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been made to the navy, and a standard has at length been authoritatively laid down.
The result appears in the Admiralty Betum of August, 1896, from which the following
figures are taken: —



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POLITICAL NOTES.
Ships Built and Buildino.



Class.



Great Britain. France,



Bnssia.



Battleships

I Armoured
Cruisers < Proteoted

I Unprotected
Coast Defence Vessels
Torpedo Vessels
„ Destroyers...
' ,, Boats



No.
67
18

116
16
16
22
93
81



Tons.
634,610
137,260
484,626
44,290
68,430
27,840



No.
36
10
37
7
14
18

191



Tons.
326,971

60,712
130,291



41,628
9,212



No.

18

11

6

8

16

17

6

74



Tons.
179,000
82,273
26,038
8,400
48,738
J 4,316



" At the same time the personnel of the fleet has been steadily increased, and will
shortly reach 106,000 men, thus exceeding by more than 31,000 men the standing force of
France and Bussia combined. Measures have also been taken on a large scale for
meeting the many other war needs of the nayy. I do not for a moment confcend that the
results of the past dangerous impolicy have been wholly obliterated. Much yet remains
to be done; but the present Board of Admiralty has a right to the full confidence of the
nation. For some years effort directed to definite ends has been consistently sustained,
and the powerful appeal to reason and to history has by no means spent its force."

Since the year 1889 the following is a list of the ships which have oeen built or are now
in the course of construction :—

29 First Class Battleships.
80 Cruisers.

94 Torpedo Boat Destroyers.
32 Torpedo Boats and Sloops.



Ill.-OUR ARMY-NOW AND SIXTY YEARS AQO.

According to an article in the Standard of June 23rd, 1897, our army in 1837 consisted
of 101,000 men of the regular army, and 18,000 yeomanry, composed of men who were
the picked bad characters of the country, whom the Dake of Wellington described as the
" scum of the population."

We have now, m 1897—



BegularArmy


... 222,000


Beserve...


... 78,000


Yeomanry


... 10,000


MiUtia


... 115,000


Volunteers


... 236,000.


Indian Forces, exclusive of British Begulars ...


... 190,000


Colonial Troops in Asia


1,400


Colonial Troops in Africa


... 12,000


Colonial Troops in America


... 36,000


Colonial Troops in Australasia


... 26,000


Or a total of not less than . . .


... 926,400 men.



IV.-FOREIGN POSSESSIONS ACQUIRED DURING REIQN
OF QUEEN VICTORIA.

The following is a list of the principal acquisitions of territory (it does not pretend to
be absolutely correct) during the reign of Her Majesty the Queen Empress.

The total represents an area of 7,779,670 square miles. What this means may be
demonstrated by the fact that the total area of Great Britain and Ireland is only
121,116 square miles. When we add to this our vast Indian empire, a large portion of
our Canadian and Australian colonies, and numerous other possessions acquired before
Her Majesty's reign, some idea may be gathered of the responsibilities of this nation :—



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POLITICAL NOTES



335.



Cyprus (1878)
Gulf of / " '



E Aden (1839)

Perrin L (1855)

Kuria Muria (1854)

Somali Coast Protectorate (1885) .
Soootra L (1886)

Asia—
CoGos or Keeling I. (1864)

Christmas L (1889)

Perak(1870)

Selangor (1873)

Sumgei Ujong, Febl'u (1873-85)

Negri Sembilan (1886)

Pahang(1888)

Upper Burmah

Brusu

Sumatra

Asiatic Abohipelago—

Labuan

North Borneo

Hong Kong

AUSTBALASIA—

Victoria

South Australia

Queensland ,

New Guinea

Pacific Ooban —

New Zealand

Fiji I

Botumah

America—

Manitoba

N. W. Territory

British Columbia and Vancouver I,

Africa —

Basutoland

Bechuanaland

Natal

Zululand

British South Africa Company

British South Africa

Zanzibar and Pemba ...

Koyal Niger Company

Niger Coast Protectorate ,

Gold Coast Company

Lagos

Walfisoh Bay



Square Miles.

3,584

70

7

21

.. 80,000

1,382



9

81

7,986

3,000

660

2,000

10,000

200,000

6,000

45,000



31

81,000

82



87,884
903,425
668,224

88,460



104,235

7,740

810



64,066
2,371,481



. 10,293
. 386,200
. 20,461
8,900
. 750,000
.1,000,000
760
. 600,000

V 39,060

1,071

460



V.-TWO YEARS OF UNIONIST GOVERNMENT.

(Notes itrom the " Statistical Abstract.")

