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Orders of the Day.— See Hoib»e ofCommona—
Proceditre.

Orer-Regnilation Price.— A bonus formerly
paid by officers in the army (under the Purchase
System, q.v.) to facilitate the retirement of their
superiors in rank, and thereby accelerate promo-
tion.

Peelltes.— The name given to those Whig and
Tory members who adhered to Sir R. Peel after
his defeat in 1846.

Penal Laws. — statutes of great severity
against criminals ; they were considerably miti-
gated by Sir R. Peel in 1826-S, and subsequently.

Permissive Bill.— The name formerly given to
a project of law which proposed to give power to a
certain majority of the parishioners in any parish
to veto the grant of publicans' licences.

" Flan of Campaign." A system, initiated
by Mr. J. Dillon, M.P., and published in United'
Ireland^ October, 1886,by which the tenants on an
estate determined the amount of rent they would
pay, and handed the same to secretly appointed
trustees, to be used in fighting the landlord if he .
declined to accept the terms proposed. The prac-
tice was emphatically condemned by the Pope in
a letter of April 20th, 1888, addressed to the Irish
Bishops.

Plenipotentiary.— A diplomatic envoy of the
second class. He does not represent his Sovereign
as an ambassador does, nor does he, like an
ambassador, have a personal right of access to the
foreign Sovereign at all times, but only on special
occasions.

Political Economy.— The science which hap
for its object the amelioration of the condition of
mankind and the furtherance of civilisation,
wealth, and happiness.

Poyning's Act.— The Act of 1494 (10 Henry
YII.), by which the measures introduced into the
Irish Parliament were subjected to the control
of the Privy Council. It was in effect repealed "
in 1782.

Prerogative, The BoyaL— See The Croivn.

Previous Question.— a mode of avoiding for
a time a decision on a question of principle by
withholding it from the vote. See under " House
of Commons procedure," ante.

Prime Minister, or Premier— Is usually,

but not necessarily, First Lord of the Treasury.
He is the head of the Ministry, and may be in
either House of Parliament.

Primogeniture, The Law of, gives the eldest

born superiority of rights over those of younger
brothers in cases of intestacy.

Privateer.— A ship belonging to private indi-
viduals sailing under Letters of Marque, q.v.

Privy Council.— This is the successor of the
ancient Curia Regis ; the Sovereign acts in Coun-
cil in the discharge of certain statutory business
through this body, and summons any members
thereof she pleases ; three form a quorum. The
higher officers of State and of the Sovereign's
Household are invariably members of it.

Prorogation.— The effect of proroguing Par-
liament is to quash all pending proceedings
(except an Impeachment), and to suspend all
business until Parliament may be summoned
again. An adjournment is simply a suspension
of business. A prorogation can only be at the



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352



GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL TERMS.



will of the Sovereign ; either House may adjourn
at any time at its own pleasure.

Protection.— The protection of domestic indus-
try by the imposition of duties on imported goods.

Protectionists.— <1) The party which opposed
the repeal of the Com Laws, deriving this name
from the Society for the Protection of Agriculture.
(2) The opponents of free trade generally.

Protest.— Any one or more peers have the
right of entering on the journals of the House of
. Lords the fact of their dissent frbm a measure
which has received the sanction of the majority,
with their reasons for dissenting. This is called
their protest.

ProtOCoL— A rough draft of the proceedings
at a congress, conference or convention, to be
afterwards embodied in a formal treaty, and
formally ratified by the attending Powers.

Purchase System.— The practice of pur-
chasing commissions in the army, which obtained
up to 1871, when it was abolished by Koyal War-
rant, legislation for th
rejected in Parliament.



rant, legislation for the purpose having been



hav



See The Crown,



Quarantine.— The period of detention im-
posed upon ships and passengers arriving from
places infected with disease.

Queen Anne's Bounty. — A fund established
in 1703 for the purpose of increasing the incomes
of the poorer clergy.

Quorum.— In the House of Lords three form a
quorum ; in the House of Commons forty.
. Back Bent.— In practice the rack rent is the
maximum which can be obtained under free
competition.

