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ship canal across Central America.

Bureaucracy.— A state of society in which
social status depends upon official position, as in
Russia.

Burgesses.— A term originally applied to the
representatiyes of boroughs in Parliament ; now,
by the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, used to
distinguish those entitled to the municipal fran-
chise.

Cabal.— The term applied to the Cabinet of
Charles II. in 1670, being formed from the initial
letters of their names : Cufford, Arlington, Buck-
inirham, Ashley, and Lauderdale.

Cabinet.— See article on *• The Cofutitution,'*

Call Of the House.— Has fallen into desue-
nde, and has not been ordered since 18S6, though
a motion has been made for it. The object was
to secure a full attendance when any Important
measure was under discussion, and the names of
all members were called over.

Capitulations.— The instrument by which
•ertain rights are granted to foreign subjects in
Turkey and Egypt.

Garpet-Basger.— A term applied to a parlia-
mentary candidate who has had no previous
•onnection with the place he seeks to represent.

Caucus (American).— A combination of elec-
tors or voters for the purpose of introducing cer-
tain persons into places of trust and power. In
England it has taken the form of a large com-
mittee of electors selected from the whole con-
stituency for the purpose of choosing candidates
for the reprc)|sentation of the constituency in the
House of Commons and for all municipal honours.
It is obviously a powerful means of stifling the
voice of a dissentient minority of a party, and of
securing the adoption of a particular ticket or
programme.

Cave.— The term is usually applied to a com-
bination of a small number of members to defeat
a measure introduced by the party to which they
belong. The appellation took its origin from the
Scriptural parallel drawn by Mr. Bright, March
13, 1866, when he compared the Liberal opponents
of Lord Russell's Reform Bill to the men who
gathered themselves to David in the cave of
Adullam.— (1 Sam. xxii.)

Gbalrman (of Ways and Means).— In every
Session, on the first occasion of the House going
into Committee, the leader of the House moves

•* that Mr. take the chair," and thereupon he

becomes the Chairman of Ways and Means and of
the Committee of the whole House during that
Session. He is a salaried officer, and has much
control over unopposed Private Bill legislation.

Ghalmian (of Committees in the Lords) is a
permanent paid official who takes the chair when
the House is in committee, and has also a general
superintendence over Private Bill legislation.

Cbandos Clause.— Section 20 of the Reform
Act of 1832, by which occupiers at £60 rental
were admitted as voters.

Charee d' Affaires.— Is a diplomatic envoy of
the third class, ranking below a plenipotentiary ;
he is only accredited to the foreign Government,
and has no right of access to the foreign Sovereign.

Charter Party. - A covenant between merchants
and masters of ships relating to the ship and cargo.

CniartlstS.— A body of agitators who carried
on an active propaganda between 1838 and 1848.

ChaUYlnlsm.— The term (derived from Chau-
vin, a character in one of Scribe's comedies) is
used to describe an exaggerated form of pat-
riotism.

Chlltem Hundreds.— The acceptance of this
office is a form by which a member of Parliament
can resign his seat. It is only by obtaining office



that he can do so, and the Crown is therefore
always ready to confer on any member, except in
cases of misconduct, the Stewardship of the Chil-
tem Hundreds, of East Hendred and Northstead^
of Poynings, or the Escheatorship of Munster,
which beholds till another member is appointed
to it. A writ for a vacancy caused by acceptance
of the Chiltem Hundreds can only be issued while
Parliament is sitting.

Church Bate.— The rate imposed by par-
ishioners In vestry meeting for the purpose of
maintaining the fabric and services of the parisk
church. It was abolished as a compulsory im-
post in 1868.

Civil List— See " The CivU List and Royal
Grants," ante.

Cloture. — See House of Commons— Proceduve,.
atUe.

Combination Laws.— These statutes forbade
the association of workmen in Trade Unions.
Repealed in 1824.

Committees of the House of Commons. —

(1) "Ofiht whole House" is formed when the
Speaker leaves the Chair and the Chairm»»
of Ways and Means takes it for the con-
sideration of the details of Bills in the Com-
mittee stage, and for other purposes.

(2) ' * Of Supply " is formed in the same way for any

proceedings relating to the public income
or expenditure. Estimates are submitted to
it, and resolutions moved granting to the
Crown the sums requisite.