The following tables are taken from the Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom
just issued by the Board of Trade, and are intended to show, as far as possible, the condi-
tion of our finances and trade under Lord Salisbury's Government, as compared with those
which obtained under the three years' rule of Mr. Gladstone and Lord Bosebery. Owin^
to the changes of Government having taken place in the middle of the years 1892 and
1896, an accurate comparison is not always possible, but the dates given in the tables
show that as fair an approximation has been made as is practicable. Where not
otherwise stated the years taken for comparison end on Marcn 31st. The pages of the
Statistical Abstract from which the figures are taken are shown in each case..



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POLITICAL NOTES.



GLADSTONa-BOSEBBBT GOVEBNMXNT.

&

1898 90,895,000

1894 91,133,000

1896 94,683,000



1. Impebial Bevenub (p. 7).

Salisbubt Goyebnment.



Average



. £92,070,000



1896...
1897...



... 101,978,000
... 108,949,000



Average



dgl02,961,000



Increased Bevenne under Unionist Government: J61O,891,000.



2. SUBPLUSEB (p. 7).



Gladstone-Bosebbbt Goyebnmbmt.



Surplus, 1898 ...
Deficit, 1894 ...
Surplus, 1895 ...



&
20,000
169,000
765,000



Salisbubt Govbbniibnt.



Surplus, 1896
Do. 1897



Net Surplus in three yean ... jE616,000 Total Surplus in two years



4,209,000
2,478,000



£6,682,000



GliADSTONE-BoBEBBBY GOYEBNMENT,

1898-6.



3. Impebial Defence (p. 11).
(Amount spent upon the Army and Navy.)

Salisbubt Govebnhent, 1896-7.



Army


... 58,832,000


Army


Navy


... 48,761,000


Navy


Naval Defence Act


... 1,150,000


Egyptian Expedition


Barracks Act


... 1,885,000


Imperial Defence Act


Imperial Defence Act ...


872,000


Barracks Act
Naval Works Act



Total in three years ...
Average per annum ...



£105,990,000
£85,380,000



Total in two years . .
Average per annum ...



£

. 87,095,000

. 41,894,000

798,000

58,000

920,000

. 1,766,000

. £82,680,000

. £41,266,000



4. Taxation (pp. 28-6).



Glabstone-Bosebebt Goyebnment.

£

Taxes increased, 1894-6 9,169,000

Less reductions, 1898-5 1,508,000



Net increase in taxation



£7,651,000



Salisbubt Goyebnment.



Taxes reduced, 1896-7 ...
Less taxes increased ...

Net reduction in taxation



£
2,098,000
1,000

£2,092,000



6. National Debt (p. 31).



Gladstonb-Bosebeby Govebnment.



Salisbubt Govebnment.



Gross liabiliti^sln 1892
Beduced by 1896 to



680,641,000-
^ "0,000



Gross liabilities in 1895
Beduced by 1897 to ...



Beduction in three years ' ... £20,381,000 Beduction in two years



... 660,160,000'
... 644,90^,060*

... £16,26f,00d



* To this might be added balances in the Banks of England and Ireland, which are
larger by nearly four millions than the Bosebery Government left them.



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POLITICAL NOTES. 337

6. Our Foreign Tbade (p. 51).

GliADSTONE-BOSEBEBT GOVERNMENT. SALISBURY GOVERNMENT.

Total imports and exports Imports and exports in one

in two years to Dec. 31st, year to Dec. Slst, 1896 ... je738,188,000

1894 jei,363,956,000



Average per annum ... ^6681,978,000

Increase under Unionist Government £66,210,000; or more than £1 per head of the
population.

7. Shipping (p. 164).

Gladstone-Eosebery Government. Salisbury Government.

Tons. Tons.

Tonnage of vessels of all classes The same in 1896 85,462,000

entered and cleared at British
ports to and from foreign
countries and British pos-
sessions, 1894 80,536,000

Increase nearly 5,000,000 tons.

8. Savings op the People (p. 218). f

Gladstone-Eosebery Government. Salisbury Government.

£ £

Deposits in Post Office Savings The same at the end of 1895 ... 97,868,000

Banks at the end of 1892 ... 78,863,000 Ditto at end of 1896 108,098,000

Ditto at the end of 1894 ... 89,266,000



Increase in two years £10,413,000 Increase in one year Jgl0,230,000

*t The year 1892 and 1895 are omitted, for reasons given above.

VI.-THE UNIONIST GOVERNMENT, 1895-7.

PROMISE AND PERFORMANCE.

