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raid or was cognizant of it beforehand, he hxd more reason than anyone to desire an
inquiiv. But, apart from personal considerations, the present situation in South Africa
caused considerable anxiety, and there was still a state of unrest which all must desire,
if possible, to allay. The recent legislation of the Transvaal Republic had not improved
the situation, and the friendly suggestions of H.M. Govemment as to reform in favour of
the Uitlrtuders had been inadequately met by President Kruger. There could be no
security for peace and good relations between the two races until some attempt had been
made to redress those grievances. H.M. Govemment asked the House to proceed with
the inquiry into the ori^n and circumstances of the raid, and into the administration of
the Chartered Company! As to the latter, he believed the Company would be able to
make a very good case. The other brtmch of the inquiry must be conducted with great
care and discretion, but it must go into the question of the grievances which caused the
discontent and made the raid possible. He appreciated the difficulties in the way, but
thought it necessary to press for the Committee. No promise was given to President
Kruger or any outsider in this matter, but it was made to the House of Commons, and
the Government were bound in honour to keep such a promise, unless the general wish of
the House were otherwise. He believed the result would be satisfactory to the country,
and that the inquiry would allay and not increase the animosities which might at present
prevail. — Sir W. Harcourt (G.L.) said the Announcement of a searching inquiry was made
m the Queen's Speech of 1896, and was made to the world at large. He desired to reinforce
Mr. Chamberlain's friendly representations as to the interests of the Uitland»-rs, but we
must first keep faith with the Transvaal Govemment. That was the ground of the
promise of a fvJl and searching inquiry. The trial of Dr. Jameson and the inquiry at the
Gape did not dispose of the question as to how far other persons and the Chartered
Company were responsible. The Opposition desired to strengthen the hands of the
Govemment in reconciling the English and the Dutch races. The Committee would
ascertain the real facts of the case, and would give an assurance to the world that this
country desired to deal fairly with other nations.— Sir E. Ashmead-Bartlett (C.) was con-
vinced that the inquiry could only result in evil.— Mr. Courtney (L.U.) said- it was
absolutely imperative that the Committee should sit. — Mr. Maclean said that after Mr.
Chamberlain's declaration he would withdraw the amendment. — This was agreed to, and
the motion for the appointment of the Committee was passed after some further
diHCUssion. Jan. 29.

Mr. Chamberlain announced that a claim had been received from the Transvaal
Government in connection with the raid by Dr. Jameson and the British South Africa
Company's troops. The amount claimed was— first, material damage, JB677,938 3s. 3d. ;
second, moral or intellectual damage, Jgl,00O,0O0. Feb. 18.

Mr. Chamberlain, referring to a dispute between the High Court of the Transvaal and
the Volksraad, said that whatever the result the protection of British subjects was secure,
by the Convention, which H.M. Govemment intended to maintain in its integrity. Feb. 25.

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C—AfHoa— South Atbica— continued.

Mr. Chamberlain announced that a despatofa had been received containing particalars
of the demand of the Transvaal Government;-' f^tiA demand wonld have to be considered
by the Government and by the Chartered Company, and subjected to legal investigation ;
and it would have to be the subject of possibly prolonged communications with the Trans-
vaal Government. Until that process had been exhausted, he could give no further
information. The claim was for £1,677,000 odd. Mar. 19.

Mr. Balfour stated that H.M. Government were devoting their attention to the question
of the future government of the territories of the South Africa Company, and proposed
to consult immediately the directors of the Company, Sir A. Milner, and the authorities
at the Cape. July 16.

(For Report of Committee, see Pari. Paper, published July^ 1897.)

In Supply* on the vote for the Colonial Office, Mr. Amold-Forster (L.U.) attacked the
conduct of Mr. Rhodes, who, he declared, Had lighted a brand in South Africa which it
would take a hundred years to extinguish. He also insisted that the report of the
Committee was inadequate and unsatisfactory, inasmuch as the proceedings of the
Chartered Company had not been inquired into. — Mr. Balfour repudiated any idea that
the Government were afraid of discussion, but said that no demand for time had been
made by the front Opposition bench or any large section of members. With respect to
Mr. Rhodes, the Committee had in the most explicit terms said that the raid was wholly
xm justifiable, and in point of fact Mr. Rhodes himself had never attempted to justify it.
No one had endeavoured to extenuate his faults, but he had nevertheless rendered
important services to South Africa and to the Empire. — Sir W. Harcourt thereupon
asked for a day to discuss the question, which was acceded to. Progress was tnen
reported. July 19.