Bebate.— See Drawback.

Beclprocity, as applied to commercial ques-
tions, implies equality of treatment between one
country and another in matters of traffic, Ac.

Ribbonism.— The principles of a secret society
in Ireland, the object of which was to intimidate
the landlords and revenge alleged injuries.

Bight, Petition of.-

Rlght, Declaration of.

Bound Table Conference.— The meeting of
Liberal leaders, viz., Mr. Chamberlain, Sir W.
Harcourt, Lord Herschell, Mr. John Morley, and
Sir G. Trevelyan, held at Mr. Chamberlain's sug-
gestion in 1887 to devise, if possible, a means of
re-uniting the Liberal party on the Irish question.
The conference proved abortive.

Boyal Assent is the act by which the Crown,
either in person or by a Commission, gives its
assent to Bills passed by both Houses. The Koyal
decision is announced in Norman French by the
Clerk of the Parliaments. To a money Bill he
says, " La Beyneremercie sesbons sujets, accepte
leur benevolence, et ainsi le veult." To an
ordinary Public Bill he says. " La Keyne le veult."
To a private Bill he says, *' Soit fait comme il est
d6sir6." If the Boyal Assent is refused, he
«ays, ** La Reyne s'avlsera." This power, however,
has not been exercised since 1707. The moment
the assent is given, the Bill becomes an Act.

Boyalties are payments which the lessee or
manufacturer makes to the owner of a patent,
copyright, mine, &c., for the right of applying the
invention or getting minerals.

Schomburgk Line.— The line of demarcation
between the territories of British Guiana and
Venezuela, traced by Sir R. Schomburgk for the
British Government.

Septennial Act.— Passed in 1716, by which
Parliament is dissolved ipso facto on the seventh
anniversary of the date upon which it met.

Session, in Parliamentary language, means
the period during which Parliament sits after it
has been summoned by proclamation until it has
been prorogued. An adjournment, therefore,
•does not end a Session.



Sessional Orders are regulations which ex-
pire at the end of the Session in which they are
made, although they are renewable.
Settlement, Act of.— See The Constitution.
Sinking Fund.— A fund formed by putting
aside a certain sum every year to accumulate at
compound interest, with the object of ultimately
extinguishing the whole or some part of the
National Debt.

Sliding Scale.— The term, as applied to the
Com Laws, signified the iniport duties imposed
by the Acts of 1828 and 1842, which varied
according to the average price of wheat in
England.

Socialism may be roughly described as the
collective name for a group of doctrines which
aim at a comparative equality in the distribution
of property as opposed to the existing system.

Speaker (The) of the House of Lords is
generally, but not necessarily, the Lord Chan-
cellor or Keeper of the Great SeaL He is
the organ and mouthpiece of the House, but has
not the right of preserving order or of giving a
casting vote.

Speaker (The) of the House of Commons pre-
sides over the meetings of that assembly, except
when in Committee. He represents the House in
the Boyal Presence, and on other public occasions.
He does not speak in debate, except sometimes in
Committee.

Standing Orders are the permanent regula-
tions for the conduct of business in either House
of Parliament.
Supply.— See Committees.
Tallies (of the Exchequer) were sticks of wood
with notches on them indicating the sum due to
the Exchequer. When cut in two, one part was
retained by the Chamberlain of the Exchequer
and the other by the party paying in the money.
They were abolished in 1782.

Tariff.— A list or table of duties payable on
goods imported into or exported from a country.
Tellers.— The members who are appointed to
ensure the accuracy of divisions in Parliament.
Two are appointed on either side.

Terminable Annuities.— Another name for
the SinkingFund,by means of whicha considerable
portion of debt is paid off every year, therein ex-
tinguishing the capitalised sum after a certain time.
Test Act obliged all Government officers to
receive the Sacrament according to the rites of the
Church of England. It was abolished in 1673.
The Test and Corporation Acts were abolished in
1828.

Three-Comer Constituency.— See Minority

Vote.

Three F'S.— An expression which came into
use during the debates on the Irish Land Act in
1881, signifying the demands of the Irish
tenants for Fixity of Tenure, Fair Bents, and
Free Sale.