(3) " Of Ways and Means " is formed in the same

way for any proceedings relating to the funds
by which the expenditure of the country is
sustained. Loans, duties, and all imposts are
submitted to it. All the propositions of
Government are reduced to resolutions divi-
ded on by this Committee. Those agreed to
are reported to the House, and incorporated
in Bills.

(4) *^ Of Selection" isaCommittee nominated by the

House of experienced members, whose duties
are to nominate the members of Private Bill
Committees, and in any other case where the
House may so order. The present chainuaB
is Sir John Mowbray, M.P.
(5) ' ' Private BiU. '.'—These Committees are nomina-
ted by the Committee of Selection, and usually
consist of five members, sometimes including
an official referee, to consider all private
Bills affecting railways or other similar
questions. They sit in one of the upstairs
rooms, usually from twelve to four, and are
empowered to hear counsel and witnesses.

(6) " <Sel«<^."— These are appointed by the Houae,

either at the suggestion of the Government
or of some private member, to consider any
Public Bill or subject of interest which may
be referred to them. Their number is un-
certain, varying from five to even twenty-
eight members. They can only take evidence
when specially authorised to do so. They
select their own chairman.

(7) " Hybrid. "—These are appointed partly by the
House itself and partly by the Committee
of Selection, for the purpose of consider-
ing any private BiUs, of special interest to
the public at large, which may be referred to
them.

(8) ''Standing or Grand."— Fint adopted in
modem times in 1883 by the appointment of
Standing Committees on Trade and on Law.
The experiment was repeated in 1884, when
it was, however, not put into operation, but
since 1888 the two Committees have again
been constituted. They assimilate their pro-
ceedings to those of Committees of the
whole House, as far as possible. They can
deal only with Bills speciuly referred io them.
In 1894 a Standing Committee for Scotch Bills
was appointed.



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GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS.



349



Communism.— The system of things in com-
cnon, and the doctrines relating to it.

Compound HoUBehOlder.— The term applied
to those occupiers whose landlords "compound"
with the parish authorities to pay the rates on
their houses.

ComtistS.— The disciples of Auguste Comte,
the founder of the Positivist creed, d. 1857.

Concordat.— A formal agreement between
the See of Kome and any foreign Government, by
which the administration of the Koman Catholic
Church within the territory of that Government
as regulated— «.g., the Concordat of 1^1 with
France, and of 1855 with Austria.

Conference (l) Parliamentary.— A negotia-
tion between the Lords and Commons in the
•event of a difference. The Lords name the time
and place, and reasons for the course proposed
are given, in writing, on both sides. But these
reasons are now generally given by message from
one House to the other without a conference ; (2)
Diplomatic— A. meeting of ambassadors or special
envoys for the purpose of settling some inter-
national question.

Conge d'Ellre.— The licence given by the
Sovereign, as head of the Church, to a dean and
chapter empowering them to elect a Bishop, when
a See becomes vacant.

Congress.— A meeting of Sovereigns or Minis-
ters for Foreign Affairs for the purpose of settling
«ome international question.

Conscience Clause.- The provision of the
Education Act, 1870, which prohibits the teaching
jn public elementary schools of the doctrines of any
•particular denomination against the wishes of the
parents of children.

Conservatives.— The name by which the po-
litical party whose fundamental principle is the
preservation of our national institutions has been
known since 1830. {Quarterly Rev. , xliii., p. 276).

Consolidated FlUid is the general revenue o
the country to which the gross produce of all
taxes and revenues, and also certain miscellaneous
receipts, are paid. The expenditure for certain of
•the Public Services, such as the National Debt,
the Civil List, and the salaries of the judges is
charged once and for all on the Consolidated Fund.

Consols (short for " Consolidateds"). — The
name owes its origin to an Act of 1752, which
4ionsolidMed various Government stocks into 3 per
cent, annuities, at which rate they remained until
1888, when the New Consols at 2| per cent, were
created by the National Debt Conversion Act,
introduced by Mr. Goschen.

Constitutional Party.— The alternative name
assumed by Conservatives and seceded Whigs
an the general election of 1868.

Consul. — A diplomatic agent abroad whose
duty it is to aid and advise British subjects re-
quiring assistance, to report on the trade of the
district in which he resides, and generally to dis-
charge the duties of a commercial agent for the
home country.

Contraband. — A term used to denote articles
which are forbidden to be imported into or ex-
ported from any country by the law of that country.