Mr. Chamberlain stated that as the Transvaal Government had repealed the Aliens
Immigration Act and proposed to amend the Expulsion Act, the urgent questions in
dispute between them and H.M. Govt, had been disposed of. July 26.

Mr. P. Stanhope (G.L.) moved a resolution regretting the inconclusive action and
report of the Committee, and its failure to recommend action in regard to Mr. Rhodes'
and Mr. Hawksley's refusal to produce telegrams ; and further, ordering the latter to
attend at the Bar and produce tne telegrams. He contended there had been a campaign
to burke inquiry and stifle discussion, and that the Committee had left the Govt, to deal
with the Chartered Company. He suggested that Mr. Rhodes' name should be struck off
the Privy Council. — Mr. Labouchere supported the resolution, and vehemently attacked
Mr. Rhodes and the Committee. — Sir M. Hicks-Beach said the Committee had reported
definitely as to the origin and circumstances of the raid, and had gone fully into the
subject. To recommend farther action would have been beyond their scope. It was for
the Govt, to consider whether any action should be taken ; and, as regards Mr. Rhodes,
they mast regard not only the conduct of which the Committee reported that he was
guilty, but also his services generally to the country. Mr. Rhodes was the person
responsible for the non-production of the telegrams, and not Mr. Hawksley, and it
would have been imdesirable to prolong the inquiry that they might be produced.
Every allegation against the Colonial Office had been exploded, and the Committee had
decided not to make themselves parties to the propagation of further malignant slanders.
In the interest of peace in S. Africa it was essential that the inquiry should close. —
Sir W. Harcourt denied that the Report was inconclusive with regard to the raid, and
justified its issue, as farther delay would have done infinite mischief. The Committee
had emphatically cleared the Colonial Office of all complicity in the raid. Although he
thought Mr. Hawksley ought to give an account to the House, the main part of the
resolutiou was a censure on the Committee, and he could not support it. — Mr. Courtney
(L.U.) said he absolved Mr. Chamberlain from any knowledge of Mr. Rhodes' design, but
thought the Committee had not carried their inquiry far enough. — Mr. Birrell (GJj.)
moved to omit the part of the resolution censuring tne Committee, leaving only the order
for Mr. Hawksley's attendance. — Mr. Balfour said the Govt, could not consent to a with-
drawal of the first part. — Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman justified the early presentation
of the Report. — Mr. Chamberlain bore testimony to the loyalty of Sir W. Harcourt to the
decision of the Committee. As to himself, his action was his justification against the
rumours and charges which had for 18 months embarrassed him. As to the missing
telegrams, he had seen them confidentially, and no great secret was hidden in them.
As to Mr. Rhodes, while his fault was as great as any pohtician could commit, his
personal character as a man of honour was not affected. Be had been already punished,
and the Govt, did not intend to prosecute him or expunge his name from the Privy
Council. The Chartered Company would be placed under more direct and efficient
control by the Govt., but the charter would not be abolished, as Imperial control over
Rhodesia would not be acceptable to S. Africa as a whole. The Govt, considered that,
having been placed in the wrong by the raid, it was their duty to be extremely patient,
and while firmly asserting their rights, they had not pressed the Transvaal Govt, on
some questions as they otherwise might have done. — The amendt. was negatived by 333
to 74, and Mr. Stanhope's resolution was then rejected by 304 to 77. July 26.

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Africa— South Africa — continued.

L— -Lord Loch having expressed a hope th fet the Chartered Company's territory should
be brought under a greater degree of' kd^rial control, Lord Salisbury replied that the
substance of the charter would be. modified, but that details could not be given. July 27.

In reply to Lord Carrington (G.L.)) Lord Lansdowne stated that there were no reasons
io justify the Govt, in restoring their commissions to Sir John Willoughby and other
■officers who had taken part in the raid. July 29.

O— *0n the 2nd R. of the Appropriation Bill, Sir W. Lawson (G.L.) condenmed the
policy of the Govt, in not punishing Mr. • C. Rhodes, and avowed himself a " Little
Englander," as the term implied a policy of peace, honesty, and justice. — Mr. Gripps <C.)
prged the reinstatement of the officers, to which Mr. Brodrick (C.) replied that it was
impossible to restore their commissions, as they had been convicted by a court, and had
■disobeyed the High Commissioner. Aug. 4.