In the tables below we give a list of the principal subjects pat forward by the Unionist
leaders, either in their election addresses m 1895, or the Queen's Speeches of 1896-7, as
constituting a main part of the programme of the Unionist party ; and opposite each
is shown the manner m which the questions have been dealt with by them during their
two years of office now expiring : —

1.— National Defence.

Promise. Performance.

Increased provision for naval and Acts passed, 1897, for fortifying naval

military defence. bases and constructing forts abroad; also

providing defensive positions, ranges, and
land for manceuvres at home.

Provision made for five new infantry

battalions, besides large increase in

artillery. Increased grants to volunteers.

Council of National Defence established.

A strofig Navy capable of meeting any Plans made for forty-six new ships, to be

probable hostile combination. built in three years, at a cost of ten

millions ; 10,000 men added to the navy.

2— Foreigrn, Colonial, and Indian Affa irs. *!

Furtherance of the general principle of Treaty made with the United States

Arbitration in international disputes. Government, 1897, but rejected by the

United States Senate.

A settlement of the differences with Treaty signed, 1897, safeguarding British

Venezuela in respect to the boundaries of interests, and referring disputed questions
British Guiana. to arbitration.

An enquiry into the Jameson Raid in Select Committee appointed 1897, which

the Transvaal, and the administration of condemned the Baid. Numerous reforms
Bhodesia. in administration have been made.

28



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338



POLITICAL NOTES.



Foreign, Colonial, and Indian AtMrn—continued.
Pbomisb. Pbbfobmancb.



Be-arrangement of Indian Cotton Dutiee,
so as to give fair play to British manu-
facturers.

Abolition of Slavery in the Zanzibar
Protectorate.

Extension of a Railway to Uganda, East
Africa,

Consolidation and extension of the
Empire.



The Cotton Duties were altered in 1896,.
so as to bear equally upon British, native,
and foreign trade.

Slavery abolished on the Island of
Zanzibar, April, 1897. .

Funds provided by an Act of 1896 for the
completion of the railway.

Evacuation of Chitral countermanded,
1895; increased territory on the Siamese
frontier obtained, 1896; occupation of
Kumasi, 1896; acquisition of Montsiva's
territory in Bechuanaland, 1896.



3 —Agrrionlture.



Measures for the relief of taxation upon
agricultural land in England and Scotland.

Protection of farmers and consumers
against the introduction of diseased cattle
from abroad.

Increased means of communication in
remote and scattered rural districts.

Amendment of the Agricultural Hold-
ings Act, respecting compensation for im-
provements.



Acts passed, 1896, relieving farms of
half the rates, and to reduce the land tax.

Act passed, 1896, to provide for the
compulsory slaughter of all foreign animals
at the ports of arrival.

Light Bail ways Act passed, 1896, enabling
Government grants or loans to be made for
light railways up to one million pounds.

Bill conditionally promised, 1897, if time
permitted. Not yet introduced.



4— labour Qnestions.



Compensation to Workmen for injuries
received in their employment.



Furtherance of the policy of Old Age
Pensions.

Promotion of Conciliation in trade
disputes.



Increased protection for Miners against
coal-dust explosions.

Exclusion of goods made in Foreign
Prisons.

Bestriction on the Immigration of
Destitute Aliens.

Bestrictions of Fines and Deductions
from Wages.



Act passed 1897, providing fixed com-
pensation for accidents in all dangerous
trades, and establishiug committees of
arbitration.

A committee of experts was appointed,
1896, to consider various schemes, and
report on their practicability.

Conciliation Act passed, 1896, giving the
Board of Trade power, at the request of
both parties, to intervene to promote
friendly seetlement.

Act passed, 1896, to enforce special rules
and precautions in dangerous mines.

Act passed 1897.

At present unfulfilled.
Truck Act passed, 1896.



5— Education.



Financial relief to Voluntary Schools
and necessitous Board Schools.



Acts passed, 1897, giving jeeOO.OOO to
Voluntary Schools, and necesRary aid to
poor School Boards, and abolishing the
17s. 6d. limit of grants. Voluntary Schools
relieved from local rates.



6— Ireland and Scotland.



Bill dealing with the question of the
Irish Evicted Tenants.

Amendment of the Irish Land Acts.



Cheapening
IrelandTand S



: Private Bill legislation in
Scotland.



Acts passed, 1895 and 1896, by which
numerous evicted tenants have been
restored to their homes.

Acts passed, 1896, to facilitate purchase
by tenants, protect their improvements,
and fix fair rents; also to extend light
railways.

Bill for simplifjdng procedure in Scot-
land passed through Committee, July,.
1897.