Contraband of War.— A term used to denote
articles, such as munitions of war, which may not
be supplied by a neutral to a belligerent Power.

Convention.— A meeting of representatives
from two or more States for the purpose of set-
tling some international question not sufiBlciently
important for a Congress or a Conference.

Convocation.— The general assembly of the
clergy of the Church of England convened by
the Sovereign. Convocation is divided into two
Houses for eachProvince(Northern and Southern),
the Upper being composed of Bishops, and the
Lower of Deans, Prebendaries, Archdeacons, and
members elected by the beneficed clergy



Com Laws, The.— A series of enactments regu-
lating and imposiag duties or granting bounties
on the importation or exportation of corn.
They were repealed by Sir Robert Peel in 1846.

Countervailing Duties.- Duties imposed
on imported articles in order to equalise the
charges imposed on them with the charges im-
posed on articles manufactured at home or im
ported from abroad.

Count-Out.— If any member of the House of
Commons calls the attention of the Chair to the
fact that the quorum of forty members is not
present, the debate is stopped, and after two
minutes, the House is counted, when, if forty
members are not in sight, the House stands ad-
journed. No count-out can take place on Wednes-
days until after four o'clock.

County Councils.— The authorities estab-
lished by the Local Government Act, 1888, to
take over the administrative portion of County
business formerly in the hands of magistrates in
quarter sessions. In London the County Coun-
cil superseded the Metropolitan Board of Works.

Courts Martial are military tribunals, held
under authority of the Army Act, for the trial
of soldiers charged with offences.

Crown Lands.— The hereditary property of
the Sovereign, surrendered by him to Parliament
in exchange for a fixed Civil List.
* Cumulative Vote.— The provision by whic
electors are allowed to give all their votes to on
candidate, or distribute them at will. Applied to
School Board Elections since 1870.

Customs. — The duties levied upon goods o
merchandise at the place of importation.

Death Duties.— The Estate, Legacy and Suc-
cession Duties.

Democrats.— The advocates for the govern-
ment of the people by the people ; a name adopted
by the French Republicans, 1790, and by the pso-
slavery party in the United States.

Direct Taxation.— A tax is said to be direct
when it is assessed upon the persons on whom
the burden of it falls. Thus the income-tax is
direct, but a tax on tobacco, which, though paid
in the first instance by the dealer, really falls on
the consumer, is indirect.

Dispensing Power.— The power claimed by
several English Sovereigns to set aside the laws.
It was finally rejected by the Bill of Rights, 1689.

Domesday Book.— The book containing the
General Survey of England, completed in 1086.
The Modern Domesday Book, or Return of Owners
of Land, was issued in 1875 (Pari. Paper, 1097).

Drawback or Rebate.— Duty remitted or
paid back by the Government on the exportation
or re-exportation of the commodities on which
the duty was charged.

Education Code.— The annual regulations
issued by the Education Committee of the Privy
Council, in accordance with which the grants to
elementary schools are determined.

Eight Hours Movement.— A proposal to
enact a legal working day of eight hours ; first
adopted in England by the Trades Union Con-
gress at Liverpool, September, 1890.

Estimates.— The annual statements, prepared
by the heads of the Government Departments, of
the sums to be voted by the House of Commons
for the requirements of the year. '

Exchange.— The par of exchange is the fixed
value of the standard of value of one country in
the standard of value of another country— e.g.,
£l=4dols. 86c. 6im., American. The exchange
18 sikid to be against a country, say England, when
a bill on London can be purchased in New York
below its par value.

Exchequer.— The national Treasury.



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350



GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS.



Bxchequer Bills.— Negotiable interest-bearing
bills payable to bearer, issued by the Treasury
under the authority of Parliament for amounts
varying from £100 to £1,000.

Extradition.— The delivery up of fugitives
from justice by one State to another in pursuance
of a treaty.

Faggot Vote.— A vote procured by an illusory
purchase of property with the object of acquir-
ing a nominal qualification. Faggot votes were
usually manufactured by the division of a heredi-
tament into qualifying lots, which are distri-
buted between several persons; they occurred
chiefly in counties, and were virtually abolished
by the Franchise Act of 1884.

Fair Trade.— The principle urged by the sup-
porters of the doctrine is tliat although Free
Trade ought to be universally adopted by
nations, yet one nation ought not to subject its
industries to a disadvantage by refusing in the
face of hostile tariffs to tax foreign goods. In
other words, if France, for example, refuses to
admit our goods free of duty, we in fairness
ought to levy a reciprocal duty on French goods.