See also under Bndget and Navy.

SiiAVEBT. — In the debate on the Address, Mr. J. A. Pease (G.L.) moved an amendment
regretting the omission from the Queen's Speech of any statement that slavery had
ceased to exist in Zanzibar. — Mr. Curzon (C.), Under Sec, repeated that the Govem-
xnent would very shortly give instructions for the abolition of the status of slavery in
Zanzibar and Pemba, but said that certain details remained to be settled. The amend-
ment was withdrawn. Jan. 19.

*Mr. Curzon announced the issue of decrees concerning the abolition of the legal status
■of slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba. April 2.

Ill Supply, on the Diplomatic vote, Sir C. Dilke (G.L.) called attention to the fact that
runaway slaves from Zanzibar who escaped to the strip of British territory were, by
British orders, i;iven back to their masters. — Mr. Curzon replied that in his belief nothing
had been done by the British officials contrary to law. — Mr. J. A. Pease (G.L.) moved to
^reduce the vote ai a protest. Negatived by 124 to 72. June 24.

Mr. Curzon stated that specific instructions had been sent to our agents at Mombasa
-that no proceedings of the kind referred to would be sanctioned by the Govt. June 26.

A further statement on the same subject was made by Mr. Curzon. June 28.

C—Agrionltnral Frodnoe Marks BilL— Mr. Wingfield-Digby (C.) moved the
second reading of a Bill to provide that all imported dead meat and cheese should be
marked in accordance with rules to be drawn up by the Board of Agriculture. A similar
Bill had, he said, been read a second time in 1896 by 289 votes against 82, but amend-
ments had been made to meet objections that were then raised. The sale of foreign or
colonial meat as home-grown meat would be an offence, and all dealers in foreign meat
must be registered as such. Local autiiorities were to give effect to the provisions of the
Bill by means of inspectors, and fines were provided for offences. — Mr. Mildmay (L.U.)
and Mr. Lambert (G.L.) supported the Bill. — Mr. G. Whiteley (C.) opposed it as causing
a tnaximmn of trouble and expense while yielding a minimum of advantage. — Mr. Long
(C), President of Board of Agriculture, said that agricultural traders were as much
entitled to protection from fraud as any other class. The Bill was admitted to be good in
principle, and he regarded any alarm as to increase in the price of meat as quite unfounded,
nor would the Bill promote protection in the ordinary sense of the word. The clauses,
however, would require most careful examination, and the Government would assent to
the second reading on condition that a Select Committee should take evidence as to their
effect. — Mr. Bryce (G.L.) said the Bill might increase the consumption of foreign meat,
and be disadvantageous to the British producer. — The second reading was carried by 160
to 91, and the Bill was referred to a Select Committee. April 7.

Ajpricnltnre.— See under Adnlteration, Food Supply, Ireland, Vehicles
Sill, Wales, and Workmen's Compensation Bill.

C— Alien Immigration.— Mr. Lowles (C.) moved a resolution declaring that the
constant influx of pauper aliens into London and other industrial ceotres was pre-
judicially affecting and displacing British labour, and ought to receive instant attention
at the hands of H.M. Government. — Mr. Eitchie (C), Pres. of Bd. of Trade, said the
Government were pledged to legislate on this subject, and did not desire to depart from
the pledges they had given.— After a short debate, the House was counted out. Feb, 9.

C— -^Appropriation Bill. — On the 2nd B. of this Bill, discussion took place on
affairs in S. Africa (q.v.), the Colonies (q.v.), the Penrhyn quarry dispute, the Irish
-"* political " prisoners, the blockade of Crete, and other matters. Aug. 4.

Arbitration.— See under Address.

Armenia.— See under Turkey.