Three B'S.— A loose expression employed in
the Education debates in 1870, and signifying
Beading, Writing, and Arithmetic.

Town Council- The authority established
by the Municipal Corporations Act, which con-
trols the affairs of towns having a charter of
incorporation.

Traveller, The Bona-fide.— A person defined
by the Licensing Acts as one whose lodging
during the preceding night is at least 3 miles from
the place where he demands to be served with
liquor.

tineamed Increment.— A controversial term
intended to express the increase in the value of
land owing to circumstances external to the land—
e.g., the growth of an adjacent town.

Voluntary Schools in common parlance are
those which receive grants under the Education
Acts, but which are managed and otherwise sup-
ported by voluntary agency.

Ways and Means.— See Committee.



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STATISTICAL TABLES.



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354



NATIONAL INCOME







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AND EXPENDITURE.



355





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356 REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.

Gross Estimated and Actual Revenue and Expenditure of

the United Kingdom in each of the financial years since 1856-7 ;

with the proportion of the actual Kevenue and Expenditure per

Q Head of the Population, and the Surplus or Deficiency of Income.

• (Compiled from various numbers of the " Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom.")



I . - .

(a) Note.— The amounts stated above for the years from 1882-3 to 1896-97 are tiot properly com-
parable with those given for previous years, the Army and Navy Extra Receipts and the Indian
Contributions for Military Charges, formerly paid into the Exchequer, being now taken in aid of Ex-
penditure. If these sums, and the payments made from them, had been included, the aCmounts in
cols. 1, 2, 4, and 5, for the years referred to, would each have been considerably larger than stated, and
the proportions per head of the population would, of course, have been somewhat increased.

(b) Including £858,057 for operations in China, not provided for in Budget Estimate.

(c) Including £764,829 for War in New Zealand.

(d) Including additional Income Tax, £840,000, imposed in December, 1867.

(e) Including Supplemental Votes for Abyssinian Expedition and other Services, £2,362,000 in 1867-8,
and £4,506,000 in 1868-9.

(/)Including £800,000 repaid to Kevenue out of Telegraph Loan.

(g) Including £3,200,000 for Alabama Claims.

(h) Including £200,000 for Localisation of Military Forces, and £76,565 for charges connected with
the purchase of the Suez Canal Shares, not covered by money raised.

(k) Including Extraordinary Expenditure on account of Kusso-Turkish War.

(I) Including Extraordinary Expenditure on account of War in South Africa.

(m) Exclusive of the proportion of the Death Duties, and of the proceeds of certain license duties,
and since 1890-91 of the portion of the Beer an,d Spirit duties, assigned to the relief of Local Taxation.

(n) This includes £2,009,958 on account of the Debt Conversion operations, which, though not pro-
vided for in the Budget Estimates, was met out of Revenue. Had it not been for this special expendi-
ture the surplus in the last column would have been £2 798,940.



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REVENUE.— EXPENDITURE.



357



Revenue. — Gross Amount received from each of the Principal Branches

3 of Bevenue in each of the undermentioned years. (In thousands
• of pounds — OOO's omitted.)

(Compiled from various nwnhers of the " StaHstic al Abstract for the United Kingdom")



Branches of BsvKinTK.



Customs

Inland Kevenue —

Excise, Licenses, &c

Death Duties

Stamps, exclusive of Fee and

Patent StampB

Land Tax and House Duty

Property and Income Tax

To^l Inland Revenue . .

Post Office

Telegraph Service

Grown Lands (Net Seceipts).
Interest on Advances, Suez Canal

Share Receipts, &c

Miscellaneous —

Fee and Patent Stamps

Extra Receipts by Civil Depart-
ments, Fees, &c

Total Miscellaneous. . . .



Total Income 79,344 87.988



Yeabs enbeb 31st March.



1880.



000 £'s.
19,326



25,300
10,424



2,670
9,230



6,350
1,420



1.255



876

2,103
2,979



000 £'s.
20,321



26,600

11,925

2,960
12,000



^3^476^

7,905

1,760

380

1,027



*24,160

iri8,060

3,000
1 2,770
V2,990



727

2,393
3,120



1890.



