand, Droitwich
1880 ; el. 1885.-27, Aldford Street, W. C.

Ambrose, B. (W. Mayo); b. 1856;
Surgeon ; el. 1893.-1, Mount Place, E. N.

Ambrose, W., Q.C. (Middlesex,
Harrow) ; b. 1832 ; Cand. Stockport 1868 ;
el. 1886 ; Atty.-Gen. for Duchy of Lancaster.
— Westover, West Heath Eoad, Hamp-
stead, N.W. C.

Anstmther, K. T. (St. Andrews Dt.) ;
b. 1860 ; Advocate ; el. 1886 ; Ld. of Treasury
since 1896.— 6, Chester Street, S.W. L.U.

Arch, Joseph (N. W. Norfolk) ; b. 1826 ;
Pres. Agrl. Labourers' Union ; M.P. 1886-6 ;
Cand. 1886; el. 1892.— Barf ord, Warwick-
shire. O.Ij.

Arnold, Alfred (Halifax); b. 1836;
Barrister ; Wire Manufacturer ; Cand.
1892,'93; el. 1895.— Clare Hall, Hahfax. C.

Amold-Forster, K. O. (W. Belfast) ;
b. 1866; Author and Publisher; Cand.
Darlington 1886; Dewsbury 1888; el. 1892.
—9, Evelyn Gardens, S.W. L.U.

Arrol, Sir Wm., Kt. (S. Ayrshire) ;
b. 1839 ; Contractor and Engineer ; Cand.
1892 ; el. 1896.— Seafield, Ayr, N.B. L.U.

Ascroft, B. (Oldham) ; b. 1847 ;
Solicitor; el. 1896.- Sedgley Hall, Prest-
wich, Manchester. C.

Asher, A., Q.C. (Elgin Dt.) ; b. 1835 ;
Cand. Glasgow and Aberdeen Univ. 1880 ;
el. 1881; Solr.-Gen. for Scotland 1886,
1892-4.— 31, Heriot Eow, Edinburgh. G-.L-

Ashmead-Bartlett, Sir EUis, Et.
(Sheffield, Ecclesall); b. 1849; Barrister;
Ex. Civil Service; M.P. Eye 1880-6; el.

Online LibraryJ. Just LloretThe Constitutional year book → online text (page 20 of 74)