L— ^Army, The. — Lord Lansdowne (L.U.), Sec. of State, made a statement in detail
as to the plans of the Government for increasing the strength of the Army.
He said that ever since 1872 the rule of keeping one battalion at home for every battalion
abroad had been ignored, owing to the increased requirements of the Empire, the result
being that there were seventy-six battalions abroad 8nd only sixty-five at home. The
highest military authorities considered that the deficit of eleven battalions should be
■diminished, and with that object it was proposed to add two battalions to the seven
■existing battalions of Guards, and to employ three of them from time to time outside the
United Kingdom. The details would be settled so as to disturb existing arrangements

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L— Army, The^-^continued.
as little as possible^ and not to impair efficiency or recruiting, and the change would be
introduced gradually. The idea was that thr^e-bbttalions of Guards should be stationed
at Gibraltar. The effect would be to take three battalions off the foreign and to add
three to the home establishment, thus producing exactly the same result as if six new
battalions were created, but costing £900,000 less per annum. There were now one-
hundred and forty-one battalions of infantry, or seventy pairs of linked battalions and
one odd battalion — namely, the Cameron Highlanders. They proposed to add to it a
second battalion. Instead of having seventy-six battalions abroad and sixty-five at home,
there would be seventy-three abroad to sixty- nine at home, still leaving a deficit of four
battalions, which, however, as it mi^ht be temporary, it was not intended to deal with.
To strengthen the garrisons of fortresses and coaling stations it was proposed to make a
slight increase of infantry of the line, also to add a battalion to the Boalta Militia and one
to the West Indian Regiment, while the garrison artillery would be increased by 8,600
men. It was further intended to provide another battery of field artillery, making forty-
five batteries — the full complement of three army corps. These proposals would be
spread over a period of three years. — ^A short discussion ensued. Feb. 4.

C— *Aricv Estimates.— In Supply, a Supplementary Estimate of Jk*265,800 for the
Volunteers was agreed to, a motion lor itssreduotion having been negatived by 127 to 25.

On going into Supply (Army Estimates), Sir C. Dilke (G.L.) moved a resolution de<^aring
that while the House was ready to provide the funds required for the efficient main-
tenance of our military foroes, it desired to be convinced that the present system of
enlistment and terms of service were such as to be suitable to the requirements of the
Empire. He said the cost of the Army and Navy in 1896 was £68,000,000 in all, more
than half of which was spent on the Army and fixed defences, in spite of the fact that the
Navy stood first in Imperial defence. For 1897-98 the military expenditure would be
£18,865,000, and that of India for 1896-97 was £16,127,000. Our military system was the
dearest in the world, and yet our Army had no permanent organization in brigades,
divisions, or corps, no permanent staff for war, an<i no generals trained for war. The
Guards were the only force that could be easily mobilized, and the Government scheme
would spoil the only battalions of infantry in the Home Army which were fit for war at
present. What was wanted was a short-service home force with a real reserve, with
a long-service force for Itidia.— Mr. Brodrick (C)} Under Sec. for War, denied that our
system was a rotten one. and pointed out that no hint had been given as to how a better
return could be obtained for the money expended. The suggestions made would magnify
every existing evil. The Government proposals had been gratefully accepted as a greater
advance than had been taken for many years. — Sir H. Gampbell-Bannerman (G.Ij.) said
tbat those who condemned the prosent system had had no experience of its work in
detail. He thought it could not be replaced by any system which would not have ten
times as many faults. — Sir J. Colomb (C.) asked for a Government statement as to the
circumstances according to which the strength of the garrisons ftbroad was determined,
and their views as to the possibility of an invasion by a large hostile force. — Mr. Brodrick
said the Government asked for what they considered to be the needs of the national
defences, after considering the whole naval and military requirements of the nation. —
Gen. M'Calmont (C.) thought the proposed addition to the Army was absolutely con-
temptible.— Mr. Arnold-Forster (L.U.) urged that the whole of our military system should
be recast on common-sense lines. — Col. Rusoell (C.) said the proposals of the Government
had caused general disappointment among military men. — The resolution was negatived
by 197 to 68.— Col. Lockwood (C.) urged that the proposal to send three battalions of the
Guards to Gibraltar required further consideration, as it would be detrimental to the
Guards, whose officers were unanimously opposed to the change. Feb. 8.