000 £'s.
20,424



*25;360

113,805

2,450"
131470



9,450

2,320

430

279



778

2,633
3,411"



89,304



10,400

2,480

430

220



833
1,232



2,065



90^395



1894.



000 £'8.
19,707



*25,200

112,860

2,460
15,200



55,720

10,470

2,540

420

218



871.

1,18 7
2,058



91,133



1896.



000 £'s.
20,115



♦26,050

f 18,719
( 5,721

2,450
15,600



♦26,800

111,600
7,350

2,510
16,100



10,760

2,580

410

413



824

1,042
1,866



000 £'s.
20,756



64,360



11,380

2,840

416

•t690



831
702



1,533



94 ;684' 101,974



^897.
000 &'&'.
21,254



*27,460

110,830
7,350

2,430
16,660



_64,7^

"Tl,860

2,910

415

t708



905

_1,178
2,083



103,950



Note.— This table shows the amounts of the receipts into the Exchequer ; see Table No. 5 for
details of the Revenue produced within the years 1895-96 and 1896-97.

1 Excluding the proportion of receipts from the Death Duties due to Local Taxation Accounts.

* Exclusive of the proceeds of certain license duties, and, since 1892-93, of a portion of the Beer and
Spirit duties, assigned to the relief of Local Taxation, t See Table No. 6 for details.

Public Expenditure of the United Kingdom in each of the

4 undermentioned years, distinguishing the Principal Branches.
« (In thousands of pounds — OOO's omitted.)

(Compiled from various numbers of the *^ Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom.*')



Branches of Expenditure.



On amount of National Debt :
Interest on Funded Debt —
Interest, &c., of Terminable

Annuities

Interest on Unfunded Debt . .

Management

New Sinking Fund

Interest, &c., on Loans not part

of Permanent Charge of Debt
Total for National Debt . .

Conversion Charges met out of

Revenue • • -

Civil Charges of all kinds ....
Forces —

tArmy

IINavy

War Votes and Grants

Indian Army Pension De-
ficiency Annuity

Naval Defence Fund

Total for the Forces



Years ended 31st March.



1880.
000 £'s.

21,296

5,718
127
208
661

763



Grant in aid to Egypt

Charges for Collection of Revenue

(i.e., cost of Revenue Depts.). .

Total Expenditure



28,763



16,923



15,025

10,231

3,245



7,998



•82,185



1885.
000 £'8.

18,976

9,083
101
215

608



19,041



18,600

11,427

.550



1 890.
000 £'8.

16,836

6,556
716
192
700

t227



25,227



30,677



42

1 7,074

17,361
13,842



150

1,429

I 32,782



9,871



89,037



10,958



000 £'s.
16,053

6,350
660
185

1,752

_^00
25,200

19,308



17,542
14,302



150

1.429

33,423



12 ,444
*90,375



1895.



000 £'s.
16,133

6,393'
468
179

1,827'

t200'

_25,200"



000 £'8.
16,221

6,422

462

177

1,718



1896.



000 £'8.
16,110

6,442
118
177

2,153



25,000 I 25,000



19,767 20,407



17,940
14,048,



17,900
17,545



150i 160
1,4291 —



3,667 35,595



12,779' 12,916
*91,303 •9"3>18



21,251

18,460
19,724

160



13,179



•97,764



1897.