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POLITICAL NOTES. 339

Ireland and 3cotl9ai.dr^contiTmed.

Fbomisb. Febfobhance.

Establishment of a Board of Agriculture Bills introduced, 1896-97, but withdrawn

for Ireland. to make way for a great scheme of local

government reform, to be proposed in
1898.
Extension of facilities for Labourers' Act passed, 1896, making terms of repay-

Gottages in Ireland. ment easier, and facilitating procedure.

Assistance to poor districts in the West Grants made for piers and harbours.

Highlands of Scotland. 1896-97 ; and Act passed, 1896, to open up

congested districts by light railways.
Consolidation of the law relating to Act passed, 1897.

public health in Scotland

7— Miscellaneous.

Beform of Companies Act, and punish- Bill introduced, 1896 and 1897, and

ment of fraudulent promoters. referred to a Committee of the House of

Lords.
Measure to amend the law relating to Conditional promise given. Select Com-

Bills of Sale. mittee on Money Lending, including Bills

of Sale, appointed, 1897.
Simplification of the transfer of land by Act passed, 1897, permitting registration

registration. when local authorities agree to it.

Measures to improve the London Water Bills introduced, 1896-97, for creating a

supply. water trust, representing all interests.

Boyal Commission appointed, 1897, to con-
sider terms of purchase. Act passed giving
Bailway Commissioners power to enforce
proper supply. Temporary measure carried,
1897.
Amendment of the law of evidence. Bills introduced, 1896-7, to enable persons

charged with offence to give evidence on
their own behalf.

VII.-RABIES.

The DoflT-Mnuling Order. — When the present Government came into office in
1896, one ofthe first facts officially brought to the notice of the President of the Board
of Agriculture was the very serious prevalence of rabies throughout the country. In 1892,
the Kadical Government had taken off the muzzling restrictions imposed bv Mr. Chaplin
three years previously, with the result that whereas in 1892 there were only thirty-eight
cases of rabies in dogs, and seven deaths of human beings from hydrophobia, the numbers
had risen in 1896 to six hundred and seventy-two and twenty respectively.

In April, 1896, therefore, Mr. Walter Long appointed a committee composed of five
members of the House of Commons and other representative bodies to go minutely into
the whole question, and to report what steps should be taken. The Committee examined
twenty-seven witnesses, including Chief Constables, Chairmen of quarter sessions,
permanent officials of England ana Ireland, and representatives of the Kennel Associa-
tion, of the National Canine Defence League, and of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals. After a most exhaustive enquiry, and after every other alternative had been
very carefully considered, the Committee unanimously reported that they thought the
time had come, and that the circumstances were opportune, " for the Board of Agriculture
to make a determined and systematic effort to stamp out rabies." To do this they
recommended that the proper course was for the Department to take over the responsi-
bility from the various local bodies in whose hands it then was, and to enforce muzzling
over " considerable areas irrespective of the boundaries of boroughs and counties." The
object of the latter was, of course, to secure uniformity of action, and to do away with
the harassing conflict of regulations which had prevailed during the period 1893-96, when
it had practically been left to the various local authorities to decide, each for themselves,
whether or n«)t muzzling regulations should be imposed. In consequence of this report,
therefore, the Board of Agriculture adopted the policy which is now being carried out.
In Mr. Long's words it is a policy ** of selecting large areas where there have been
outbreaks of this terrible disease, and imposing upon them the strictest' muzzling
regulations."

That systematic muzzling is efficacious as a means of exterminating rabies can hardly
be doubted by any impartial observer. The facts given in the report of the committee
are evidence which cannot be denied. In the four years during which muzzling regula-
tions made by the Board of Agriculture were in force, the number of cases of rabies
reported in dogs were in 1889, 312; in 1890, 129; in 1891, 79; and 1892, 38. After the



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340 POLITICAL NOTES.

Badical Government of 1892 came into office, and the orders were taken off, the record
was as follows :— 1893, 93 cases ; in 1894, 248 cases ; and in 1895 they had reached the
appalling total of 672. The number of deaths from hydrophobia in England and Wales
during the same period presents similar features, for in 1889 the number reported by
the Registrar General was 30, in 1892 it was 6, and in 1896 it had again risen to 20.