Federation.- Where several states combine on
equal terms to provide and obey a common central
government for matters of general polity, «.gr.,
foreign relations, while each State governs itaelt
in local matters, the combination is called a
federation. For example, the United States of
America.

Fenians. — The common name of the "Irish
Republican Brotherhood," instituted in 1858 by
James Stephens, whose attempted insurrection
in 1867 was easily suppressed.

Filibusters.- A name given to Freebooters
who plundered tlie American coasts in the 17th
century, and now applied to any illegitimate mili-
tary enterprise.

Forbes Mackenzie Act.- The Act of 1853
which regulates public houses in Scotland.

Foreign Enlistment Act -passed in I8i»—
forbids British subjects to enter the military ser-
vice of a foreign state without special permission,
or to make war without authority upon a friendly
country.

Free Fort.— A port where ships of all nations
may load and unload free of duty, provided the
goods are not carried into the adjoining country.

Free Trade.— Trade free from restrictions, and
in particular unencumbered by customs duties
designed to prohibit or restrict the importation of
foreign gooas.

French Treaty.— The treaty negotiated by
Cobden with France in 1800.

Funded Debt.— That part of a national debt
which stands in the form of permanent stock, as
opposed to money owing on bills, paper currency
or other temporary indebtedness, which is
classed as Unfunded Debt.

Qame Laws.— The principal Act is that of
1 and 2 William IV., c. 32, which greatly
modified preceding laws and legalised the sale of
game at certain seasons.

Geneva Convention.— The international code
adopted in 1864, which lays down the regulations
under which succour is provided for the sick and
wounded in war.

Gerrymandering. — a manipulation of a
section of voters from one constituency to another
where they may be more wanted, in order to
secure the dominant party a majority in both. A
term borrowed from American politics.

Griffith's Valuation.— The valuation of Ire-
land, for purposes of taxation, carried out under
ttae supervision of Sir R. Griffith between 1830
and 1850.

Habeas Corpus Act.— The Act 31 Charles II.,
c. 2, passed in 1679, by which a suLject who is
imprisoned may demand a writ of hi.bea» corpui



to bring him before a court which shall determine
whether his imprisoi^ment was just.

" Hanging Qale.'*— The half-year's rent which,
on many estates in Ireland, is not collected until
six months after it is due.

Heckling.— A Scotch expression, to describe
the process of questioning a candidate during an
election.

High Commission.- An ecclesiastical court
(abolished 1641), by which all spiritual jurisdic-
tion was vested in the Crown.

High Treason is an offence against the secu-
rity of ttie Commonwealth, or the person of the
Sovereigl.

Hinterland. — The German word used to
denote the undefined territories lying behind
the European colonies in Africa.

Holy Alliance.— The aUiance entered into^
in 1815, between the sovereigns of Bussia,
Prussia, and Austria, by which they l>ound them-
selves to be governed by Christian principles in
their policy, with the object of maintaining the
peace of their States.

Home Rule.- The movement set on foot by
the hite Isaac Butt, M.P., in 1870, which had for
its object the establishment of an Irish Parlia-
ment, dependent upon the Crown. The basis of
the demand was afterwards enlarged by the party
of Mr. Pamell, and was adopted by Mr. Gladstone
and a large section of the Liberal party in 1886.

Horse Guards.- The name originally applied,
to the Household troops, and now used to denote
the building in Whitehall where some of the
departments of the army administration are
located.

Hue and Cry.— A police circular, established
in 1710, and now superseded by the Police
Gazette.

Hundred, The.— An ancient division of a
county, so called from having, as is supposed,
originally contained one hundred families.

Hustings.— The place from which candidates
for Parliament addressed the electors at the
nomination prior to the Ballot Act of 1872.

Hypothec— The Scotch law of distress for
rent, by which the landlord was entitled to the
first claim on the tenant's property.

Illiterate Vote.- The provision of the Ballot
Act, 1872, wUch enables a person who cannot
read or write to require the presiding officer to-
mark his ballot paper for him.

Impeachment.— A proceeding by which a
minister, charged with crimes against the State,
may be brought to trial.