000 £'8
16,108

7,150
112
176

1,454



25,000



21,473

18,270
22,170



40,655
799

13,550



101,477



* In addition to the above tetals, the following amounts were expended out of special Loans, viz.,
in 1879-80, £250,000 for Fortifications and Barracks; in 1889-90, £837,000 under the Imperial
Defence Act ; in 1892-98, £286,000 under the Imperial and £1,150,000 under the Naval Defence Acts,
and £621.000 for Barracks and Telegraphs; in 1893-94, £680,000 for" Barracks and £197,000 under
" Imperial Defence " and " Telegraphs ^' Acts ; in 1894-96 £670,000 for Barracks and £140,000 under
the ''^ Imperial Defence " and " Telegraphs " Acta ; in 1895-96, £860,000 for Naval Works, £600,000 for
Barraoks, £678,000 under the Telegraphs Act, and £58,000 under the Imperial Defence Act ; and in
1896-07, £906,000 for Naval Works, £320,000 for Barracks, £138,000 under ^' Telegraphs " Acts, £95,000
under " Public Offioes" Act, and 866,000 under " Uganda Railway " Act.

t Includes the principal and interest of the Suez Bonds and the interest on Cape Railway Bonds.
The payments on account of Local Loans are now met out of the '* Local Loans Fund."

t Including Ordnance Factories. |1 Including Transport Service. ^^ r^r^^\r-^

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358



BRANCHES OF REVENUE.



Amount of the various Branches of the Public Revenue produced

within each of the years ended 31st March, 1896 and 1897.



6.



(Compiled from the " Finance AccourUs ** for the respective years.)



BSANOHES OF KeYIENUB.



Customs.

Beer, Mum, Spruce, &c. .

Chicory •••••

Cocoa, Cocoa Husks, and Chocolate.

Coflfee

Currants

Kaisins

Other dried fruit

Spirits, Foreign and Colonial-
Rum ,

Brandy ,,/.

Geneva

Other Sorts

Tea

Tobacco and Snuff

Wine

Other receipts

Total Customs

EXCISK.t

Beer

S pirlts

Chicory

Coffee Mixture Labels

Railway Passenger Duty

Licenses

Other Excise Receipts



§20,762,413



Total Excise

DEA.TH Duties. II

Probate and Account Duty 1

Estate Duty, Personalty

„ Realty

Estate Duty payable on Property of
persons dying after 1st August, 1894

Legacy Duty

Succession Duty

Corporation Duty

Total Death Duties tJ.

Stamps. 11

Bills of Exchange

Bankers' Notes and Composition for

Duties on Bankers' Bills and Notes

Cards

Licenses and Certificates

Life Insurances

Marine Insurances

Medicine (Patent)

Companies' Capital Duty •

Bonds to Bearer and Substituted

Securities • •

Receipts, Drafts, and other Id. Stamps

Deeds and other Instruments, &c

Total Stamps, exclusive of Fee
and Patent Stamps

Fee Stamps-
Judicature (England)

Judicature (Ireland)

Companies Registration

" London Gazette "

Register House (Scotland)

County Courts (Ireland)

District Audit

Police Courts, Metropolis

All other Fee Stamps

Patents for Inventions



Total Fee and Patent Stamps.



Amount.



1895-96.



16,362
56,480
124,723
167,678
109,102
221,680
64,403

1,985,105

1,311,728

160,342

769,746

3,746,194

10,748,523

1,254,994

35,358



tlO,718,719

115,603,680

651

1,807

259,342

♦238,540

4,016



26,826,755



tt90,823

ttl7,045

ttl45,843

a7,664,644

2,730,861

1,051,512

39,672



11,639,900



672.486

123,876
20,219
167,258
66,735
144,587
238,947
260,476

207,065
1,261,301
4,176,281



7,339,231



351,663
36,987
68,837
21,406
48,518
26,042
45,591
10,390
72,202

182,636



§21,266,131



864,161



1896-97.



15,986
56,227
144,478
172,333
117,266
214,089
69,890

2,111,297

1,803,617

169,106

784,172

3,799,372

11,018,048

1,296,181

44,071



UO 901 094

tl6;013;412

1,502

1,792

272,183

*240,866

4,247



27,435,096



■H«3,922

ttl2,649
tt94,868

<t7,159,581
2,646,497
823,683
40,189



10,741,379



123,904
22,204
166,896
65,369
151,295
254,726
361.567

146,406
1,305,326
4,046,328



7,311,446



336,440
34,768
81,694
21,417
52,513
26,006
49,476
10,867
80,137

204,178



897,486



Remarks.



The rates of the Customs Duties now
levied are stated in Table No. 9.