Much criticism and abuse has been hurled at the Department concerned for the
restrictions which are now in force, chiefly on the grounds that they are useless and cruel.
To those who hold that they are useless we would recommend a careful study of the above
statistics, and before condemning muzzling as a cruel method of treating dogs it is
surely well to pause and consider the terrible suffering to human beings which is being
caused by the prevalence of this awful scourge. Mr. Long has expressed the hope and
the belief, which is held by himself and his advisers, that if the regulations are properly
adhered to " in a comparatively short space of time it will be possible to stamp out the
disease," and thus to get rid of these irksome restrictions once and for all. It is really
very doubtful whether a proper fitting muzzle, padded with leather, is anything more
than a very slight inconvenience so soon as a dog gets accustomed to it, and if there is
a reasonable chance that the disease can be completely stamped out like cattle plague
and foot and mouth disease have been, surely it is in the interests of all lovers of dogs
to put up with the temporary interference with the liberty of their pets which has been
found necessary in the interests of human life. ^ - -^288 W!" • - - •



Result of Mtuzlinsr Order in 1896.— The persistent application of the muzzle,
combined with the seizure and slaughter of ownerless dogs not wearing the muzzle,
materially reduced the number of cases in rabies in England during the year 1896. In
Cheshire the disease decreased from 31 cases in 1896 to 1 in 1896 ; in Lancashire from
129 to 21 ; and in the West Biding from 308 to 16. In the County of London and the
adjacent counties of Middlesex and Surrey, the number of cases increased from 111 in
1896 to 242 in 1896. It is a matter of interest to observe how this outbreak succumbed
to the effect of the muzzling orders imposed by the local authorities, as will be seen in
a table on page 816.



Vin.-THE EFFECT. OF FOREIGN COM PETITION, laraj

Mr. Chamberlain, in November, 1895, issued a despatch to the Governors of the
Colonies, with the object of ascertaining the extent to which the generally alleged
displacement of British by foreign goods was really taking place in the Colonial markets.
A Blue Book has now been issued showing that the Colonial Secretary's invitation has
been responded to with readiness from every quarter, and the returns sent with the
replies from the various Colonials give evidence of the great interest taken in the subject.
The main general conclusions to be drawn from the mass of valuable information supplied
are thus summarised by the officials at the Colonial Office : —

1. In the best class of goods and in the capacity to put the best possible article on
a market which requires it, the British manufacturer (and this seems generally to
mean manufacturer from the United Kingdom) is still supreme.

2. There are certain exceptions to the above rule, chiefly in the case of machinery
and tools of certain patterns, and in favour of the United States, yet in these
particular lines the Canadian manufacturer is often a successful competitor with
those of the United States.

3. A great portion of the general Colonial market is not a market for the best class
of goods, and in proportion as cheap and finished imitations of such goods can be
put on the market the trade will go away to the producers of such imitations. This,
as shown by returns, is precisely where the foreign manufacturer is coming in.

4. There is some danger that where the trade goes to foreign competitors in the
cheap goods just mentioned, a certain proportion of the better class of trade may also
be diverted eventually. On the other hand, all the correspondents agree in reprobating
the trading methods of our merchants. Again and again attention is caUed to their
stolid conservatism in neglecting to ascertain the wants of the foreign buyers. As
an example of the British methods of business, the Minister for Victoria writes as
follows : —

"Victorian merchants say that *the Germans bring their goods to us, whilst the
British wait for the buyers to come to them ' ; and, undoubtedly, this is the experience in
this colony. Large numbers of German manufacturers are represented here by travelling
agents, who display the greatest energy in transacting business, an energy which amounts
to pertinacity^ . . . Many British manufacturers whose goods are in common demand
here are not represented at all, whilst others give their agencies to Victorian merchants.



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POLITICAL NOTES. 341

who have many other interests, sometunes, perhaps, conflicting with those of their
principals. . . . Many foreign goods are in Victoria on consignment by the manu-
xactorers, whilst British ^oods are mainly those which have been bonght from the
mannf actnrer in Great Britain, and which it was our interest to specially push forward.
A warehouseman in the colony with British and foreign goods for sale gains nothing by
selling one instead of the other. This must be prejudicial to British incmstry."

And in the trade report for 1896 of our Consul- General for Germany we have almost
the same complaint. He concludes this report with the following remarks :—

" The frequent remarks made in the British Parliament and m other assemblies as to
the superiority of the German technical schools have been noticed with much satisfaction
by the German press. And. there is no question that, wholesome as such criticisms are
for British industry in the future, the belief of the Germans in their superior workman-
ship is increasing. If then, as before stated, the business transactions between Germany
and England idiow an increase in spite of these facts, it may be attributed to the
generally favourable economical turn of the market.

** One must not, however, be blind to the possibility that these circumstances may
ultimately cause some injury to British trade. It has been confessed in public assemblies
in England that the long uncontested superiority of British industry has induced a
feeling of self-suf&ciency, and one may almost say of indolence, with regard to efforts for



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