Sir A. Hood (C.) opposed the change in the brigade of Guards as tending to impair its
efficiency, and Col. Kenyon-Slaney (C.) urged reconsideration of the propostd. — ^Mr.
Brodrick said the main object of the scheme was approved by Lord Wolseley, as it would
improve the military organization by providing a force of Guards at a fairly high strength,
without depleting the home battalions. The views of the commanding officers would be
carefully considered with a view to meeting objections, but the scheme had been recom-
mended to the Government by the Army Board. It would add 2,000 choice troops to the
British Army. — Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman (G.L. ) suggested that the addition might have
been made in Line regiments, but thought the Guards were not likely to suffer from
taking a share in foreign service, though the selection of Gibraltar ought to be recon-
sidered. — Mr. A. Balfour said that if the expectations of the Government were realized,
as he believed they would be, it would be admitted that, instead of injuring the Guards,
a service had been done them. — The House then went into Committee of S apply, and
Mr. Brodrick moved that a number of land forces not exceeding 168,774 should be granted
for the service of the Army in 1897-8. He said that the measures now proposed would
make the Army 16,000 stronger than in 1887, besides having 40,000 more men in the
Reserve. There had been a rigid overhaul of every branch of our equipment for war,
and a deliberate policy had been pursued by the Government. Since they came into
office in 1896 they had proposed for Army services a loan of £6.600,000, an increase of
8,000 men to the Army, supplementary estimates for the Volunteers £260,000, and had

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C— Army, The.— Estimates — continued. ■ ^

spent large Bums to equip the infantry with, ammunition and the artillery with guns.
In the matter of men, they asked ifo^^.^i^aany as oould be recruited at this time on
existing terms. The past year had been one of exceptional activity. The pressing needs
of iihe field artillery in respect of guns, those of the infantry in regard to ammunition,
and of the Volunteers in respect of the capitation grant, had been met. It was further
proposed to re>organize the cavalry, so that the first cavalry division and the divisional
cavalry regiment would at all times be ready for active service. It was intended that all
regiments should keep their present full dress, but that the undress of the regiments of
each corps should be assimilated. Various changes were contemplated in the artillery
a*nd medical services, and some further provisions for the comfort of the private soldier.
The period of commands for Militia and Volunteer officers had been fixed at five and
four years respectively. As to the Artillery. 81 pieces were added last year, and there
were now 46 batteries of six guns each, with 40 reserve guns ; ten batteries, or 60 horse
artillery guns, with six reserve guns->the complete equipment and reserve of three army
corps. Beyond this, in case of invasion, we had 186 field guns held by the Volunteers,
and 204 guns of position. This year it was hoped to complete the ammunition columns
for the horse and field artillery, and to commence the formation of a modern siege
train ; also to spend a considerable sum on quick-firing guns for the defence of harbours.
The Militia artillery had been armed with the -303 rifle, and next year the re-arming of
the engineer and rifle volunteers would be completed. He asked the Committee to
support the Government in their attempts to make our military system efficient. — A
general discussion followed, after which Mr. Labouchere (G.L.) moved to reduce the
vote by 4,200 men, the number of the army of occupation in Egypt. — Negatived by 134
to 20, and vote agreed to. * Feb. 12.

On the vote of £653,000 for the Militia, Mr. Brodrick said the system of training
the Militia with the Regular forces would be extended. The difficulty in officering was
due to the depression in agriculture, but the War Office hoped soon to deal with it'. — Vote
agreed to, —On the vote of £76,000 for the Yeomanry, Mr. Knox (N.) moved to reduce 'it
by £7,000, the proportion paid by Ireland. — Negatived by 182 to 46, and vote passed by 180
to 38— Votes of £67,000 for the Volunteer force, and of £639,000 for transport and
remounts were agreed to. On the vote of £2,563,400 for provisions, &c., Mr. Dalziel (G.L.)
moved to reduce it by £1,000. — Sir R. P. FitzGerald (C.) and others called attention to
the supply of foreign meat to the Army. — Mr. P. Williams (L.U.), Financial Sec, said
the War Office acted upon the principle of giving preference to the home producer,
and to local districts wherever possible. — After further debate the reduction was
negatived by 131 to 18, and the vote was agreed to. — Other votes having been passed
without a division, the vote of £64,800 for miscellaneous effective services was carried by
120 to 8. Feb. 19.

On the vote for the War Office, Sir A. Hood (0.) condemned the policy of sending the
Guards to Gibraltar as detrimental to their efficiency. He moved to reduce the vote by
J6100.— Mr. Brodrick denied that the status or efficiency of the Guards would be
interfered with. The experiment ought to be given a fair trial, as it was strongly

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