Imperial Federation.— The movement hav-
ing for its object the consolidation of the United
Kingdom and the Colonies for the purposes of
trade, and for the defence of material interest^
and common rights. The Imperial Federation
League was dissolved in 1893, but has been suc-
ceeded by the British Empire League, with more
definate objects.

Indemnity Bill.— A measure by which Par-
liament may relieve a ministry from the conse-
quences of a breach of the law committed in
extreme and urgent cases without Parliamentary
sanction.
Indirect Taxation.— See Direct Taxation.
Inland Revenue includes the proceeds of the
Excise, Death Duties, Stamp Duties, Property
and Income Tax, Land Tax, and House Duty.

Interpellation.— A formal question or chal-
lenge to a minister by a member of Parliament ;
the term is chiefly used in France.

Kilmainham Treaty.— The alleged under-
standing between Mr. Gladstone's Government
and Mr. Pamell in 18S2, by which the latter
iwould have been released from Kilmainham
prison, giving an undertaking to assist in
suppressing outrages and forwarding Liberal*



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GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS.



351



Laissez-faire. — The doctrine of non-interfer-
ence by the Government in the affairs of society.
Its advocates insist on leaving as much as
possible to private enterprise.

Lichfield House Compact.— Said to have
been entered into between the Whig Government
of 1835 and Daniel O'Connell, at Lichfield House,
13, St. James' Square.

Limitations, Statutes of.— The Acts which
limit the time within which redress may be sought
for injuries sustained.

Local Option or Local Veto.— The terms
applied to projects of temperance legislation, by
which a certain majority of the inhabitants of
a district would be empowered to prohibit the
issue of publicans' licences.

Lodger Franchise.— Established by the Dis-
raeli Reform Act of 1867.

"McKinley Act."— An Act of the United
States Legislature passed in 1890, under which the
import duties on foreign goods imported into the
United States were enormously raised.

Blagna Charta.— See The Constitution.

"Blanchester Martyrs."— The term applied
by Irish Nationalists to Allen, Larkin, and
O'Brien, who were hanged for having murdered
Police- Sergeant Brett at Manchester in 1866,
while attempting to effect a rescue of the Fenian
prisoners under his charge.

Mandamus.— A process by which the Courts
may enforce the performance of public duty.

Marque, Letters Ot — Licences formerly
granted by Government in time of war, author-
ising private individuals to fit out ships of war
for the purpose of harassing and plundering the
enemy. Abolished by treaty, 1856.

Match Tax. — A tax of ^d. per box upon lucif er
matches, proposed by the late Mr. Lowe (Lord
Sherbrooke) when Chancellor of the Exchequer in
1871, but afterwards abandoned in consequence
of the hostility it provoked.

Minority Vote.— A provision of the Reform
Act of 1867, by which, in order to secure the
representation of the minority in certain con-
stituencies, some 20 in number, each returning
three members, it was enacted that no elector
should vote for more than two members. The
provision was rendered obsolete by the Redistribu-
tion Act, 1885.

Monroe Doctrine.— The opinion held by
President Monroe of the United States, 1817-24,
against permitting European powers to interfere
in questions of liberty in North or South America.

Moonlighting.— The name given to night out-
rages in Ireland with the object of preventing the
payment of rent, or punishing an unpopular tenant.

Mortmain. — The state of possession, as re-
gards real property, which prevents its alienation.

Mutiny Act.— The popular name of the Army
(Annual) Act, which regulates the discipline and
payment of the British army.

Navigation Laws, The.— Certain enactments
designed to secure a commercial monopoly to this
country. One, for example, provided that no
goods should be exported from this country ex.
cept in British vessels. They were repealed in 1849'

"No Bent" Manifesto.— The proclamation
issued by Mr. Parnell and others, from Kilmain-
ham Gaol in 1881, ordering the Irish tenant
farmers to pay no rent until the "suspects"
were released.

Oath.— The oath taken by members of Parlia-
ment is as follows :— " I, do swear that

I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her
Majesty Queen Victoria, her heirs and successors,
according to law. So help me God."



Oligrarchy.— A form of Government which
places the supreme power in a small number.

"One Man, One Vote."— The article first
adopted by Mr. Gladstone at Nottingham, Octo-
ber, 1887, as an item of the Gladstonian Liberal
programme. It involves the abolition of the
existing property franchise, which dates from 8
Henry VI., and of every qualification which does
not depend upon mere residence.



Online LibraryJ. Just LloretThe Constitutional year book → online text (page 62 of 74)