8 Excluding £202,886 in 1895-96, and
£209,238 in 1896-97, due to Local Taxa-
tion Account (portion of beer and
spirit duties); and also of £76,343 in
1895-98, and £81,091 in 1896-97, due
to Isle of Man.



t See Table No. 10 for rates of Excise
duties.

X Under the Customs and InlandRevenue
Act, 1890, an additional duty of 6d. per
gallon was imposed on Spirits, and
this, together with a portion of the
Beer Duty amounting to 3d. per barrel,
was by the same Act made payable
to Local Taxation Account. The
amounts so paid over are not included
in these figures. See also Table No. 21.

* Exclusive of the proportion of the
proceeds of certain license duties due
to Local Taxation Account.



II See Table No. 10 for rates of Stam
and Death Duties.



t Half the actual receipU from the
Probate Duty only — the other hal
was payable to Local Taxation Account



tt Receipts in respect of proi)erty of
persons dying before 2nd August, 1894.
These duties are now superseded 'by
the new Estate Duty under Act 67 & 68
Vic, c. 30.



a Exclusive of the proportion due to
Local Taxation Account.

Jt For further information as to the
Death Duties, see Tables Nos. 10, 17,
and 18.



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BRANCHES OF REVENUE— contwued



359



Bbanohes of Bevende.



Amount.



1895-96. 1896-97.



Bemarks.



Taxes.
Land Tax oa Land and Tenements . .

Inhabited House Dutyt

Income and Property Tax||—

Schedule A

B

„ C

D

„ E

Total Income Tax

Post Offige.§

Postage collected, less amount re-
funded

Postage Stamps sold by Postal Autho-
rities

Postage Stamps sold by Inland Be
venue Authorities

Commission on Money Orders ^ ,

Ditto on Postal Orders ^

Miscellaneous Beceipts

Less excess of Postage collected in this
Country for Foreign and Colonial
Offices over that collected abroad for
Great Britain

PaymeiUs to Railway Companies and
to Her Majesty's Customs on a^xount
of Parcel Post

PayTnents to Inland Revenue Depart-
ment on account of Postage Stamps
used for Inland Revenue purposes



1,020,801
1,486,948



4,798,600
177,500
1,300,800
8,587,244
1,124,200



916,445
1,613,434



4,843,000
155,000
1,281,000
9,384,341
1,238,000



16,982,844



16,901,841



133,609

11,914,167

242,760

134,404

274,930

34,820



86,594
652,106
530,600



173,067

12,339,398

261,283

134,776

287,499

36,149



125,141
694,055
535,320



Total Post Office .



Telegraph Service*

Crown Lands t

Interest anb Dividends, &c.J
Dividend on Suez Canal Shares
Interest on Sardinian Loan

Total of the foregoing



Miscellaneous Bevenue.

Small Branches of Hereditary Bevenue

Bank of England, Profits of Issue

Expenses of Local Loans administra

tion

Extra Beceipts by Civil Departments^
Contribution from Indian Bevenues
(Moiety of Bed Sea and India Tele-
graph Annuity)

Post Office Savings Banks— Surplus

Interest

Greek Loan

Boyal Mint, excess of revenue over ex-
penditure . . . ;

Other Miscellaneous Beceipts



Total Miscellaneous Beceipts.

Total Net Bevenue produced
in the year



11,465,370


11,876,666


2,836,749


2,922,449


t619,068


t628,545


673,418
16,107


694,075
14,176


689,525


708,251



24,100
175,379


25,365
175,638


37,947
132,736


40,618
66.687


18,027


18,027


3,837
7,933


16,983
7,921


236,567
66,707


715,735
112,278


702,233


1,178,152


102,134,998


104,196,811



X See Tables 10 and 16 for further in-
formation respecting the House Duty.

|] Further information respecting the
Income Tax will be found in Tables
11—15. The average rate in the £
levied by the Liberal Government
in the six years 1880-81 to 1885-86 was
6 Ad., and it was left bythem in 1886
at 8d. The succeeding Unionist Gov-
ernment left it at 6d., and the Ute



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